Global estimates on the number of people blind or visually impaired by age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020 (2024)

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are not openly available due to reasons of sensitivity and are available from the coordinator of the Vision Loss Expert Group (Professor Rupert Bourne; rb@rupertbourne.co.uk) upon reasonable request. Data are located in controlled access data storage at Anglia Ruskin University.

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Acknowledgements

The Global Burden of Disease Study is primarily funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1152504). The funder of this study had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the publication.

Funding

This study was funded by Brien Holden Vision Institute, Fondation Thea, Fred Hollows Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Lions Clubs International Foundation (LCIF), Sightsavers International, and University of Heidelberg.

Author information

Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally: Jaimie D. Steinmetz, Rupert R. A.Bourne.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

    João M. Furtado

  2. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany

    Jost B. Jonas

  3. Department of Ophthalmology, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge, UK

    Ian Tapply

  4. Federal University of Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo, SP, Brazil

    Arthur G. Fernandes

  5. University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

    Arthur G. Fernandes

  6. School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy

    Maria Vittoria Cicinelli

  7. Department of Ophthalmology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy

    Maria Vittoria Cicinelli

  8. Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute University, Milan, Italy

    Alessandro Arrigo

  9. University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France

    Nicolas Leveziel

  10. CHU de Poitiers, Poitiers, France

    Nicolas Leveziel

  11. Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Serge Resnikoff&Serge Resnikoff

  12. School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Serge Resnikoff

  13. School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Carlton, VIC, Australia

    Hugh R. Taylor

  14. Vision and Eye Research Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK

    Tabassom Sedighi,Rupert R. A. Bourne,Shahina Pardhan&Rupert R. A. Bourne

  15. Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    Seth Flaxman

  16. Department of Ophthalmology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milano, Italy

    Maurizio Battaglia Parodi

  17. Ufa Eye Research Institute, Ufa, Russia

    Mukkharram M. Bikbov

  18. School of Life Course and Population Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK

    Tasanee Braithwaite

  19. The Medical Eye Unit, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

    Tasanee Braithwaite

  20. University Hospital, Dijon, France

    Alain Bron

  21. National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

    Ching-Yu Cheng

  22. Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore

    Ching-Yu Cheng

  23. Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, Belfast, UK

    Nathan Congdon

  24. Orbis International, New York, USA

    Nathan Congdon

  25. Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

    Nathan Congdon

  26. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

    Monte A. Del Monte

  27. Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, USA

    Monte A. Del Monte

  28. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

    Joshua R. Ehrlich

  29. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

    Joshua R. Ehrlich

  30. Australian College of Optometry, Melbourne, Vic, Australia

    Tim Fricke

  31. University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia

    Tim Fricke

  32. UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Tim Fricke

  33. Mass Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

    David Friedman

  34. Institue of Ophthalmology UCL & NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK

    Gus Gazzard

  35. Stanford University, Stanford, USA

    M. Elizabeth Hartnett

  36. Associated Ophthalmologists of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia

    Rim Kahloun

  37. Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

    John H. Kempen

  38. Eye Unit, MyungSung Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    John H. Kempen

  39. Department of Ophthalmology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    John H. Kempen

  40. Sight for Souls, Bellevue, WA, USA

    John H. Kempen

  41. Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, University of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia

    Moncef Khairallah

  42. Allen Foster Community Eye Health Research Centre, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye care, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India

    Rohit C. Khanna

  43. Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India

    Rohit C. Khanna

  44. School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

    Rohit C. Khanna&Kovin S. Naidoo

  45. University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA

    Rohit C. Khanna

  46. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA

    Judy E. Kim

  47. HelpMeSee, Instituto Mexicano de Oftalmologia, New York, USA

    Van Charles Lansingh

  48. University of Miami, Coral Gables, USA

    Van Charles Lansingh

  49. University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA

    Van Charles Lansingh

  50. Nova Southeastern University College for Optometry, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA

    Janet Leasher

  51. African Vision Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa

    Kovin S. Naidoo

  52. Suraj Eye Instate, 559, New colony, Nagpur, India

    Vinay Nangia

  53. Institute of Optics and Optometry, University of Social Science, 121 Gdanska str, Lodz, 90-519, Poland

    Michal Nowak

  54. Medicine & Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Konrad Pesudovs

  55. Centre for Public Health, Queens University Belfast, Northern Ireland, Belfast, UK

    Tunde Peto

  56. John Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, USA

    Pradeep Ramulu

  57. 1st Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Ahepa Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

    Fotis Topouzis

  58. University of Crete Medical School, Giofirakia, Greece

    Mitiadis Tsilimbaris

  59. Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China

    Ya Xing Wang

  60. Beijing Institute of Ophthamology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

    Ningli Wang

  61. Division of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

    João M. Furtado

  62. Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, Basel, Switzerland

    Jost B. Jonas

  63. Department of Ophthalmology, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

    Jost B. Jonas

  64. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    Arthur G. Fernandes

  65. Department of Ophthalmology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy

    Maria Vittoria Cicinelli

  66. Ophthalmology Department, CHU de Poitiers (Poitiers University Hospital), Poitiers, France

    Nicolas Leveziel

  67. National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Poitiers, France

    Nicolas Leveziel

  68. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    Paul Svitil Briant,Theo Vos,Katrin Burkart,Kaleb Coberly,Xiaochen Dai,Stephen S. Lim,Tomislav Mestrovic,Ali H. Mokdad,Peng Zheng&Jaimie D. Steinmetz

  69. Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    Theo Vos,Katrin Burkart,Xiaochen Dai,Stephen S. Lim,Ali H. Mokdad&Peng Zheng

  70. School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Serge Resnikoff&Kovin S. Naidoo

  71. Institute of Public Health, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Charité Medical University Berlin), Berlin, Germany

    Florian Fischer

  72. Department of Clinical Governance and Quality Improvement, Aleta Wondo Hospital, Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia

    Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate

  73. The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Mohammad Abdollahi

  74. School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Mohammad Abdollahi

  75. Department of Public Health, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia

    Tadele Girum Girum Adal

  76. Centre for Social Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Isaac Yeboah Addo

  77. Quality and Systems Performance Unit, Cancer Institute NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Isaac Yeboah Addo

  78. School of Public Health & Dept. of Community Medicine, Chitwan Medical College & Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal

    Kishor Adhikari

  79. Public Health Section, Himalayan Environment and Public Health Network (HEPHN), Chitwan, Nepal

    Kishor Adhikari

  80. Department of Physiology, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, India

    Prerna Agarwal

  81. Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

    Antonella Agodi

  82. Department of Geography and Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada

    Williams Agyemang-Duah

  83. Department of Medical Biochemistry, Shaqra University, Shaqra, Saudi Arabia

    Aqeel Ahmad

  84. Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Hamid Ahmadieh&Sare Safi

  85. Department of Ophthalmology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Hamid Ahmadieh

  86. Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

    Hooman Ahmadzadeh

  87. Evidence-Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, MN, USA

    Fares Alahdab

  88. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Leipzig Medical Center, Leipzig, Germany

    Ahmad Samir Alfaar

  89. Department of Ophthalmology, Charité Medical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    Ahmad Samir Alfaar

  90. Institute of Health Research, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana

    Robert Kaba Alhassan&Mustapha Immurana

  91. Center for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Swat, Swat, Pakistan

    Syed Shujait Shujait Ali

  92. Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Louay Almidani

  93. Doheny Image Reading and Research Lab (DIRRL) - Doheny Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

    Louay Almidani

  94. Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

    Sofia Androudi

  95. Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India

    Abhishek Anil&Muhammad Aaqib Shamim

  96. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India

    Abhishek Anil

  97. School of Dentistry and Medical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Orange, NSW, Australia

    Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor

  98. Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Jalal Arabloo

  99. Department of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

    Mubarek Yesse Ashemo

  100. Department of Public Health, Wachemo University, Hossana, Ethiopia

    Mubarek Yesse Ashemo

  101. Department of Immunology, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

    Seyyed Shamsadin Athari

  102. Department of Health System and Health Economics, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Desta Debalkie Atnafu

  103. Department of Forensic Medicine, Lumbini Medical College, Palpa, Nepal

    Alok Atreya

  104. Epidemiology, Eyu-Ethiopia, Bahir dar, Ethiopia

    Melese Kitu Ayalew

  105. College of Medicine and Health Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir dar, Ethiopia

    Melese Kitu Ayalew

  106. Department of Nursing, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia

    Yared Asmare Aynalem

  107. Department of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

    Yared Asmare Aynalem

  108. Department of Nursing, Injibara University, Injibara, Ethiopia

    Zewdu Bishaw Aynalem

  109. Department of Neurovascular Research, Nested Knowledge, Inc, Saint Paul, MN, USA

    Ahmed Y. Azzam

  110. Faculty of Medicine, October 6 University, 6th of October City, Egypt

    Ahmed Y. Azzam

  111. School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Sara Bagherieh

  112. School of Public Affairs, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

    Ruhai Bai

  113. Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

    Martina Barchitta&Andrea Maugeri

  114. Miami Cancer Institute, Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, FL, USA

    Mainak Bardhan

  115. Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany

    Till Winfried Bärnighausen

  116. T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

    Till Winfried Bärnighausen

  117. Department of Surgery, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

    Nebiyou Simegnew Bayileyegn

  118. Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Fatemeh Bazvand

  119. School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK

    Ahmet Begde

  120. School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK

    Ahmet Begde

  121. Department of Regulatory Affairs, NSF International, Ann Arbor, GA, USA

    Babak Behnam

  122. Department of Regulatory Affairs, Amarex Clinical Research, Germantown, MD, USA

    Babak Behnam

  123. Department of Public Health, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

  124. Global Health Neurology Lab, NSW Brain Clot Bank, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Sonu Bhaskar

  125. Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, South West Sydney Local Heath District and Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Sonu Bhaskar

  126. Medical Lab Technology, Chandigarh University, Mohali, India

    Gurjit Kaur Bhatti

  127. Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India

    Jasvinder Singh Bhatti

  128. Department of Health Behaviour, Environment and Social Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada (Gadjah Mada University), Sleman, Indonesia

    Bagas Suryo Bintoro

  129. Center of Health and Behavior and Promotion, Universitas Gadjah Mada (Gadjah Mada University), Sleman, Indonesia

    Bagas Suryo Bintoro

  130. Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Marina G. Birck

  131. Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Marina G. Birck

  132. Ophthalmology Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

    Tasanee Braithwaite

  133. International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK

    Tasanee Braithwaite

  134. Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

    Yasser Bustanji

  135. Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Yasser Bustanji

  136. Harvard Business School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

    Florentino L. Caetano dos Santos

  137. School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

    Vera L. A. Carneiro

  138. Association of Licensed Optometry Professionals, Linda-a-Velha, Portugal

    Vera L. A. Carneiro

  139. College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia

    Muthia Cenderadewi

  140. Public Health Department, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia

    Muthia Cenderadewi

  141. Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

  142. Department of Community Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, India

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

  143. Center for Biomedicine and Community Health, VNU-International School, Hanoi, Viet Nam

    Dinh-Toi Chu

  144. Therapeutic and Diagnostic Technologies, Cooperativa de Ensino Superior Politécnico e Universitário (Polytechnic and University Higher Education Cooperative), Gandra, Portugal

    Natália Cruz-Martins

  145. Institute for Research and Innovation in Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

    Natália Cruz-Martins

  146. Department of Addiction Medicine, Haukland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

    Omid Dadras

  147. Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

    Omid Dadras

  148. Ophthalmology Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

    Ana Maria Dascalu

  149. Ophthalmology Department, Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, Bucuresti, Romania

    Ana Maria Dascalu

  150. Department of Radiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

    Mohsen Dashti

  151. 2nd University Ophthalmology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

    Anna Dastiridou

  152. Ophthalmology Department, University of Thessaly, Thessaly, Greece

    Anna Dastiridou

  153. Department of Radiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Maedeh Dastmardi

  154. Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Maedeh Dastmardi

  155. Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Health, Durham, NC, USA

    Xinlei Deng

  156. St Paul’s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK

    Nikolaos Dervenis

  157. Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

    Nikolaos Dervenis

  158. Department of Community Medicine, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chennai, India

    Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan Devanbu

  159. Department of Human Physiology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

    Mengistie Diress&Yibeltal Yismaw Gela

  160. Development of Research and Technology Center, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

    Shirin Djalalinia

  161. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

    Joshua R. Ehrlich

  162. Institute for Health Care Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

    Joshua R. Ehrlich

  163. Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Michael Ekholuenetale,Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe&Kayode Raphael Fowobaje

  164. Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Michael Ekholuenetale

  165. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Ondo, Nigeria

    Temitope Cyrus Ekundayo

  166. Biomedical Informatics and Medical Statistics Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

    Iman El Sayed

  167. Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

    Muhammed Elhadi

  168. Department of Ophthalmology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

    Mehdi Emamverdi

  169. Department of Nursing, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia

    Ambaw Abebaw Emrie&Ahmed Nuru Muhamed

  170. Research Centre for Healthcare and Community, Coventry University, Coventry, UK

    Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe

  171. Department of Oral Biology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

    Ayesha Fahim

  172. Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS), Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Umar Farooq

  173. School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Hossein Farrokhpour&Soheil Mohammadi

  174. Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center (NCDRC), Tehran, Iran

    Hossein Farrokhpour

  175. Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Ali Fatehizadeh

  176. Department of Social medicine and epidemiology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

    Alireza Feizkhah

  177. University Eye Clinic, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

    Lorenzo Ferro Desideri

  178. Department of Nursing, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia

    Getahun Fetensa

  179. Institute of Health sciences, Department of Public Health, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia

    Bikila Regassa Feyisa

  180. Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, UK

    Seth Flaxman

  181. Department of Ophthalmology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Ali Forouhari

  182. Emergency Department, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Ali Forouhari

  183. Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences (DISCAB), University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy

    Matteo Foschi

  184. Department of Neuroscience, Hospital Santa Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy

    Matteo Foschi

  185. Child Survival Unit, Centre for African Newborn Health and Nutrition, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Kayode Raphael Fowobaje

  186. Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur, India

    Aravind P. Gandhi

  187. Health Sciences department of Oncology Nursing, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia

    Tilaye Gebru Gebi

  188. Department of Midwifery, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia

    Miglas W. Gebregergis

  189. Department of Environmental Health, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia

    Mesfin Gebrehiwot

  190. Department of Health, Policy Research Institute, Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Brhane Gebremariam

  191. Simon Fraser University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Brhane Gebremariam

  192. Department of Nursing, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia

    Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel,Teklehaimanot Gereziher Haile&Guesh Mebrahtom Tsegay

  193. Department of Nursing, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel

  194. School of Public Health, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia

    Molalegn Mesele Gesese

  195. Eye Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani&Hengameh Kasraei

  196. Ophthalmology Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Fariba Ghassemi

  197. Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

    Sherief Ghozy

  198. Health Systems and Policy Research Department, Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, India

    Mahaveer Golechha

  199. Department of Genetics, Sana Institute of Higher Education, Sari, Iran

    Pouya Goleij

  200. Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

    Pouya Goleij

  201. Toxicology Department, Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi, India

    Sapna Gupta

  202. School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia

    Veer Bala Gupta

  203. Faculty of Medicine Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Vivek Kumar Gupta

  204. Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

    Semira Goitom Hailu

  205. Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

    Arvin Haj-Mirzaian

  206. Obesity Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Arvin Haj-Mirzaian

  207. Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Aram Halimi

  208. Department of Ophthalmology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

    Shahin Hallaj

  209. Ophthalmology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

    Shahin Hallaj

  210. Brain and Behavioral Sciences Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA

    Billy Randall Hammond

  211. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Ikramul Hasan

  212. Department of Ophthalmology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

    Hamidreza Hasani

  213. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

  214. Chapter of Addiction Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

  215. Department of Epidemiology, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center (NCDRC), Tehran, Iran

    Mahsa Heidari-Foroozan&Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi

  216. School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Mahsa Heidari-Foroozan,Fateme Montazeri&Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi

  217. Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

    Sung Hwi Hong

  218. Research Department, Electronic Medical Records for the Developing World, York, UK

    Sung Hwi Hong

  219. School of Social Sciences, The Apollo University, Chittoor, India

    Praveen Hoogar

  220. Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Viet Nam

    Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

  221. Department of Computer Science, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

    Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

  222. Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

    Chengxi Hu

  223. International Master Program for Translational Science, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

    Hong-Han Huynh

  224. School of Health Systems and Public Health, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

    Chidozie C. D. Iwu

  225. Research and Development Unit, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CiberSAM), Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain

    Louis Jacob

  226. Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France

    Louis Jacob

  227. Department of Immunology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

  228. Department of Immunology, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

  229. The World Academy of Sciences UNESCO, Trieste, Italy

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

  230. Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, China

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

  231. Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Mysuru, India

    Shubha Jayaram

  232. Zoonoses Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

    Mohammad Jokar

  233. Department of Clinical Sciences, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran

    Mohammad Jokar

  234. Department of Community Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India

    Nitin Joseph&Prasanna Mithra

  235. Department of Economics, National Open University, Benin City, Nigeria

    Charity Ehimwenma Joshua

  236. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

    Gebisa Guyasa Kabito

  237. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

    Laleh R. Kalankesh

  238. Manipal Institute of Management, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

    Sagarika Kamath

  239. Save Sight Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Himal Kandel&Yuyi You

  240. Sydney Eye Hospital, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Himal Kandel

  241. School of Health Professions and Human Services, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, USA

    Ibraheem M. Karaye

  242. Department of Anesthesiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA

    Ibraheem M. Karaye

  243. Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

    Hengameh Kasraei

  244. International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

    Gbenga A. Kayode

  245. Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands

    Gbenga A. Kayode

  246. Department of Public Health, Werabe University, Werabe, Ethiopia

    Shemsu Kedir

  247. Department of Public Health, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

    Yousef Saleh Khader

  248. Amity Institute of Forensic Sciences, Amity University, Noida, India

    Himanshu Khajuria&Biswa Prakash Nayak

  249. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

    Moawiah Mohammad Khatatbeh

  250. Global Consortium for Public Health Research, Datta Meghe Institute of Higher Education and Research, Wardha, India

    Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib

  251. Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Zahra Khorrami

  252. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia

    Yun Jin Kim

  253. School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway

    Adnan Kisa

  254. Department of International Health and Sustainable Development, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA

    Adnan Kisa

  255. Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway

    Sezer Kisa

  256. Independent Consultant, Jakarta, Indonesia

    Soewarta Kosen

  257. San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Barcelona, Spain

    Ai Koyanagi

  258. Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

    Kewal Krishan

  259. Department of Health Policy and Strategy, Foundation for People-centric Health Systems, New Delhi, India

    Chandrakant Lahariya

  260. SD Gupta School of Public Health, Indian Institute of Health Management Research University, Jaipur, India

    Chandrakant Lahariya

  261. Department of Physiotherapy, Universitas Aisyiyah Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Tri Laksono

  262. Institute of Allied Health Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

    Tri Laksono

  263. Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India

    Dharmesh Kumar Lal

  264. Chief Medical Office, HelpMeSee, New York, NY, USA

    Van Charles Lansingh

  265. Mexican Institute of Ophthalmology, Queretaro, Mexico

    Van Charles Lansingh

  266. University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

    Trang D. T. Le

  267. Independent Consultant, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

    Trang D. T. Le

  268. College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA

    Janet L. Leasher

  269. Department of Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea

    Munjae Lee

  270. Department of Precision Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon-si, South Korea

    Seung Won Lee

  271. Department of Family Medicine, University of Texas, Galveston, TX, USA

    Wei-Chen Lee

  272. Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA

    Xuefeng Liu

  273. Department of Quantitative Health Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

    Xuefeng Liu

  274. Department of Ophthalmology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Alireza Mahmoudi

  275. Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

  276. Department of Internal Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India

    Kashish Malhotra

  277. Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Vahid Mansouri

  278. Faculty of Humanities and Health Sciences, Curtin University, Malaysia, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Roy Rillera Marzo

  279. Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia

    Roy Rillera Marzo

  280. Department of Ophthalmology, Princess of Wales Hospital, Wales, UK

    Colm McAlinden

  281. School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK

    Colm McAlinden

  282. Department of Public Health, Arba Minch University, Arbaminch, Ethiopia

    Tesfahun Mekene Meto

  283. Department of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

    Abera M. Mersha

  284. University Centre Varazdin, University North, Varazdin, Croatia

    Tomislav Mestrovic

  285. Department of Medical Physiology, Madda Walabu University, Bale-Goba, Ethiopia

    Ephrem Tesfaye Mihretie

  286. Medical School, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Mehdi Mirzaei

  287. Molecular Biology Unit, Sirius Training and Research Centre, Khartoum, Sudan

    Nouh Saad Mohamed

  288. Bio-Statistical and Molecular Biology Department, Sirius Training and Research Centre, Khartoum, Sudan

    Nouh Saad Mohamed

  289. University of Gondar, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

    Abdulwase Mohammed

  290. Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

    Hossein Molavi Vardanjani

  291. School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

    Mohammad Ali Moni

  292. Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Fateme Montazeri&Nazila Rezaei

  293. Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Maryam Moradi

  294. Non-communicable Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Parsa Mousavi

  295. Department of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece

    Admir Mulita

  296. Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

    Kovin S. Naidoo

  297. College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia

    Ganesh R. Naik

  298. Department of Engineering, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Ganesh R. Naik

  299. University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

    Shumaila Nargus

  300. Department of Dental Public Health, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Zuhair S. Natto

  301. Department of Health Policy and Oral Epidemiology, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

    Zuhair S. Natto

  302. Independent Consultant, Tehran, Iran

    Mohammad Negaresh

  303. Department of Internal Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran

    Mohammad Negaresh

  304. Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia

    Hadush Negash

  305. Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

    Dang H. Nguyen

  306. Department of Medical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

    Dang H. Nguyen

  307. Cardiovascular Research Department, Methodist Hospital, Merrillville, IL, USA

    Hien Quang Nguyen

  308. Department of Surgery, Danang Family Hospital, Danang, Viet Nam

    Phat Tuan Nguyen

  309. Department of General Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

    Van Thanh Nguyen

  310. International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Robina Khan Niazi

  311. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Women University Multan, Multan, Pakistan

    Mamoona Noreen

  312. Department of Physiology, University of Benin, Edo, Nigeria

    Ogochukwu Janet Nzoputam

  313. Department of Physiology, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria

    Ogochukwu Janet Nzoputam

  314. Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Ismail A. Odetokun

  315. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

    Andrew T. Olagunju

  316. Department of Psychiatry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

    Andrew T. Olagunju

  317. Department of Nursing Science, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

    Matthew Idowu Olatubi

  318. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria

    Obinna E. Onwujekwe

  319. Department of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical Care, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

    Michal Ordak

  320. School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW, Australia

    Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu

  321. Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu

  322. Laboratory of Public Health Indicators Analysis and Health Digitalization, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia

    Nikita Otstavnov

  323. Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Mayowa O. Owolabi

  324. Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Mayowa O. Owolabi

  325. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Mangalore, India

    Jagadish Rao Padubidri

  326. School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Parsa Panahi

  327. Research Department, Nepal Health Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Ashok Pandey

  328. Research Department, Public Health Research Society Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Ashok Pandey

  329. Global Health Governance Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

    Jay Patel

  330. School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

    Jay Patel

  331. Department of Internal Medicine, Advent Health, Palm Coast, FL, USA

    Venkata Suresh Patthipati

  332. Department of Hospital Medicine, Sound Physicians, Palm Coast, FL, USA

    Venkata Suresh Patthipati

  333. Department of Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

    Shrikant Pawar

  334. Department of Development Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India

    Arokiasamy Perianayagam

  335. Department of Statistics and Econometrics, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania

    Ionela-Roxana Petcu

  336. Medical School, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

    Hoang Tran Pham

  337. Department of Neonatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

    Ibrahim Qattea

  338. Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India

    Pankaja Raghav Raghav

  339. Department of Health Sciences, Cihan University Sulaimaniya, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

    Fakher Rahim

  340. Cihan University Sulaimaniya Research Center (CUSRC), Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

    Fakher Rahim

  341. Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

  342. Manipal TATA Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

    Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman

  343. Department of Population Science and Human Resource Development, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Mosiur Rahman

  344. Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puduch*erry, India

    Premkumar Ramasubramani

  345. Department of Medicine, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan

    Ahmed Mustafa Rashid

  346. Department of Health Behaviour, Environment, and Social Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Annisa Utami Rauf

  347. Department Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Egypt

    Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan

  348. Department of Protein Research, Research and Academic Institution, Alexandria, Egypt

    Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan

  349. Department of Labour, Directorate of Factories, Government of West Bengal, Kolkata, India

    Priyanka Roy

  350. Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

    Zahra Saadatian

  351. Infectious Diseases Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

    Zahra Saadatian

  352. Department of Epidemiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Siamak Sabour

  353. College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Basema Saddik&Mohamed A. Saleh

  354. Multidisciplinary Laboratory Foundation University School of Health Sciences (FUSH), Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Umar Saeed

  355. International Center of Medical Sciences Research (ICMSR), Islamabad, Pakistan

    Umar Saeed

  356. Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Sare Safi

  357. Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience and Nursing, MAHSA University, Selangor, Malaysia

    Sher Zaman Safi

  358. Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

    Sher Zaman Safi

  359. Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Amene Saghazadeh

  360. Sharjah Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Fatemeh Saheb Sharif-Askari

  361. Clinical Sciences Department, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Narjes Saheb Sharif-Askari

  362. Applied Biomedical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

    Amirhossein Sahebkar

  363. Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

    Amirhossein Sahebkar

  364. University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

    Joseph W. Sakshaug

  365. Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany

    Joseph W. Sakshaug

  366. Medical Laboratory, Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Saina Salahi

  367. Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Sarvenaz Salahi

  368. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Department, Royan Institution, Tehran, Iran

    Sarvenaz Salahi

  369. Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

    Mohamed A. Saleh

  370. School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

    Yoseph Leonardo Samodra

  371. Department of Anatomy, Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates

    Vijaya Paul Samuel

  372. Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    Abdallah M. Samy

  373. Medical Ain Shams Research Institute (MASRI), Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    Abdallah M. Samy

  374. Department of Pharmacology and Research, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India

    Aswini Saravanan

  375. Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puduch*erry, India

    Aswini Saravanan

  376. Department of Public Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA

    Monika Sawhney

  377. Market Access Division, Bayer, Istanbul, Türkiye

    Mete Saylan

  378. Comprehensive Ophthalmology, NOOR Eye Training Center, International Assistance Misison, Kabul, Afghanistan

    Sayed Mansoor Sediqi

  379. Research Department, Online Research Club, Nagasaki, Japan

    Sayed Mansoor Sediqi

  380. Faculty of Dentistry, AIMST University, Bedong, Malaysia

    Siddharthan Selvaraj

  381. Department of Medicine and Surgery, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, India

    Yashendra Sethi

  382. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Health, Rockville, MD, USA

    Allen Seylani

  383. Medical Research Center, Kateb University, Kabul, Afghanistan

    Jaffer Shah

  384. Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

    Samiah Shahid

  385. Research Centre for Health Sciences (RCHS), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

    Samiah Shahid

  386. Centre of Medical and Bio Allied Health Sciences Research, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Moyad Jamal Shahwan

  387. Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan

    Masood Ali Shaikh

  388. Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

    Maryam Shayan

  389. Ophthalmic Research Center (ORC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Maryam Shayan

  390. National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

    Mika Shigematsu

  391. Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria

    Aminu sh*ttu

  392. Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

    Seyed Afshin Shorofi

  393. Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia

    Seyed Afshin Shorofi

  394. Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

    Emmanuel Edwar Siddig

  395. Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands

    Emmanuel Edwar Siddig

  396. Family, Health Promotion, and Life Course Department, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA

    Juan Carlos Silva

  397. School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

    Jasvinder A. Singh

  398. Medicine Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Birmingham, AL, USA

    Jasvinder A. Singh

  399. Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bathinda, India

    Paramdeep Singh

  400. Department of Ophthalmology, Hywel Dda University Health Board, Llanelli, UK

    Eirini Skiadaresi

  401. Directive Board, Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (Association of Licensed Optometry Professionals), Linda-a-Velha, Portugal

    Raúl A. R. C. Sousa

  402. Division of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy

  403. Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Ministry of Health (FRIHOI), Moscow, Russia

    Vladimir I. Starodubov

  404. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berehan, Ethiopia

    Birhan Tsegaw Taye

  405. Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Manado, Indonesia

    Jansje Henny Vera Ticoalu

  406. Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece

    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

  407. Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Saif Ullah

  408. Medical Genomics Research Department, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Muhammad Umair

  409. Department of Life Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

    Muhammad Umair

  410. Clinical Cancer Research Center, Milad General Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    Sahel Valadan Tahbaz

  411. Department of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

    Sahel Valadan Tahbaz

  412. Department of Community Medicine, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

    Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe

  413. Department of Ophthalmology Research, Queen Mamohato Memorial Hospital, Maseru, Lesotho

    Guadie Sharew Wondimagegn

  414. Ophthalmology Unit, Bahir Dar University, Bahir dar, Ethiopia

    Guadie Sharew Wondimagegn

  415. Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada

    Lin Yang

  416. Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

    Lin Yang

  417. Department of Health Management, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi (Süleyman Demirel University), Isparta, Türkiye

    Arzu Yiğit

  418. Department of Pediatrics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea

    Dong Keon Yon

  419. Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan

    Naohiro Yonemoto

  420. Department of Public Health, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan

    Naohiro Yonemoto

  421. Macquarie Medical School, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Yuyi You

  422. Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

    Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin

  423. Addictology Department, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Moscow, Russia

    Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin

  424. College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hebei University, Baoding, China

    Hanqing Zhao

  425. Department of Ophthalmology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Makan Ziafati

  426. Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacogenomics, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

    Magdalena Zielińska

Consortia

Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study

  • João M. Furtado
  • ,Jost B. Jonas
  • ,Ian Tapply
  • ,Arthur G. Fernandes
  • ,Maria Vittoria Cicinelli
  • ,Alessandro Arrigo
  • ,Nicolas Leveziel
  • ,Serge Resnikoff
  • ,Hugh R. Taylor
  • ,Tabassom Sedighi
  • ,Seth Flaxman
  • ,Maurizio Battaglia Parodi
  • ,Mukkharram M. Bikbov
  • ,Tasanee Braithwaite
  • ,Alain Bron
  • ,Ching-Yu Cheng
  • ,Nathan Congdon
  • ,Monte A. Del Monte
  • ,Joshua R. Ehrlich
  • ,Tim Fricke
  • ,David Friedman
  • ,Gus Gazzard
  • ,M. Elizabeth Hartnett
  • ,Rim Kahloun
  • ,John H. Kempen
  • ,Moncef Khairallah
  • ,Rohit C. Khanna
  • ,Judy E. Kim
  • ,Van Charles Lansingh
  • ,Janet Leasher
  • ,Kovin S. Naidoo
  • ,Vinay Nangia
  • ,Michal Nowak
  • ,Konrad Pesudovs
  • ,Tunde Peto
  • ,Pradeep Ramulu
  • ,Fotis Topouzis
  • ,Mitiadis Tsilimbaris
  • ,Ya Xing Wang
  • ,Ningli Wang
  • &Rupert R. A. Bourne

the GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators

  • João M. Furtado
  • ,Jost B. Jonas
  • ,Ian Tapply
  • ,Arthur G. Fernandes
  • ,Maria Vittoria Cicinelli
  • ,Alessandro Arrigo
  • ,Nicolas Leveziel
  • ,Paul Svitil Briant
  • ,Theo Vos
  • ,Serge Resnikoff
  • ,Hugh R. Taylor
  • ,Tabassom Sedighi
  • ,Florian Fischer
  • ,Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate
  • ,Mohammad Abdollahi
  • ,Tadele Girum Girum Adal
  • ,Isaac Yeboah Addo
  • ,Kishor Adhikari
  • ,Prerna Agarwal
  • ,Antonella Agodi
  • ,Williams Agyemang-Duah
  • ,Aqeel Ahmad
  • ,Hamid Ahmadieh
  • ,Hooman Ahmadzadeh
  • ,Fares Alahdab
  • ,Ahmad Samir Alfaar
  • ,Robert Kaba Alhassan
  • ,Syed Shujait Shujait Ali
  • ,Louay Almidani
  • ,Sofia Androudi
  • ,Abhishek Anil
  • ,Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor
  • ,Jalal Arabloo
  • ,Mubarek Yesse Ashemo
  • ,Seyyed Shamsadin Athari
  • ,Desta Debalkie Atnafu
  • ,Alok Atreya
  • ,Melese Kitu Ayalew
  • ,Yared Asmare Aynalem
  • ,Zewdu Bishaw Aynalem
  • ,Ahmed Y. Azzam
  • ,Sara Bagherieh
  • ,Ruhai Bai
  • ,Martina Barchitta
  • ,Mainak Bardhan
  • ,Till Winfried Bärnighausen
  • ,Maurizio Battaglia Parodi
  • ,Nebiyou Simegnew Bayileyegn
  • ,Fatemeh Bazvand
  • ,Ahmet Begde
  • ,Babak Behnam
  • ,Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula
  • ,Sonu Bhaskar
  • ,Gurjit Kaur Bhatti
  • ,Jasvinder Singh Bhatti
  • ,Bagas Suryo Bintoro
  • ,Marina G. Birck
  • ,Tasanee Braithwaite
  • ,Katrin Burkart
  • ,Yasser Bustanji
  • ,Florentino L. Caetano dos Santos
  • ,Vera L. A. Carneiro
  • ,Muthia Cenderadewi
  • ,Vijay Kumar Chattu
  • ,Dinh-Toi Chu
  • ,Kaleb Coberly
  • ,Natália Cruz-Martins
  • ,Omid Dadras
  • ,Xiaochen Dai
  • ,Ana Maria Dascalu
  • ,Mohsen Dashti
  • ,Anna Dastiridou
  • ,Maedeh Dastmardi
  • ,Xinlei Deng
  • ,Nikolaos Dervenis
  • ,Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan Devanbu
  • ,Mengistie Diress
  • ,Shirin Djalalinia
  • ,Joshua R. Ehrlich
  • ,Michael Ekholuenetale
  • ,Temitope Cyrus Ekundayo
  • ,Iman El Sayed
  • ,Muhammed Elhadi
  • ,Mehdi Emamverdi
  • ,Ambaw Abebaw Emrie
  • ,Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe
  • ,Ayesha Fahim
  • ,Umar Farooq
  • ,Hossein Farrokhpour
  • ,Ali Fatehizadeh
  • ,Alireza Feizkhah
  • ,Lorenzo Ferro Desideri
  • ,Getahun Fetensa
  • ,Bikila Regassa Feyisa
  • ,Seth Flaxman
  • ,Ali Forouhari
  • ,Matteo Foschi
  • ,Kayode Raphael Fowobaje
  • ,Aravind P. Gandhi
  • ,Tilaye Gebru Gebi
  • ,Miglas W. Gebregergis
  • ,Mesfin Gebrehiwot
  • ,Brhane Gebremariam
  • ,Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel
  • ,Yibeltal Yismaw Gela
  • ,Molalegn Mesele Gesese
  • ,Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani
  • ,Fariba Ghassemi
  • ,Sherief Ghozy
  • ,Mahaveer Golechha
  • ,Pouya Goleij
  • ,Sapna Gupta
  • ,Veer Bala Gupta
  • ,Vivek Kumar Gupta
  • ,Teklehaimanot Gereziher Haile
  • ,Semira Goitom Hailu
  • ,Arvin Haj-Mirzaian
  • ,Aram Halimi
  • ,Shahin Hallaj
  • ,Billy Randall Hammond
  • ,Ikramul Hasan
  • ,Hamidreza Hasani
  • ,Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
  • ,Mahsa Heidari-Foroozan
  • ,Sung Hwi Hong
  • ,Praveen Hoogar
  • ,Mehdi Hosseinzadeh
  • ,Chengxi Hu
  • ,Hong-Han Huynh
  • ,Mustapha Immurana
  • ,Chidozie C. D. Iwu
  • ,Louis Jacob
  • ,Abdollah Jafarzadeh
  • ,Mihajlo Jakovljevic
  • ,Shubha Jayaram
  • ,Mohammad Jokar
  • ,Nitin Joseph
  • ,Charity Ehimwenma Joshua
  • ,Gebisa Guyasa Kabito
  • ,Laleh R. Kalankesh
  • ,Sagarika Kamath
  • ,Himal Kandel
  • ,Ibraheem M. Karaye
  • ,Hengameh Kasraei
  • ,Gbenga A. Kayode
  • ,Shemsu Kedir
  • ,Yousef Saleh Khader
  • ,Himanshu Khajuria
  • ,Moawiah Mohammad Khatatbeh
  • ,Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib
  • ,Zahra Khorrami
  • ,Yun Jin Kim
  • ,Adnan Kisa
  • ,Sezer Kisa
  • ,Soewarta Kosen
  • ,Ai Koyanagi
  • ,Kewal Krishan
  • ,Chandrakant Lahariya
  • ,Tri Laksono
  • ,Dharmesh Kumar Lal
  • ,Van Charles Lansingh
  • ,Trang D. T. Le
  • ,Janet L. Leasher
  • ,Munjae Lee
  • ,Seung Won Lee
  • ,Wei-Chen Lee
  • ,Stephen S. Lim
  • ,Xuefeng Liu
  • ,Alireza Mahmoudi
  • ,Razzagh Mahmoudi
  • ,Kashish Malhotra
  • ,Vahid Mansouri
  • ,Roy Rillera Marzo
  • ,Andrea Maugeri
  • ,Colm McAlinden
  • ,Tesfahun Mekene Meto
  • ,Abera M. Mersha
  • ,Tomislav Mestrovic
  • ,Ephrem Tesfaye Mihretie
  • ,Mehdi Mirzaei
  • ,Prasanna Mithra
  • ,Nouh Saad Mohamed
  • ,Soheil Mohammadi
  • ,Abdulwase Mohammed
  • ,Ali H. Mokdad
  • ,Hossein Molavi Vardanjani
  • ,Mohammad Ali Moni
  • ,Fateme Montazeri
  • ,Maryam Moradi
  • ,Parsa Mousavi
  • ,Ahmed Nuru Muhamed
  • ,Admir Mulita
  • ,Kovin S. Naidoo
  • ,Ganesh R. Naik
  • ,Shumaila Nargus
  • ,Zuhair S. Natto
  • ,Biswa Prakash Nayak
  • ,Mohammad Negaresh
  • ,Hadush Negash
  • ,Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi
  • ,Dang H. Nguyen
  • ,Hien Quang Nguyen
  • ,Phat Tuan Nguyen
  • ,Van Thanh Nguyen
  • ,Robina Khan Niazi
  • ,Mamoona Noreen
  • ,Ogochukwu Janet Nzoputam
  • ,Ismail A. Odetokun
  • ,Andrew T. Olagunju
  • ,Matthew Idowu Olatubi
  • ,Obinna E. Onwujekwe
  • ,Michal Ordak
  • ,Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu
  • ,Nikita Otstavnov
  • ,Mayowa O. Owolabi
  • ,Jagadish Rao Padubidri
  • ,Parsa Panahi
  • ,Ashok Pandey
  • ,Shahina Pardhan
  • ,Jay Patel
  • ,Venkata Suresh Patthipati
  • ,Shrikant Pawar
  • ,Arokiasamy Perianayagam
  • ,Ionela-Roxana Petcu
  • ,Hoang Tran Pham
  • ,Ibrahim Qattea
  • ,Pankaja Raghav Raghav
  • ,Fakher Rahim
  • ,Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
  • ,Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman
  • ,Mosiur Rahman
  • ,Premkumar Ramasubramani
  • ,Ahmed Mustafa Rashid
  • ,Annisa Utami Rauf
  • ,Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan
  • ,Nazila Rezaei
  • ,Priyanka Roy
  • ,Zahra Saadatian
  • ,Siamak Sabour
  • ,Basema Saddik
  • ,Umar Saeed
  • ,Sare Safi
  • ,Sher Zaman Safi
  • ,Amene Saghazadeh
  • ,Fatemeh Saheb Sharif-Askari
  • ,Narjes Saheb Sharif-Askari
  • ,Amirhossein Sahebkar
  • ,Joseph W. Sakshaug
  • ,Saina Salahi
  • ,Sarvenaz Salahi
  • ,Mohamed A. Saleh
  • ,Yoseph Leonardo Samodra
  • ,Vijaya Paul Samuel
  • ,Abdallah M. Samy
  • ,Aswini Saravanan
  • ,Monika Sawhney
  • ,Mete Saylan
  • ,Sayed Mansoor Sediqi
  • ,Siddharthan Selvaraj
  • ,Yashendra Sethi
  • ,Allen Seylani
  • ,Jaffer Shah
  • ,Samiah Shahid
  • ,Moyad Jamal Shahwan
  • ,Masood Ali Shaikh
  • ,Muhammad Aaqib Shamim
  • ,Maryam Shayan
  • ,Mika Shigematsu
  • ,Aminu sh*ttu
  • ,Seyed Afshin Shorofi
  • ,Emmanuel Edwar Siddig
  • ,Juan Carlos Silva
  • ,Jasvinder A. Singh
  • ,Paramdeep Singh
  • ,Eirini Skiadaresi
  • ,Raúl A. R. C. Sousa
  • ,Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy
  • ,Vladimir I. Starodubov
  • ,Birhan Tsegaw Taye
  • ,Jansje Henny Vera Ticoalu
  • ,Guesh Mebrahtom Tsegay
  • ,Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris
  • ,Saif Ullah
  • ,Muhammad Umair
  • ,Sahel Valadan Tahbaz
  • ,Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe
  • ,Guadie Sharew Wondimagegn
  • ,Lin Yang
  • ,Arzu Yiğit
  • ,Dong Keon Yon
  • ,Naohiro Yonemoto
  • ,Yuyi You
  • ,Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin
  • ,Hanqing Zhao
  • ,Peng Zheng
  • ,Makan Ziafati
  • ,Magdalena Zielińska
  • ,Jaimie D. Steinmetz
  • &Rupert R. A. Bourne

Contributions

Please see Appendix for more detailed information about individual author contributions to the research, divided into the following categories: managing the overall research enterprise; writing the first draft of the manuscript; primary responsibility for applying analytical methods to produce estimates; primary responsibility for seeking, cataloguing, extracting, or cleaning data; designing or coding figures and tables; providing data or critical feedback on data sources; developing methods or computational machinery; providing critical feedback on methods or results; drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and managing the estimation or publications process.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to João M. Furtado.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators T W Bärnighausen reports support for the present manuscript from Fondation Botnar and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; grants or contracts from National Institutes of Health (NIH), Wellcome, German National Science Foundation, German Ministry of Education and Research, Volkswagen Foundation, European Union Horizon Europe, German Ministry of the Environment, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Else-Kröner Fresenius Foundation, International Vaccine Institute for grants to Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Heidelberg University, Germany; stock or stock options in EUR 5000 ownership stake in a consultancy on climate change and health research; all outside the submitted work. R Bai reports support for the present manuscript from Social Science Fund of Jiangsu Province (grant number 21GLD008) N Bayleyegn reports leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid with project HIPPO and GECKO as a hospital lead as well as Ethiopia as a member of a surgical society. S Bhaskar reports grants or contracts from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant 2023-25 and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. T Braithwaite reports grants or contracts from Fight for Sight/Royal College of Ophthalmologists for Zakarian Award (RCOZAK2202). X Dai reports support for the present manuscript from IHME/UW for paid salary. A Dastiridou support for attending meetings and/or travel from THEA and ABBVIE. M Foschi reports consulting fees from Roche and Novartis as a scientific consultant; support for attending meetings and/or travel from Roche, Novartis, Biogen, Merck, and Sanofi; leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid with MSBase collaboration scientific leadership group as a member. J M Furtado reports consulting fees from Pan American Health Organization and Lions Club International Foundation. S Hallaj reports grants or contracts from National Institute of Health Bridge to Artificial Intelligence common fund, grant # OT2OD032644. I M Karaye support for attending meetings and/or travel from Hofstra University and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. K Krishan reports other support from Kewal Krishan acknowledges non-financial support from the UGC Centre of Advanced Study, CAS II, awarded to the Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, outside the submitted work. T Laksono reports support for attending meetings and/or travel outside the submitted work. V C Lansingh reports support for attending meetings and/or travel from HwelpMeSee. M Lee reports support from the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2021R1I1A4A01057428) and Bio-convergence Technology Education Program through the Korea Institute for Advancement Technology (KIAT) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (No. P0017805), all outside the submitted work. C McAlinden reports grants or contracts from the Welsh Government for a research grant related to diabetic eye disease (unpaid role)]; consulting fees from: Acufocus (Irvine, California, USA), Atia Vision (Campbell, California, USA), Bausch and Lomb (Bridgewater, New Jersey, USA), BVI (Liège, Belgium), Coopervision (Pleasanton, California, USA), Cutting Edge (Labége, France), Fudan University (Fudan, China), Hoya (Frankfurt, Germany), Knowledge Gate Group (Copenhagen, Denmark), Johnson & Johnson Surgical Vision (Santa Ana, California, USA), Keio University (Tokyo, Japan), Ludwig-Maximilians-University (München, Germany), Medevise Consulting SAS (Strasbourg, France), Ophtec BV (Groningen, The Netherlands), SightGlass vision (Menlo Park, California, USA), Science in Vision (Bend, Oregan, USA), Scope (Crawley, UK), SpyGlass (Aliso Viejo, California, USA), Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China), Targomed GmbH (Bruchsal, Germany), University of São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil), Vold Vision (Arkansas, USA); payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Scope (Crawley, UK), and Thea pharmaceuticals (Clemont-Ferrand, France); support for attending meetings and/or travel from the following over the past thirty-six months: Bayer (Leverkusen, Germany), British Society of Refractive Surgery (Oxford, UK), Portuguese Society of Ophthalmology (Coimbra, Portugal), Royal College of Ophthalmologists (London, UK), Scope (Crawley, UK), Thea pharmaceuticals (Clemont-Ferrand, France); leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid with the British Society for Refractive Surgery as a council member (unpaid role), a PROM advisor to the Royal College of Ophthalmologists (unpaid role), an editorial board member for Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Eye and Vision, Archives of Medical Science, Journal of Clinical Medicine, Journal of Ophthalmology, and Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology as well as an Associate Editor for Frontiers in Medicine – Ophthalmology; and other support as a developer of the Quality of Vision (QoV) questionnaire and the Orthokeratology and Contact Lens Quality of Life Questionnaire (OCL-QoL) having a financial interest in these tools and consults on topics including Rasch analysis, questionnaires, statistical analyses, and clinical/surgical ophthalmology topics. Dr McAlinden has undertaken paid peer reviews for Research Square (Durham, North Carolina, USA); all outside the submitted work. Y L Samodra reports grants or contracts from Taipei Medical University for a Ph.D. Scholarship; leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid with Benang Merah Research Center as Co-founder, all outside the submitted work. J A Singh reports consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, PK Med, Two labs Inc., Adept Field Solutions, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Focus forward, Navigant consulting, Spherix, MedIQ, Jupiter Life Science, UBM LLC, Trio Health, Medscape, WebMD, and Practice Point communications; and the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology; payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from the speaker’s bureau of Simply Speaking; support for attending meetings and/or travel from OMERACT as a past steering committee for attending their meeting every 2 years; participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee as a member (No financial support); leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid as a past steering committee member of the OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm’s length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, Co-Chair of the Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee (No financial support), and editor and the Director of the UAB Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group Satellite Center on Network Meta-analysis (No financial support); stock or stock options in Atai life sciences, Kintara therapeutics, Intelligent Biosolutions, Acumen pharmaceutical, TPT Global Tech, Vaxart pharmaceuticals, Atyu biopharma, Adaptimmune Therapeutics, GeoVax Labs, Pieris Pharmaceuticals, Enzolytics Inc., Seres Therapeutics, Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp., and Charlotte’s Web Holdings, Inc. as well as previous stock options in Amarin, Viking and Moderna pharmaceuticals, all outside the submitted work. E Skiadaresi reports consulting fees from Bayer (Leverkusen, Germany), Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), Roche (Basel, Switzerland), Medevise Consulting SAS (Strasbourg, France); payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Bayer (Leverkusen, Germany), Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), and Roche (Basel, Switzerland); support for attending meetings and/or travel from Bayer (Leverkusen, Germany), Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), and Roche ((Basel, Switzerland); leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid with Chair of ATHENA Trial Steering Committee, UK (unpaid); all outside the submitted work. B T Taye reports support for the present manuscript from Brien Holden Vision Institute, Fondation Thea, Fred Hollows Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Lions Clubs International Foundation (LCIF), Sightsavers International, and University of Heidelber. The funder has no role in designing and preparing the manuscript. J H V Ticoalu leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid with Benang Merah Research Center as Co-founder. M Zielińska reports other support as an AstraZeneca employee; outside the submitted work. Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study T Braithwaite reports grants or contracts from any entity from Zakarian Award Fight for Sight/Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOZAK2202). A Bron reports payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Théa. N Congdon reports grants or contracts from any entity from Welcome Trust and MRC; consulting fees from Belkin Vision; and support for attending meetings and/or travel from Singapore National Eye Center. M A Del Monte reports support for attending meetings and/or travel from the University of Michigan; and leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid as past president of Costenbader Society. T Fricke reports grants or contracts from any entity from Brien Holden Vision Institute, Victorian Lions Foundation, International Myopia Institute, and Australian government; and support for attending meetings and/or travel from International Myopia Institute. D Friedman reports grants or contracts from any entity from Perivison and Genentech (to the institution for research); consulting fees from Abbvie and Life Biosciences; payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Thea Pharmaceuticals; support for attending meetings and/or travel from Thea Pharmaceuticals; and leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid, from Orbis International as member of board of governors. J M Furtado reports consulting fees from Pan American Health Organization and from Lions Club International Foundation. G Gazzard reports consulting fees from Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Allergan, Inc; BELKIN Vision LTD; Carl Zeiss Meditec; Elios; Genentech/Roche; Reichert; Théa and ViaLase; payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Alcon Laboratories, Inc; BELKIN Vision Ltd; Carl Zeiss Meditec; Elios and Ellex; participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Allergan, Inc; BELKIN Vision Ltd; Carl Zeiss Meditec; Elios and Visufarma; and leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid with Glaucoma UK Medical Advisory Board and UK&Eire Glaucoma Society as president. M E Hartnett reports support for the present manuscript (e.g., funding, provision of study materials, medical writing, article processing charges, etc.) from Michael F. Marmor, M.D. Professor of Retinal Science and Disease as endowment to support salary; grants or contracts from any entity (from National Eye Institute R01 EY017011 and National Eye Institute R01 EY015130) as partial salary support; patents planned, issued or pending (WO2015123561A2 and WO2021062169A1); and leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid with Jack McGovern Coats’ Disease Foundation and as director of Women’s Eye Health and Macular Society Grant Review Chair. J H Kempen reports support for the present manuscript (e.g., funding, provision of study materials, medical writing, article processing charges, etc.) from Mass Eye and Ear Global Surgery Program (as support of salary); and grants or contracts from any entity from Sight for Souls (as support of salary). J E Kim reports consulting fees from Genentech/Roche, DORC, Notal Vision and Outlook Therapeutics (all as payment to J E Kim); participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with Allergan, Amgen, Apellis, Bausch&Lomb, Clearside, Coherus, Novartis and Regeneron (all as participation on advisory board); leadership or fiduciary role in other borad, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid, with AAO, APRIS, ASRS, Macular Society and NAEVR/AEVR (all unpaid); and receipt of equipment, materials, drugs, medical writing, gifts or other services from Clearside and Genentech/Roche (both for medical writing). V C Lansingh reports consulting fees from HelpMeSee (as an employee); and support for attending meetings and/or travel from HelpMeSee (pay airfare and hotel). J Leasher reports leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid with National Eye Institute (as a member) and National Eye Health Education Program planning committee (unpaid). M Nowak reports participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with Vision Express Co. Poland as the chairman of medical advisory board of Vision Express Co. Poland. P Ramulu reports grants or contracts from National Institute of Health and Perfuse Therapeutics; and consulting fees from Alcon and W. L. Gore. F Topouzis reports grants or contracts from Théa, Omikron, Pfizer, Alcon, Abbvie and Bayer (all paid to Institution); consulting fees from Omikron, Théa and Bausch & Lomb (all paid to Topouzis); payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Omikron (paid to Topouzis), Abbvie and Roche (both paid to Institute); and leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid with European Glaucoma Society (as president), Greek Glaucoma Society (as president) and Board of Governors, World Glaucoma Association (all unpaid).

Additional information

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Appendix: Contributions by Authors

GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators

Providing data or critical feedback on data sources

Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate, Tadele Girum Girum Adal, Kishor Adhikari, Antonella Agodi, Williams Agyemang-Duah, Fares Alahdab, Syed Shujait Shujait Ali, Louay Almidani, Sofia Androudi, Jalal Arabloo, Alessandro Arrigo, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Desta Debalkie Atnafu, Alok Atreya, Yared Asmare Aynalem, Zewdu Bishaw Aynalem, Ahmed Y Azzam, Sara Bagherieh, Martina Barchitta, Mainak Bardhan, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Nebiyou Simegnew Bayileyegn, Ahmet Begde, Babak Behnam, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Sonu Bhaskar, Gurjit Kaur Bhatti, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Bagas Suryo Bintoro, Rupert R. A.Bourne, Tasanee Braithwaite, Paul Svitil Briant, Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos, Muthia Cenderadewi, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Dinh-Toi Chu, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Natália Cruz-Martins, Xiaochen Dai, Maedeh Dastmardi, Nikolaos Dervenis, Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan Devanbu, Joshua R Ehrlich, Michael Ekholuenetale, Temitope Cyrus Ekundayo, Iman El Sayed, Ambaw Abebaw Emrie, Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe, Hossein Farrokhpour, Ali Fatehizadeh, Alireza Feizkhah, Arthur G Fernandes, Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Seth Flaxman, Kayode Raphael Fowobaje, João M Furtado, Tilaye Gebru Gebi, Brhane Gebremariam, Molalegn Mesele Gesese, Fariba Ghassemi, Sherief Ghozy, Mahaveer Golechha, Pouya Goleij, Sapna Gupta, Veer Bala Gupta, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Teklehaimanot Gereziher Haile, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Sung Hwi Hong, Praveen Hoogar, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Chengxi Hu, Hong-Han Huynh, Chidozie C D Iwu, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Shubha Jayaram, Jost B Jonas, Charity Ehimwenma Joshua, Gebisa Guyasa Kabito, Laleh R Kalankesh, Himal Kandel, Gbenga A Kayode, Shemsu Kedir, Yousef Saleh Khader, Himanshu Khajuria, Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Yun Jin Kim, Adnan Kisa, Sezer Kisa, Soewarta Kosen, Kewal Krishan, Chandrakant Lahariya, Tri Laksono, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Trang Diep Thanh Le, Munjae Lee, Seung Won Lee, Nicolas Leveziel, Stephen S Lim, Xuefeng Liu, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Kashish Malhotra, Roy Rillera Marzo, Andrea Maugeri, Tesfahun Mekene Meto, Soheil Mohammadi, Ali H Mokdad, Mohammad Ali Moni, Maryam Moradi, Admir Mulita, Kovin S Naidoo, Ganesh R Naik, Shumaila Nargus, Zuhair S Natto, Biswa Prakash Nayak, Dang H Nguyen, Hien Quang Nguyen, Phat Tuan Nguyen, Van Thanh Nguyen, Robina Khan Niazi, Ogochukwu Janet Nzoputam, Ismail A Odetokun, Andrew T Olagunju, Matthew Idowu Olatubi, Obinna E Onwujekwe, Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu, Mayowa O Owolabi, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Jay Patel, Shrikant Pawar, Arokiasamy Perianayagam, Hoang Tran Pham, Fakher Rahim, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Ahmed Mustafa Rashid, Annisa Utami Rauf, Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan, Serge Resnikoff, Zahra Saadatian, Siamak Sabour, Basema Saddik, Umar Saeed, Sare Safi, Sher Zaman Safi, Narjes Saheb Sharif-Askari, Joseph W Sakshaug, Vijaya Paul Samuel, Abdallah M Samy, Monika Sawhney, Mete Saylan, Sayed Mansoor Sediqi, Yashendra Sethi, Allen Seylani, Jaffer Shah, Masood Ali Shaikh, Muhammad Aaqib Shamim, Maryam Shayan, Aminu sh*ttu, Jasvinder A Singh, Paramdeep Singh, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Jaimie D Steinmetz, Ian Tapply, Hugh R Taylor, Guesh Mebrahtom Tsegay, Saif Ullah, Muhammad Umair, Sahel Valadan Tahbaz, Theo Vos, Dong Keon Yon, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin, and Magdalena Zielińska.

Developing methods or computational machinery

Alessandro Arrigo, Desta Debalkie Atnafu, Ahmed Y Azzam, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Rupert R. A.Bourne, Paul Svitil Briant, Kaleb Coberly, Xiaochen Dai, Maedeh Dastmardi, Michael Ekholuenetale, Mehdi Emamverdi, Ayesha Fahim, Ali Fatehizadeh, Arthur G Fernandes, Seth Flaxman, Sherief Ghozy, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Hong-Han Huynh, Jost B Jonas, Charity Ehimwenma Joshua, Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Adnan Kisa, Chandrakant Lahariya, Nicolas Leveziel, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Ali H Mokdad, Mohammad Ali Moni, Admir Mulita, Hien Quang Nguyen, Phat Tuan Nguyen, Van Thanh Nguyen, Michal Ordak, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Hoang Tran Pham, Premkumar Ramasubramani, Umar Saeed, Abdallah M Samy, Monika Sawhney, Tabassom Sedighi, Jaimie D Steinmetz, Ian Tapply, Hugh R Taylor, Muhammad Umair, Theo Vos, and Peng Zheng.

Providing critical feedback on methods or results

Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate, Mohammad Abdollahi, Tadele Girum Girum Adal, Isaac Yeboah Addo, Kishor Adhikari, Antonella Agodi, Aqeel Ahmad, Hamid Ahmadieh, Hooman Ahmadzadeh, Fares Alahdab, Ahmad Samir Alfaar, Robert Kaba Alhassan, Syed Shujait Shujait Ali, Louay Almidani, Sofia Androudi, Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor, Jalal Arabloo, Alessandro Arrigo, Mubarek Yesse Ashemo, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Desta Debalkie Atnafu, Alok Atreya, Melese Kitu Ayalew, Yared Asmare Aynalem, Zewdu Bishaw Aynalem, Ahmed Y Azzam, Sara Bagherieh, Ruhai Bai, Martina Barchitta, Mainak Bardhan, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Nebiyou Simegnew Bayileyegn, Fatemeh Bazvand, Ahmet Begde, Babak Behnam, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Sonu Bhaskar, Gurjit Kaur Bhatti, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Bagas Suryo Bintoro, RupertR. A. Bourne, Tasanee Braithwaite, Paul Svitil Briant, Katrin Burkart, Yasser Bustanji, Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos, Vera L A Carneiro, Muthia Cenderadewi, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Dinh-Toi Chu, Natália Cruz-Martins, Omid Dadras, Xiaochen Dai, Ana Maria Dascalu, Mohsen Dashti, Anna Dastiridou, Maedeh Dastmardi, Xinlei Deng, Nikolaos Dervenis, Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan Devanbu, Mengistie Diress, Shirin Djalalinia, Michael Ekholuenetale, Temitope Cyrus Ekundayo, Iman El Sayed, Muhammed Elhadi, Mehdi Emamverdi, Ambaw Abebaw Emrie, Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe, Ayesha Fahim, Umar Farooq, Hossein Farrokhpour, Ali Fatehizadeh, Alireza Feizkhah, Arthur G Fernandes, Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Getahun Fetensa, Bikila Regassa Feyisa, Florian Fischer, Seth Flaxman, Ali Forouhari, Matteo Foschi, Kayode Raphael Fowobaje, João M Furtado, Aravind P Gandhi, Tilaye Gebru Gebi, Miglas W Gebregergis, Mesfin Gebrehiwot, Brhane Gebremariam, Molalegn Mesele Gesese, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Fariba Ghassemi, Sherief Ghozy, Mahaveer Golechha, Sapna Gupta, Veer Bala Gupta, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Teklehaimanot Gereziher Haile, Semira Goitom Hailu, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Aram Halimi, Shahin Hallaj, Billy Randall Hammond, Ikramul Hasan, Hamidreza Hasani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Mahsa Heidari-Foroozan, Sung Hwi Hong, Praveen Hoogar, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Chengxi Hu, Hong-Han Huynh, Mustapha Immurana, Chidozie C D Iwu, Louis Jacob, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Shubha Jayaram, Mohammad Jokar, Jost B Jonas, Nitin Joseph, Charity Ehimwenma Joshua, Gebisa Guyasa Kabito, Laleh R Kalankesh, Sagarika Kamath, Himal Kandel, Ibraheem M Karaye, Gbenga A Kayode, Shemsu Kedir, Yousef Saleh Khader, Himanshu Khajuria, Moawiah Mohammad Khatatbeh, Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Zahra Khorrami, Yun Jin Kim, Adnan Kisa, Sezer Kisa, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Chandrakant Lahariya, Tri Laksono, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Van Charles Lansingh, Trang Diep Thanh Le, Munjae Lee, Seung Won Lee, Wei-Chen Lee, Nicolas Leveziel, Stephen S Lim, Xuefeng Liu, Alireza Mahmoudi, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Kashish Malhotra, Vahid Mansouri, Roy Rillera Marzo, Andrea Maugeri, Colm McAlinden, Tesfahun Mekene Meto, Abera M Mersha, Tomislav Mestrovic, Ephrem Tesfaye Mihretie, Mehdi Mirzaei, Prasanna Mithra, Nouh Saad Mohamed, Soheil Mohammadi, Abdulwase Mohammed, Ali H Mokdad, Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, Mohammad Ali Moni, Fateme Montazeri, Maryam Moradi, Ahmed Nuru Muhamed, Admir Mulita, Ganesh R Naik, Shumaila Nargus, Zuhair S Natto, Biswa Prakash Nayak, Mohammad Negaresh, Hadush Negash, Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi, Dang H Nguyen, Hien Quang Nguyen, Phat Tuan Nguyen, Van Thanh Nguyen, Robina Khan Niazi, Ogochukwu Janet Nzoputam, Ismail A Odetokun, Andrew T Olagunju, Matthew Idowu Olatubi, Obinna E Onwujekwe, Michal Ordak, Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu, Nikita Otstavnov, Mayowa O Owolabi, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Parsa Panahi, Ashok Pandey, Shahina Pardhan, Jay Patel, Shrikant Pawar, Arokiasamy Perianayagam, Ionela-Roxana Petcu, Hoang Tran Pham, Ibrahim Qattea, Pankaja Raghav Raghav, Fakher Rahim, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mosiur Rahman, Premkumar Ramasubramani, Ahmed Mustafa Rashid, Annisa Utami Rauf, Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan, Serge Resnikoff, Nazila Rezaei, Priyanka Roy, Zahra Saadatian, Siamak Sabour, Basema Saddik, Umar Saeed, Sare Safi, Sher Zaman Safi, Narjes Saheb Sharif-Askari, Joseph W Sakshaug, Mohamed A Saleh, Yoseph Leonardo Samodra, Vijaya Paul Samuel, Abdallah M Samy, Monika Sawhney, Mete Saylan, Sayed Mansoor Sediqi, Yashendra Sethi, Jaffer Shah, Samiah Shahid, Masood Ali Shaikh, Muhammad Aaqib Shamim, Maryam Shayan, Mika Shigematsu, Aminu sh*ttu, Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Emmanuel Edwar Siddig, Juan Carlos Silva, Jasvinder A Singh, Paramdeep Singh, Eirini Skiadaresi, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Vladimir I Starodubov, Ian Tapply, Birhan Tsegaw Taye, Jansje Henny Vera Ticoalu, Guesh Mebrahtom Tsegay, Saif Ullah, Muhammad Umair, Sahel Valadan Tahbaz, Theo Vos, Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe, Guadie Sharew Wondimagegn, Arzu Yiğit, Dong Keon Yon, Naohiro Yonemoto, Yuyi You, Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin, Hanqing Zhao, and Magdalena Zielińska.

Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content

Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate, Mohammad Abdollahi, Tadele Girum Girum Adal, Isaac Yeboah Addo, Prerna Agarwal, Antonella Agodi, Hamid Ahmadieh, Hooman Ahmadzadeh, Fares Alahdab, Ahmad Samir Alfaar, Robert Kaba Alhassan, Syed Shujait Shujait Ali, Louay Almidani, Abhishek Anil, Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor, Jalal Arabloo, Alessandro Arrigo, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Desta Debalkie Atnafu, Alok Atreya, Melese Kitu Ayalew, Ahmed Y Azzam, Sara Bagherieh, Martina Barchitta, Mainak Bardhan, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Ahmet Begde, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Sonu Bhaskar, Gurjit Kaur Bhatti, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Marina G Birck, Rupert R. A.Bourne, Tasanee Braithwaite, Paul Svitil Briant, Yasser Bustanji, Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos, Muthia Cenderadewi, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Dinh-Toi Chu, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Natália Cruz-Martins, Ana Maria Dascalu, Anna Dastiridou, Maedeh Dastmardi, Nikolaos Dervenis, Joshua R Ehrlich, Michael Ekholuenetale, Iman El Sayed, Muhammed Elhadi, Mehdi Emamverdi, Ambaw Abebaw Emrie, Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe, Ayesha Fahim, Ali Fatehizadeh, Arthur G Fernandes, Getahun Fetensa, Florian Fischer, Seth Flaxman, Ali Forouhari, Matteo Foschi, João M Furtado, Aravind P Gandhi, Tilaye Gebru Gebi, Miglas W Gebregergis, Mesfin Gebrehiwot, Brhane Gebremariam, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel, Yibeltal Yismaw Gela, Fariba Ghassemi, Sherief Ghozy, Sapna Gupta, Veer Bala Gupta, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Teklehaimanot Gereziher Haile, Aram Halimi, Shahin Hallaj, Billy Randall Hammond, Ikramul Hasan, Hamidreza Hasani, Hong-Han Huynh, Mustapha Immurana, Chidozie C D Iwu, Louis Jacob, Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Shubha Jayaram, Jost B Jonas, Nitin Joseph, Charity Ehimwenma Joshua, Gebisa Guyasa Kabito, Sagarika Kamath, Himal Kandel, Hengameh Kasraei, Gbenga A Kayode, Shemsu Kedir, Yousef Saleh Khader, Himanshu Khajuria, Moawiah Mohammad Khatatbeh, Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Adnan Kisa, Sezer Kisa, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Chandrakant Lahariya, Van Charles Lansingh, Janet L Leasher, Nicolas Leveziel, Xuefeng Liu, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Vahid Mansouri, Roy Rillera Marzo, Andrea Maugeri, Colm McAlinden, Tesfahun Mekene Meto, Tomislav Mestrovic, Ephrem Tesfaye Mihretie, Mehdi Mirzaei, Prasanna Mithra, Nouh Saad Mohamed, Soheil Mohammadi, Abdulwase Mohammed, Ali H Mokdad, Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, Mohammad Ali Moni, Fateme Montazeri, Maryam Moradi, Parsa Mousavi, Kovin S Naidoo, Shumaila Nargus, Zuhair S Natto, Biswa Prakash Nayak, Mohammad Negaresh, Hadush Negash, Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi, Dang H Nguyen, Hien Quang Nguyen, Phat Tuan Nguyen, Van Thanh Nguyen, Robina Khan Niazi, Mamoona Noreen, Ogochukwu Janet Nzoputam, Ismail A Odetokun, Andrew T Olagunju, Matthew Idowu Olatubi, Obinna E Onwujekwe, Michal Ordak, Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu, Nikita Otstavnov, Mayowa O Owolabi, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Shahina Pardhan, Jay Patel, Venkata Suresh Patthipati, Shrikant Pawar, Arokiasamy Perianayagam, Ionela-Roxana Petcu, Hoang Tran Pham, Ibrahim Qattea, Pankaja Raghav Raghav, Fakher Rahim, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Premkumar Ramasubramani, Ahmed Mustafa Rashid, Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan, Serge Resnikoff, Nazila Rezaei, Priyanka Roy, Siamak Sabour, Basema Saddik, Umar Saeed, Amene Saghazadeh, Fatemeh Saheb Sharif-Askari, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Saina Salahi, Sarvenaz Salahi, Vijaya Paul Samuel, Abdallah M Samy, Aswini Saravanan, Monika Sawhney, Mete Saylan, Siddharthan Selvaraj, Yashendra Sethi, Allen Seylani, Jaffer Shah, Samiah Shahid, Moyad Jamal Shahwan, Muhammad Aaqib Shamim, Mika Shigematsu, Aminu sh*ttu, Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Emmanuel Edwar Siddig, Jasvinder A Singh, Paramdeep Singh, Eirini Skiadaresi, Raúl A R C Sousa, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Vladimir I Starodubov, Birhan Tsegaw Taye, Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris, Saif Ullah, Muhammad Umair, Sahel Valadan Tahbaz, Theo Vos, Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe, Guadie Sharew Wondimagegn, Lin Yang, Arzu Yiğit, Dong Keon Yon, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin, Makan Ziafati, and Magdalena Zielińska.

Managing the estimation or publications process

Rupert R. A.Bourne, João M Furtado, Ali H Mokdad, and Theo Vos

Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study

Providing data or critical feedback on data sources

Alessandro Arrigo, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Mukharram M Bikbov, Rupert R A Bourne, Tasanee Braithwaite, Alain Bron, Ching-Yu Cheng, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Nathan Congdon, Monte A Del Monte, Joshua R Ehrlich, Arthur Fernandes, Seth Flaxman, Tim Fricke, David Friedman, João M Furtado, Gus Gazzard, M Elizabeth Hartnett, Jost B Jonas, Rim Kahloun, John H Kempen, Moncef Khairallah, Rohit C Khanna, Judy E Kim, Van Charles Lansingh, Janet Leasher, Nicolas Leveziel, Kovin S Naidoo, Vinay Nangia, Michal Nowak, Konrad Pesudovs, Tunde Peto, Pradeep Ramulu, Serge Resnikoff, Tabassom Sedighi, Ian Tapply, Hugh Taylor, Fotis Topouzis, Miltiadis Tsilimbaris, Ya Xing Wang, Ningli Wang

Developing methods or computational machinery

Rupert R A Bourne, Jost B Jonas, Ian Tapply

Providing critical feedback on methods or results

Alessandro Arrigo, Mukharram M Bikbov, Rupert R A Bourne, Tasanee Braithwaite, Monte A Del Monte, David Friedman, João M Furtado, M Elizabeth Hartnett, Jost B Jonas, Rim Kahloun, John H Kempen, Konrad Pesudovs, Serge Resnikoff, Ian Tapply, Ningli Wang

Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content

Alessandro Arrigo, Mukharram M Bikbov, Rupert R A Bourne, Tasanee Braithwaite, Nathan Congdon, Monte A Del Monte, João M Furtado, M Elizabeth Hartnett, Jost B Jonas, Janet Leasher, Konrad Pesudovs

Managing the estimation or publications process

Rupert R A Bourne, João M Furtado, Jost B Jonas

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Global estimates on the number of people blind or visually impaired by age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020 (1)

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Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study., the GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators. Global estimates on the number of people blind or visually impaired by age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020. Eye (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-024-03050-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-024-03050-z

Global estimates on the number of people blind or visually impaired by age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020 (2024)

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