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Congress Program & Information August 10 - 14, 2015 Lausanne, Switzerland

unil.ch/eseb2015 @eseb2015 #eseb15

Département d'écologie et évolution

Session 1 MON GEN C 1

On the maintenance of sex in natural populations (53716) Tanja Schwander. University of Lausanne. The overwhelming success of obligate sexual reproduction among eukaryotes implies that sex generates advantages that fully compensate for its inherent costs relative asexuality. Theoretical approaches have shown that the potential for sex to be advantageous increases in spatially or temporally heterogeneous environments. However, it remains unknown whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations. I will discuss different competition experiments between sexual and asexual grassthrips in natural habitats and semi-natural mesocosm conditions through which we evaluated whether and how habitat heterogeneity can contribute to the maintenance of sexual lineages when in competition with co-occurring asexuals. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON GEN C 1

Evolutionary advantage of sexual algal prey exposed to predation (51656) Hanna Koch, Sophia Wagner, Lutz Becks. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology; Plön, Germany. Here, we present results from an experimental evolution study using a predator-prey system to evaluate theory for the evolution of sexual reproduction. Specifically, we tested whether sex is beneficial when populations are exposed to predation. We used an algal-rotifer system to first show that sex in an algal prey provides a direct fitness benefit by combining different beneficial mutations - for increased growth rates and grazing resistance - into one genome, whereas asexual populations suffer trade-offs in these traits. We also found that sexual prey populations evolved to higher levels of fitness over time compared to asexual prey populations. The results confirm the theory that asexual populations evolve more slowly due to clonal interference and a lack of recombination. We used the same system in a second experimental evolution study to show that the in-situ rate of sex was maintained at high levels in the presence of predation, but not in treatments without predation. Together, these results show that sex not only provides a direct fitness benefit in the presence of predation, but is also maintained which suggests an evolutionary advantage that outweighs the costs of sex within this relevant ecological context. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON GEN C 1

Invasion of the selfers! Evolutionary ecology and the maintenance of outcrossing. (53322)

Levi Morran. Emory University. Outcrossing is inherently costly relative to self-fertilization. Nonetheless, outcrossing is quite prevalent in nature. What prevents the widespread invasion and fixation of alleles permitting self-fertilzation in mixed mating and obligately outcrossing populations? Here, I will discuss the results of several experimental evolution studies testing the role of parasites in preventing, slowing, and perhaps even facilitating the spread of selffertilization in host populations. Additionally, I will discuss the potential limitations of parasites with regards to the maintenance of outcrossing and explore other factors that may impede the spread of self-fertilization. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON GEN C 1

Fitness consequences of parasite-mediated selection on sexual reproduction in a natural population (51671) Amanda Gibson, Lynda Delph, Curt Lively. Indiana University. Sex is costly relative to asexual reproduction, yet it is widespread in nature. What force prevents sex from being out-competed? The Red Queen Hypothesis argues that coevolving parasites select for sex in hosts. Our study tests if parasites are a sufficient force to maintain sex in nature. Sexual lineages of a freshwater snail persist in competition with asexual forms, and a castrating trematode parasite has been indirectly linked to this persistence. We combine field sampling with experimental mesocosms to test if parasite selection alone can confer a fitness advantage to sexual individuals in competition with asexual clones. The Red Queen predicts that the fitness of sexuals relative to clones will be periodically higher in the presence vs. absence of parasites. At present, we find that sexuals are more parasitized than are clones, and that parasites lower the relative fitness of sexuals. Accordingly, long-term field data suggest that the frequency of sexual individuals is declining in the natural population. With multi-year sampling, we further test the Red Queen’s prediction that the direction of parasite selection will shift to favor sex as clones increase in frequency. Our work provides a muchneeded direct test of the Red Queen in a natural system. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON GEN C 1

Brachionus calyciflorus evolves higher levels of sex with more loci under selection. (51689) Pepijn Luijckx, Eddie Ho, Madjid Gasim, Connor Yanchus, Suyang Chen, Yuna Kim, Aneil Agrawal. University of Toronto.

The widespread occurrence of sexual reproduction, despite its well-known costs, has been a long standing problem in evolutionary biology. Although there are numerous theories for why sex is the most common mode of reproduction, critically few assumptions and predictions of these theories have been tested. Using experimental evolution with the facultative sexual rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus we tested whether higher levels of sex evolve when more loci are under selection as predicted by Hill-Robertson interference, a popular theory for the maintenance of sex. The number of loci under selection were manipulated by adapting B. calyciflorus to either one, two or three abiotic stressors in a full factorial design (i.e. each multi stressor was composed of different combinations of the single stressors). Results from two independent evolution experiments (over one million animals scored) confirmed the hypothesis. B. calyciflorus produced more sexual eggs when adapting to more complex environments. Furthermore, common garden experiments confirmed that this change was genetic and as we standardize population size these changes where unlikely due to differences in genetic drift. These findings can explain why sex is the dominant mode of reproduction as natural populations may experience a multitude of selection pressures at any one time. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON GEN B 5

How important are sex-linkage and non-additive genetic variation in the variance structure of sexually dimorphic traits? (52037) Daphne Fairbairn. University of California, Riverside. Selection favoring different trait values in males and females is expected to favor the evolution of both sex-specific patterns of gene expression and sex-linkage. Although genomic and transcriptomic studies suggest that both mechanisms are important, quantitative genetic analyses often fail to find disproportionate effects of sex-linkage for sexually dimorphic traits. Non-additive interactions are also likely to be important for genes involved in sexual dimorphism, but the effects of these on genetic variances have been difficult to estimate independently of sex linkage. This presentation summarizes the results of a breeding experiment designed to estimate additive and non-additive, sex-linked and autosomal variances for 16 morphological traits in an insect with XX/XO sex determination, the water strider, Aquarius remigis. The traits range from sex-limited to sexually monomorphic and a subset is subject to strong sexual selection in males. The results reveal major differences in genetic architecture between sexes, often with disproportionate contributions of sex-linked genes and large non-additive effects. As predicted, sex-linkage is associated with lower between-sex genetic correlations. The relationships between genetic architecture, sexual dimorphism and the pattern of selection are broadly consistent with predictions from evolutionary theory, but several anomalies suggest avenues for future research. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON GEN B 5

X-linkage of sex-specific genetic variance revealed using G-matrix analyses and a novel laboratory technique (51959)

Robert Griffin, Holger Schielzeth, Urban Friberg. Uppsala University; Bielefeld Univeristy; Linköping University. Intralocus sexual conflict can constrain the evolution of sex-specific phenotypic optima via correlated responses to selection. Genetic variance-covariance matrices, G-matrices, can be applied to data to estimate the variance within traits, and covariance between multiple traits, environments, and sexes. Several methods can then be used to describe and compare the characteristics and geometry of G-matrices and component sub-matrices. We use partialhemiclones, a novel laboratory method using Drosophila melanogaster, which allows us to powerfully estimate X-chromosome and autosomal contributions to genetic (co)variance. Two G-matrices were constructed, for the X-chromosome and autosomes separately, containing (co)variance estimates for 3 traits (including longevity) in both sexes. Differences between these G-matrices are tested using multiple analytical methods, including the multivariate breeder’s equation. Principally these are used to test for differences in the B-submatrix, which shows the intersexual genetic covariance, between the two types of partial-hemiclone lines. We show that more intersexual genetic covariance is found in the autosomes, suggesting that the X-chromosomes represent a hotspot for sex-specific genetic variance. Major sex chromosomes could therefore play a significant role in the resolution of intralocus sexual conflict. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON GEN B 5

The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism (51691) Tim Connallon. Monash University. Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism follow parallel conceptual threads. Each represents an iconic evolutionary scenario of intra-specific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow, and each is associated with a set of influential theoretical predictions within its respective evolutionary context. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space, and sexspecific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several unique predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease towards species range margins; and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions often break down under clinally varying selection. The geography of local adaptation can be sexual dimorphic, with locations of relatively high and low local adaptation differing extensively between the sexes. Moreover, the intensity and duration of sexual antagonism is highly variable across the species range. Subpopulations near the range center are hotspots for sexual antagonism. Peripheral subpopulations exhibit a stronger alignment of directional selection within each sex. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Session 1 MON GEN B 5

TRANSCRIPTOME-WIDE EFFECTS OF MALE SEXUAL SELECTION ON THE FATE OF NEW MUTATIONS (52609) Julie M. Collet, Mark W. Blows, Katrina McGuigan. University of Queensland; University of Queensland; University of Queensland. Traits that determine male mating success are predicted to have widespread effects on sexspecific genetic variation as a consequence of the pleiotropic allelic effects of sexual and nonsexual traits. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection on males during 27 generations of mutation accumulation in inbred lines of Drosophila serrata. To complement previous analyses of the effects of male sexual selection on male and female phenotypes, we used a microarray platform to investigate the effect of sexual selection on the expression of 2689 genes. Over all genes, mutational variance in gene expression increased by an average 42%, in sexually selected lines, compared to lines that did not evolve under sexual selection. However, there was no significant effect of sexual selection on average gene expression. Our results provide clear evidence that sex-specific selection on males can generate widespread effects across the genome. An increase in mutational variance without a corresponding change in mean is consistent with divergence generated by widespread pleiotropic associations with traits affecting male mating success. Furthermore, a Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis comparing treatments will enable the identification of the functions targeted by male sexual selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON GEN B 5

Red males revealed: a cytochrome P450 gene cluster controls production of derived red ketocarotenoids in the zebra finch bill (52724) Nick Mundy, Jessica Stapley, Clair Bennison, Terry Burke, Tim Birkhead, Staffan Andersson, Jon Slate. Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge; Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield; Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg. Red coloration is commonly involved in sexual, social or interspecific colour signalling. Highly chromatic (“bright”) red integument (skin, scales, feathers) in birds is typically caused by ketocarotenoids, such as canthaxanthin, which are metabolically derived from dietary yellow carotenoid precursors. However, this key molecular mechanism underlying sexual dichromatism in birds has remained obscure. Here we investigate the pigmentary, genetic and gene expression basis of the yellowbeak mutation in the zebra finch, an autosomal recessive mutation. Wildtype ketocarotenoids are absent in the beak and tarsus of yellowbeak birds. Using a candidate gene approach in a low resolution QTL analysis we identified a haplotype in the CYP2J2 cluster on chromosome 8 that is perfectly associated with the yellowbeak phenotype. The yellowbeak haplotype has a whole gene deletion of the second locus (CYP2J2B) in the cluster. CYP2J2B is specifically expressed in ketocarotenoid-coloured beak and legs of wildtype zebrafinches but not in liver. Our results suggest that CYP2J2B is

essential for the sexually selected red beak of the zebra finch, that it likely encodes a functional C4 ketolase enzyme, and that the conversion is primarily peripheral in this species, i.e. in the ketocarotenoid-pigmented tissues. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL A 28

Identifying the causes of natural selection: What have we learned from 25 years of experiments? (53330) Christina Caruso. Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph. Phenotypic selection varies in space and time. To understand why there is variation in selection, we need to identify which environmental factors cause traits and fitness to covary. One way to identify these factors was described by Wade and Kalisz (1990): experimentally manipulate the environment and measure selection within each treatment group. If the manipulated environmental factor causes traits and fitness to covary, then selection will differ between treatment groups. Although this experimental approach to identifying the causes of selection was described 25 years ago, the results of these experiments have yet to be reviewed. I will review what 25 years of ecological experiments have, and have not, taught us about the causes of natural selection. First, I will use a case study of selection on floral traits of the wildflower Lobelia siphilitica to illustrate how experimental manipulations can be used to test longstanding assumptions about the causes of selection. Second, I will use a meta-analysis of selection estimates from experimental studies published over the last 25 years to test two hypotheses about the relative importance of different causes of selection. I will conclude by describing priorities for the next 25 years of experimental studies of the causes of selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL A 28

The fluctuation of selection and its evolutionary consequences in an alpine rodent population. (51725) Timothée Bonnet, Erik Postma. Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies . Temporal variation in the strength and direction of directional selection has important implications for the maintenance of genetic variation and for the prediction of evolutionary change in wild populations. However, empirical estimations of the fluctuation of selection, together with the genetic response, are still scarce and hampered by confounding sampling variance. Using the long-term monitoring of a wild snow vole (Chionomys nivalis) population, we quantify the temporal fluctuation of the selection acting on morphological traits, while

accounting for sampling variance. Climatic factors appear as a possible driver of change in the strength and direction of selection. Moreover, contrasting patterns of fluctuation among viability, fertility, and total selection highlight the importance of considering all fitness components. We then relate the fluctuation of selection to year-by-year genetic changes, using both a candidate gene approach and multivariate quantitative genetic models. This provides a direct test of whether fluctuation can explain evolutionary stasis in this population, and illustrate that the selection patterns observed at the phenotypic level do not necessarily translate into parallel genetic changes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL A 28

Measuring fluctuating phenotypic selection (53320) Luis-Miguel Chevin, Marcel Visser, Jarle Tufto. CNRS. Fluctuating selection caused by randomly changing environments is a ubiquitous feature of natural systems. The magnitude and predictability of these fluctuations are expected to strongly impact the evolution and demography of populations, but few attempts have been made to quantify these parameters and relate them to relevant environmental variables, in a way that connects to theoretical predictions. In this talk, I will first briefly review theoretical results for evolutionary demography in a randomly changing environment affecting the optimum phenotype for a quantitative trait. I will then discuss some of the challenges with measuring fluctuating selection using classical methods such as selection gradients. Finally, I will introduce an approach for estimating patterns of changes in an optimum phenotype, which allows inferring parameters that directly appear in theoretical predictions. This will be illustrated by an application to the breeding time of a population of great tit* in the Netherlands, a classic example of evolution in response to climate change. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL A 28

The Spatial Scale of Local Adaptation (51756) Jarrod Hadfield, Albert Phillimore. University Of Edinburgh; University Of Edinburgh. The distribution of phenotypes in space will be a compromise between local adaptation increasing the fit of phenotypes to local conditions and gene-flow reducing that fit. Few theoretical models have considered the evolution of quantitative characters on spatially explicit landscapes, and those that have, only consider scenarios where optimum trait values change as a deterministic function of space, such as clines. Here we extend these models to include a stochastic spatially autocorrelated aspect to the environment, and as a consequence the optimal phenotype. We show that under these conditions the regression of phenotype on the environmental variable becomes steeper as the spatial scale on which individuals, or

populations, are sampled becomes larger. Under certain deterministic models - such as smooth clines - the regression is constant. The way in which the regression changes with spatial scale is informative about the degree of phenotypic plasticity, the relative scales of effective gene flow and environmental autocorrelation, and the environmental dependency of selection. Methods to estimate these parameters from spatially replicated data are discussed, and the theory suggests a common scale on which temporal and spatial fluctuations in selection can be compared. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL A 28

DETECTING CHANGING SELECTION INTENSITIES FROM TIMESAMPLED DATA (51758) Hyunjin Shim, Stefan Laurent, Matthieu Foll, Jeffrey D. Jensen. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL); Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB); International Agency for Research on Cancer. The possibility of fluctuating selection in natural populations was suggested by Wright (1948) during his famous controversy with Fisher regarding the phenotypic dataset of Panaxia dominula, and the subject has since been considered in various analyses - ranging from Kimura (1954) to Cain et al. (1990). Until now, the focus of discussion mainly centered on the random fluctuation of selection intensities. Here, we present a novel method to consider nonrandom fluctuation of selection intensities using ABC-based approaches, in order to detect and evaluate the change in selection strength in time-sampled data. The novel method estimates jointly the position of a change point and the strength of both corresponding selection coefficients (as well as dominance for diploid cases) from the allele trajectory. Furthermore, the method is applied on the historical dataset of Panaxia dominula to test for a change in selection intensity, as well as on a whole-genome time-serial study of influenza virus in order to identify mutations with changing selection intensities in response to drug treatment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL B 15

The gibbon genome: swinging between evolution, speciation and disease (53396) Lucia Carbone. Oregon Health & Science University. Gibbons are small Asian apes heavily threatened by extinction. They carry many distinctive traits that set them apart from their close relatives, human and the great apes, including brachiation (i.e. locomotion mainly using their upper limbs), pair bonding, and duet singing to advertise their territory. Their most striking trait, however, is the unusually high number of chromosomal rearrangements. There are four gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, Hylobates,

and Symphalangus) that split from each other only 5 million years ago and each of them carries a distinct karyotype with chromosome numbers ranging from 38 to 52. This exceptional accelerated karyotype evolution makes gibbons an ideal model to study chromosome evolution and mechanism of genome instability. Together with geographical changes occurring in their territory, the abundance of chromosomal rearrangements was responsible for an “instantaneous” radiation of the gibbon genera and the higher number of species (n=19) found in the gibbon family. We discovered that a gibbon specific retrotransposon, the LAVA element, inserted in genes involved in chromosome segregation, suggesting that in these species chromosome fragility might have been triggered by missegregation during meiosis. This phenomenon has recently been characterized in cancer genomes and embryo development, highlighting an analogy between mechanisms underlying genome instability during species evolution and disease. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL B 15

Fitness consequences of inversion polymorphisms in the zebra finch (51889) Wolfgang Forstmeier, Ulrich Knief, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Simon Griffith, Bart Kempenaers. Max Planck Institute for Ornithology; Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology; Macquarie University. Genome-wide scans for signatures of past selection can help identify loci with strong effects on fitness. In the present study, we searched for patterns in the allele frequency spectrum across genomic regions among 23,000,000 SNPs identified from pool-seq data of genomic DNA from 100 wild-caught zebra finches. Using sliding windows of a measure of pooled heterozygosity, we found several genomic regions where the great majority of SNPs showed a minor allele frequency close to 50%. Subsequent genotyping of 3,804 SNPs spread across these regions and the entire genome in 948 wild zebra finches identified these regions as break points of inversion polymorphisms. Altogether, we found that 4 out of 31 covered chromosomes harbored inversion polymorphisms that span between 13 and 60 megabases and cover large proportions of the affected chromosomes with inversion frequencies close to 50%, which is suggestive of balancing selection resulting from heterozygote advantage. Hence, we studied phenotypic effects of these inversions on morphology, relative fitness and embryo mortality in up to 6,000 mostly captive zebra finches to gain an understanding of the selective forces that lead to the maintenance of these remarkable polymorphisms. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL B 15

Human Evolution by Segmental Duplication (53374) Evan Eichler. University of Washington & HHMI.

Human duplicated sequences show extraordinary sequence complexity and are important sources for gene innovation and rearrangement associated with neurocognitive diseases such as autism and intellectual disability. Evolutionary genomic reconstructions point to a burst of segmental duplications in the common ancestor of human and the apes in contrast to other mutational processes that have slowed at this point in time. I will show that much of the interspersed human duplication architecture is focused around core duplicons corresponding to the expansion of gene families, which show strong signatures of positive selection and which lack orthologs in other mammalian species. I will present an overview of the evolution of human-specific segmental duplications, their copy number variation in diverse human populations and their potential to form neofunctional gene fusions. I will highlight novel genes that have evolved within the human lineage and appear to have contributed to adaptive aspects of human brain function as well as examples where this evolutionary plasticity has been positively selected. Using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology, I will show how such complex regions can be resolved and show how radically these regions of our genome have changed and differ among human populations. Paradoxically, the duplication architecture complexity has led to a high background rate of copy number variation mutations associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease in the human species suggesting that novel adaptations and increased disease burden are linked. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL B 15

Parental investment predicts genetic diversity of animal species (52005) Jonathan Romiguier, Nicolas Galtier. University of Lausanne; CNRS. Genetic diversity is the amount of variation observed between DNA sequences from distinct individuals of a given species. This pivotal concept of population genetics has implications for species health, domestication, management and conservation. Levels of genetic diversity seem to vary greatly in natural populations and species, but the determinants of this variation, and particularly the relative influences of species biology and ecology versus population history, are still largely mysterious. Here we show that the diversity of a species is predictable, and is determined in the first place by its ecological strategy. We investigated the genome-wide diversity of 76 non-model animal species by sequencing the transcriptome of two to ten individuals in each species. The distribution of genetic diversity between species revealed no detectable influence of geographic range or invasive status but was accurately predicted by key species traits related to parental investment: long-lived or low-fecundity species with brooding ability were genetically less diverse than short-lived or highly fecund ones. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL B 15

A genomic study of the contribution of DNA methylation to regulatory evolution in primates (52018)

Julien Roux, Irene Hernando-Herraez, Nicholas Banovich, Raquel Garcia-Perez, Jonathan Pritchard, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Yoav Gilad. University of Lausanne; University of Chicago; Institute of Evolutionary Biology (UPFCSIC), PRBB, Barcelona; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University; Departments of Biology and Genetics, Stanford University. A long-standing hypothesis is that changes in gene regulation play an important role in adaptive evolution, notably in primates. Yet, in spite of the evidence accumulated in the past decade that regulatory changes contribute to species-specific adaptations, we still know little about the mechanisms of regulatory evolution. In this study we focused on DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism whose contribution to the evolution of gene expression remains unclear. To interrogate the methylation status of the vast majority of cytosines in the genome, we performed whole-genome bisulfite conversion followed by high-throughput sequencing across 4 tissues (heart, kidney, liver and lung) in human, chimpanzee and macaque. In parallel, we collected gene expression profiles using RNA-seq from the same tissue samples, allowing us to perform a high resolution scan for genes and pathways whose regulation evolved under natural selection. We integrated these datasets to characterize better the genome features whose methylation status leads to expression changes across tissues and species. We discovered that, in contrast to the well-known negative association between gene expression and methylation changes across tissues, the association between these two variables was greatly reduced across species. Our study questions the role of epigenetic modifications as a mechanism causing regulatory changes in primates. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL B 15

Recombination and GC-biased gene conversion shape genome evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) (52102) Andreas Wallberg, Sylvain Glémin, Matthew T Webster. Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University; UMR 5554, Institute of Evolutionary Sciences, University of Montpellier. Recombination is crucial for sexual reproduction and has pervasive effects on genetic diversity. The eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera has among the highest recombination rates observed in any eukaryote (~22 cM/Mb). The reasons for these high rates and their effects on genome evolution are unknown. We have used whole-genome resequencing data from 30 honeybees to build a fine-scale map of recombination from patterns of linkage disequilibrium. We have studied the associations between recombination, DNA methylation, gene expression and the site frequency spectrum to assess how recombination shapes the honeybee genome. We find that recombination frequencies are not highly variable nor restricted to hotspots, in contrast to many sexual plants, fungi and vertebrates. They are greatly influenced by germline

CpG-methylation, which suppresses recombination. The site frequency spectrum is highly skewed towards the fixation of GC alleles, indicative of a major impact of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), which we estimate as 5-50x higher than in humans. The fixation bias specifically favours mutations that generate CpG sites, which occur in excess in honeybees. Recombination determines levels of genetic variation in honeybees. At such high rates, gBGC strongly interferes with selection, resulting in rapid fixation of deleterious alleles and altered nucleotide composition across the genome. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL C 14

Stalking the elusive generalist: Understanding the relationship between the fundamental and realized niches of Pseudomonas in the home (53353) Susanna Remold. University of Louisville. Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and have been isolated from diverse environments, and as a result, Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. In culture-based and culture-independent surveys of a broad range of environments found in and around the human home, we assessed the degree to which Pseudomonas’ realized niches, where they are actually found in nature, are equally broad. We found temporal and spatial variability in recovery of the three species groups of Pseudomonas most commonly found in homes: the P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and P. putida species groups. In addition, we found that these Pseudomonas species groups’ distributions also differ from each another. In a series of studies characterizing strains collected in these surveys and individually and in pairwise interactions, we explored biotic and abiotic factors that may cause Pseudomonas’ realized niches to differ from each other, and to be smaller than their fundamental niches. In my talk I will describe some of these studies and discuss applications of studies linking fundamental to realized niches. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL C 14

Sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentrations can radically alter the ecoevolutionary consumer-resource dynamics in microbial communities (51684) Teppo Hiltunen, Lutz Becks, Matti Jalasvuori, Ville Ojala, Jouni Laakso. University of Helsinki; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology; University of Jyväskylä. Modern medicine relies heavily on the effective use of antibiotics. However, antibiotic resistant pathogens are on the rise. This problem has been often studied in simplified single species setting, but in natural environments bacteria reside in multispecies communities where they interact with other microbes. Yet, virtually nothing is known about community aspects,

such as how predation affects the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, recent evidence highlights the importance of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on bacteria. In addition to the fact that these low concentrations can alter the bacterial gene expression, communication, and select for antibiotic resistant genotypes, an important question is whether this modifies the community level dynamics. By using experimental evolution methods with a microbial model system consisting of bacterial prey, Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, parasitic phages and protozoan predators, we found that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotic streptomycin can radically alter the eco-evolutionary community dynamics. Moreover, the community structure determined the emergence of antibiotic resistant genotypes in the bacterial population. In addition to the phenotypic data, also a massive re-sequencing of the experimental Pseudomonas populations is underway. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the eco-evolutionary community aspects when fighting the antibiotic resistance problem. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL C 14

Experimental evolution of bacteria in the laboratory and in the wild (53482) Tom Bell. Imperial College London. Understanding how species adapt to novel environments is among the greatest challenges in evolutionary biology. However, experimental studies and theories have focused almost exclusively on simplified systems containing at most a few species. If species interactions in natural communities fundamentally alter evolutionary outcomes, then there is a need to study the adaptive process within the context of entire communities, and to understand the consequences of adaptation for community structure and functioning. I will discuss a series of experiments using bacterial microcosm communities of increasing complexity. When challenged with a novel environment, the evolutionary dynamics of mixtures of a few species differ substantially from those grown as single species, and species interactions evolve over time, resulting in a change in the functioning of the entire community. The outcome appears to depend critically on the diversity of the surrounding community, suggesting a complex interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL C 14

Bacterial biodiversity: the role of spatial structure and competition within species (51688) Anne Leinweber, Rolf Kümmerli. University of Zurich. Bacteria often live in multispecies communities, which is difficult to explain, because strongly competitive species should eventually displace weaker counterparts. Spatial structure

has been suggested to stabilize diversity by separating competitors from each other. Alternatively, it has been proposed that strong competitors are more prone to within-species competition, which can relax between-species competition. To test these hypotheses, we use Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Burkholderia cenocepacia (BC), two bacterial species naturally co-occurring in soil and human opportunistic infections. However, under standard laboratory conditions PA eradicates BC. We manipulated spatial structure by growing the bacteria in medium with varying viscosities. To manipulate within-species competition, we introduced a PA cheating mutant strain to cocultures. Under the iron limited conditions of our experiments, this mutant is able to exploit the iron scavenging siderophores secreted by the wildtype PA. Using a mixture of competition assays and experimental evolution, we found that spatial structure consistently inhibited species co-existence. Within-species competition, meanwhile, promoted co-existence in unstructured habitats, because it allowed cheats to efficiently exploit PA, which eased the competitive burden of PA on BC. Thus, we identified within-species competition as an important driver of long-term species coexistence. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL C 14

Experimental coevolution and the effects of parasite species co-infection on parasite virulence and fitness (51718) Suzanne Ford, Kayla King. University of Oxford. The simultaneous infection of a single host by multiple parasite strains and species, termed co-infection, is common in nature. Co-infecting parasites that share ecological niches within the host compete for space and resources in numerous ways. This competition is likely to impose selection on interacting parasites and as such could play a role in shaping host-parasite coevolutionary trajectories. Importantly, the degree to which co-infection affects the evolution of key parasite traits such as competitive ability and virulence is uncertain. In this project we experimentally coevolved two bacterial parasites, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, by serially co-infecting them within a non-evolving host organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. Firstly, we found that coevolved S aureus gained a significant competitive advantage under co-infection compared to singly evolved controls and became locally adapted in time to it’s competitor, E faecalis. Secondly, we found that parasite species co-infection significantly altered the evolved level of intrinsic virulence of both species compared to singly evolved controls. Together, our results support the hypothesis that parasite species co-infection could be a selective factor in the evolution of key parasite traits. This further suggests that interspecific interactions between parasites could play a role in shaping coevolutionary interactions between parasites and their hosts. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL C 14

Pathogen adaptation to individual and social host defences in ants (51808)

Miriam Stock, Anna V. Grasse, Sylvia Cremer. IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Austria. In co-evolving host-pathogen systems, both players undergo continuous adaptations. For social insect hosts, these include individual behavioural and immunological adaptations, and their collectively performed, social disease defences. We performed an evolution experiment testing for pathogen adaptation of an insect-pathogenic fungus to an ant host. A genetically diverse starting population of the pathogen – consisting of a mix of naturally co-occurring fungal strains isolated from the field – was let to adapt to the ants over 10 host passages under two different conditions: (1) a single host treatment, involving only the individual defences of the exposed ant, and (2) a social host treatment, in which the exposed ant was accompanied by nestmates, allowing for additional collective disease defences. Fungal diversity decreased drastically by competitive strain exclusion in both treatments, yet a greater variation remained among replicates in the social host treatment. Testing the evolved fungal lines from both treatments under both single and social rearing conditions revealed an effect of 'evolution history' on pathogen killing rate and transmission stage production, as well as on the induction of host sanitary behaviours. We conclude that the additional collective disease defences in insect societies add selection pressures on coevolving pathogens affecting their ability to adapt to the host at the group level. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 410 6

The social side of sex: Male/female coevolution and social plasticity affect reproductive patterns (53319) Suzanne Alonzo. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz. Extensive empirical and theoretical research has focused on understanding the diversity of reproductive patterns and behavioral interactions observed in nature. I have argued that considering both coevolutionary dynamics and social interactions can improve our ability to explain and predict this striking variation. In my talk, I will discuss why these dynamics are essential for understanding the evolution of male and female reproductive traits. I will first present the results of some general theory examining how social interactions affect evolutionary dynamics and discuss extensions of this theory to our understanding of specific reproductive behaviors. I will then present some data on how interactions between the sexes at mating and fertilization affect sexual selection, potentially driving the evolution of sperm allocation and paternal care in a Mediterranean fish (the ocellated wrasse, Symphodus ocellatus). Finally, I will discuss what these and other similar empirical patterns have to say about what theory and data are needed if we wish to improve our understanding of and capacity to predict the diversity of reproductive patterns observed in nature. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 410 6

Promiscuity modulates the male Bateman gradient in Drosophila melanogaster (51636) Juliano Morimoto, Grant C. McDonald, Tommaso Pizzari, Stuart Wigby. University of Oxford. Sexual selection favours genes that increase success in intra-sexual competition. In a classic study, Angus Bateman measured the association between the number of mates and offspring production (the “Bateman gradient”) and found that the gradient was more positive for males than for females, which Bateman interpreted as evidence for stronger intra-sexual competition in males. Although Bateman’s study has had a strong influence on the field of sexual selection – and the Bateman gradient is widely used to measure the strength of sexual selection – Bateman’s principles only address competition for mates (pre-copulatory sexual selection), thus ignoring the effects of differential fertilisation success. Here, we genetically manipulated mating frequency in female D. melanogaster and found that in populations with significantly increased promiscuity (i.e. both females and males have more sexual partners), the male Bateman gradient is significantly reduced whereas female Bateman gradients are unaffected (i.e. non-significantly positive). Our study complement Bateman’s paradigm by providing direct empirical evidence of the effects of promiscuity on pre- vs post-copulatory sexual selection in males. In addition, our study corroborates a central expectation in sexual selection field, namely that the main driver of sexual selection in males switches from pre-copulatory to post- copulatory in high promiscuous populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 410 6

Coalescence and genomics with linked selection in systems with bi- and uniparental reproduction: contrasting partial asexuality and selfing (53310) Aneil Agrawal. University of Toronto. Much of evolutionary genomic inference relies on coalescence but most previous theory assumes full sex (or haploidy). We have been integrating partial asexuality in diploids into the coalescent framework to understand how low rates of sex affects coalescence, especially in the presence of background and balancing selection. Low rates of sex greatly enhance background selection, thereby reducing effective population size, via both a recombination effect and a segregation effect. Total background selection tends to be stronger with partial asexuality than with selfing, but linked and unlinked loci contribute differently under these alternative reproductive systems. In contrast to background selection, balancing selection increases the coalescent time for a linked neutral site. With partial asexuality, the effects of balancing selection are increased via a recombination effect but reduced through a segregation effect. In contrast, with selfing, both recombination and segregation effects enhance the consequences of balancing selection. Finally, I will discuss these theoretical results with respect to the (preliminary) interpretation of our new population genomic data from a facultatively sexual plant, the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 410 6

Genetics of attractiveness and mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster (51690) Devin Arbuthnott, Daniel Promislow. University of Washington. The genetic and physiological control of mate choice and mate competition has broad implications for the evolution of sexually selected traits and mating systems. While particular mutations and manipulations of specific metabolic pathways have illustrated important regions of control for attractiveness and mate choice, little is known about the extent and nature of genetic variation for these traits in natural populations. We measured attractiveness and mate choice traits among the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to quantify variance and genetically map these traits. There was significant and substantial genetic variation in female attractiveness and male choosiness among these inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, we identified several significant genetic regions explaining this variance, including genes influencing growth and energy metabolism. However, there was no overlap in the regions influencing female attractiveness and male choosiness, nor was there any phenotypic correlation between these traits. Our work sheds light on the genetic control of sexually selected traits, which broadens our understanding of the evolution of sexual traits and its interaction with developmental pathways. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 410 6

Does sexual selection augment or oppose natural selection? (51715) Luke Holman. Australian National University. Sexual selection has been portrayed as both a friend and a foe of natural selection. The degree of alignment between natural and sexual selection is difficult to measure fully, yet has ramifications for diverse topics including conservation biology, the evolution of sex, and the speed of adaptation. Here, I discuss experiments measuring the effects of sexual selection on adaptation and naturally-selected fitness components in beetles. I first ask whether sexual selection helps to clear radiation-induced mutations that harm survival and fecundity. Next, I use experimental evolution to show that populations founded by polyandrous females are substantially fitter than those founded by singly mated females. Thirdly, I test whether sexual selection impedes or enhances the speed of adaptation to pesticide using experimental evolution. The experiments reaffirm that sexual selection can both help and harm targets of natural selection such as fecundity and survival, and highlight that sexual selection has a role to play in dispersal ecology and the evolution of resistance. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Session 1 MON MAX 410 6

Sexually transmitted infection and the evolution of serial monogamy (51732) David McLeod, Troy Day. Queens University. The selective forces shaping mating systems have long been of interest to biologists. One particular selective pressure that has received comparatively little attention is sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While it has been hypothesized that STIs could drive the evolutionary emergence of monogamy, there is little theoretical support. Here we use an evolutionary invasion analysis to determine what aspects of pathogen virulence and transmission are necessary for serial monogamy to evolve in a promiscuous population. We derive a biologically intuitive invasion condition in terms of population-specific quantities. From this condition, we obtain two main results. First, when pathogen virulence causes mortality rather than sterility, monogamy is more likely to evolve. Second, we find that at intermediate pathogen transmission rates, monogamy is the most selectively advantageous, whereas at high- and low-transmission rates, monogamy is generally selected against. As a result, it is possible for a pathogen to be highly virulent, yet for promiscuity to persist. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL D 34

Inversions as barriers to recombination and facilitators of speciation: Studies in Drosophila pseudoobscura/ D. persimilis (51934) Mohamed Noor, Katharine Korunes. Duke University. Many studies suggest that limiting recombination in species hybrids may facilitate the persistence of the hybridizing species. Chromosomal inversions, thought to have limited recombination/ gene flux in hybrids, exhibit greater nucleotide differentiation between species than uninverted regions, and inversions preferentially harbor factors associated with speciation-related traits. However, the effectiveness of inversions as barriers to gene flux has been inferred primarily from patterns in natural populations. This talk presents results obtained thus far attempting to measure reductions in gene flux associated with inversion heterozygosity directly in laboratory populations, and relates these findings to existing theoretical models on the role of inversions in speciation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL D 34

Genome divergence during early stage speciation with gene flow (51640) David A. Marques, Laurent Excoffier, Ole Seehausen.

Institute of Ecology & Evolution, University of Berne, Switzerland; Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. The number of speciation studies using population genomics approaches has increased quickly, yet few have compared replicate events of the same process with variation in geographical opportunity for gene flow between incipient species. We studied genome-wide differentiation among threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) lake and stream ecotypes that evolved in the last 150 years within the Lake Constance drainage system. We tested predictions of speciation with gene flow theory by comparing genomic differentiation between lake and stream ecotypes breeding in sympatry versus in parapatry. Consistent higher gene flow, we found fewer genomic islands of differentiation and lower genome-wide levels and heterogeneity of differentiation in the sympatric case. However, 15 genomic islands of differentiation resisting gene flow in sympatry showed parallel divergence and are thus candidate regions for adaptive divergence among lake and stream ecotypes. Interestingly, 12 of these islands cluster in a low-recombination region on chromosome VII. Furthermore, islands showed non-random overlap with many known quantitative trait loci, most of them controlling phenotypic traits divergent between Lake Constance ecotypes. The genomic colocalization of parallel differentiation, trait architecture and recombination landscape suggests that both divergent natural selection and the genomic arrangement of heritable traits are important in adaptation and early stage ecological speciation with ongoing gene flow. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL D 34

The multifarious histories charting the multifaceted landscapes of genomic differentiation (53342) Nicolas Bierne. University of Montpellier. One of the most striking and consistent results of genome-wide surveys of differentiation is the heterogeneity of differentiation across the genome, including highly differentiated regions, sometimes called “genomic islands of differentiation”. Several theories have been proposed to explain this pattern: (i) speciation with gene flow driven by local adaptation, (ii) background selection and hitchhiking in low recombining regions and (iii) variable persistence after secondary contact of differences accumulated in allopatry. I will first recall that the contrasted spatial structures between island and non-island genomic regions or the argument that adaptation to a new environment is recent, by no way can provide evidence for one or the other hypothesis. The history needs to be reconstructed from gene genealogies, and methods do not cease improving. It has recently become possible to account for genome-wide heterogeneity (GWH) in introgression rates or in effective population size. This has proven to have profound impacts on the biological conclusions drawn from the inference. We have applied these methods to a large RNAseq dataset of 70 pairs of taxa of animals that were not initially chosen to champion one or another model of speciation. We show that the existence of ongoing gene flow is robustly detected but the timing of gene-flow during divergence is difficult to infer, that GWH is widespread and needs to be accounted for, and initiate a

description of the relationship between divergence and genome porosity from this kind of analysis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL D 34

Evolution of genome differentiation across the speciation continuum: From patterns to mechanisms to regions related to species-specific evolution (51805) Reto Burri, Alexander Nater, Takeshi Kawakami, Carina F. Mugal, Pall I. Olason, Linnea Smeds, Alexander Suh, Dutoit Ludovic, Hans Ellegren. Uppsala University. Recent studies have documented distinct and widespread regions of elevated differentiation (‘differentiation islands’) across genomes, but it remains unclear how the differentiation landscape evolves as speciation advances, which processes drive the evolution of differentiation islands, and ultimately how differentiation islands are related to speciation. Based on 200 re-sequenced genomes from 10 populations of four Ficedula flycatcher sister species, we show that differentiation islands evolve in structured populations as the result of background selection and divergent selection in genomic regions of low recombination. The heterogeneous differentiation landscape starts emerging among populations within species, and evolves recurrently among independent lineages. Together with the absence of pervasive gene flow in this model system, this demonstrates that a heterogeneous landscape of differentiation is not a consequence of speciation. We show how accounting for the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous differentiation landscape using phylogenetic controls enables the identification of genome regions related to species-specific evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL D 34

Genome-wide tests for introgression between cactophilic Drosophila implicate a role of inversions during speciation (51823) Konrad Lohse, Magnus Clarke, Michael G. Ritchie, William J. Etges. University of Edinburgh; University of Sheffield; University of St. Andrews; University of Arkansas. Models of speciation-with-gene-flow have shown that the reduction in recombination between alternative chromosome arrangements can facilitate the fixation of locally adaptive genes in the face of gene flow and contribute to speciation. However, it has proven frustratingly difficult to show empirically that inversions have reduced gene flow and arose during or shortly after the onset of species divergence. We present an analysis of whole genome data from a pair of cactophilic fruit flies, Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae, which are reproductively isolated in the wild and differ by several large inversions on three chromosomes. We found an increase in divergence at rearranged compared to colinear chromosomes. Using the density of divergent sites in short sequence blocks we fit a series of

explicit models of species divergence in which gene flow is restricted to an initial period after divergence and may differ between colinear and rearranged parts of the genome. These analyses show that D. mojavensis and D. arizonae have experienced post- divergence gene flow which ceased around 270 KY ago and was significantly reduced in chromosomes with fixed inversions. Moreover, we show that these inversions most likely originated during or after the onset of species divergence as predicted by theoretical models of speciation with gene flow. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON POL D 34

Traversing the micro-evolution to macro-evolution boundary in Caenorhabditis nematodes with full-genome population genomics, crosses, and hybrid phenotypes (52010) Asher Cutter. University of Toronto. How do population processes translate into evolutionary divergence in genomes and development between species? We are applying full-genome sequencing of Caenorhabditis nematode individuals to characterize the influence of recombination, selection, and selfing vs. outbreeding life history on patterns of population variation and divergence between sister species. In the highly selfing C. briggsae, we find that long stretches of genetic linkage interact with selection to severely reduce genetic variation across much of the genome. This selection at linked sites also exerts its influence on genomic patterns of differentiation between divergent populations. Analysis is ongoing for the outbreeding, partially reproductively-isolated sister species C. remanei and C. latens, which are known to have enormous effective population sizes and extremely high densities of polymorphisms and so may permit exceptionally fine-scale resolution of selection in their genomes. Coupled with classic genetic crosses and recombinant strain libraries within and between species, we have mapped aspects phenotypic divergence and reproductive incompatibility with the goal of integrating this with inferences about contemporary selection pressure and functional mechanism. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 415 13

Linking patterns and processes across scales: a case study with Neotropical hummingbirds (53334) Catherine Graham. A fundamental challenge for ecology and evolution is connecting broad scale biogeographical and macro-evolutionary mechanisms with local scale patterns of diversity. Community phylogenetics attempts to create this link by evaluating patterns of relatedness, and often trait similarity, among co-occurring species at multiple sites to generate hypotheses about the role of different mechanisms governing community assembly. In Neotropical hummingbirds,

biogeographic studies show that closely related species co-occur less frequently than expected when compared to a species pool that considers environmental filtering or predicted species range overlaps. This pattern may result from limiting similarity and competitive exclusion of closely related species. However, traits that should influence these mechanisms are not highly conserved and community level analyses of phylogenetic and trait spacing does not always correspond. As a result, the precise role of limiting similarity and niche conservatism in influencing local assemblages is difficult to infer from biogeographic patterns alone. This is perhaps because competition occurs among individuals in local assemblages and cannot be deduced from broad-scale studies. In contrast, local scale studies often use manipulative experiments to evaluate how competition affects specific ecological processes. However, generalization of local scale studies across different assemblages or to broader geographic extents remains elusive. To address this scale mismatch we present an experiment which evaluates if hypotheses developed at biogeographic scales are consistent with local scale observations of competition in Neotropical hummingbirds. This study provides an initial link between patterns established by broad scale biogeography and mechanisms learned from local scale community ecology. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 415 13

Using low coverage multispecies genomic data to reconstruct the assembly of a widespread insect community (51821) Lynsey Bunnefeld, Jack Hearn, Konrad Lohse, Graham N. Stone. University of Edinburgh. Whether biologically widespread communities assemble through codispersal of associated lineages (host tracking) or local recruitment (ecological sorting) remains an open question. The answer is central to our understanding of the temporal and spatial scales of multispecies interactions such as coevolution. Sequence data has been used to understand the relationships of populations within species, but inference has usually been limited by the small numbers of loci analysed. While short read sequencing allows generation of data for very large numbers of loci, model-based inference has been limited by a lack of methods suitable for data processing and analysis beyond a handful of model organisms. We have developed an efficient maximum likelihood method that can use de novo low-coverage genome assemblies to fit explicit models of community history. We use our method to assess the evidence for host tracking and ecological sorting models during the assembly of a community of herbivorous gallwasps and parasitoid wasp natural enemies, each sampled from a longitudinal series of Pleistocene glacial refugia spanning the Western Palearctic. Our inference framework is extremely flexible, requires no prior genetic resources and can be extended to assess support for a wide range of demographic histories. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 415 13

Comparative population genomics for community-scale demographic inferences (53313)

Mike Hickerson. City University of New York. The historical dynamics and evolution of natural biological communities is critical for understanding how communities respond to invasions, extinctions and can shift with adaptive evolution associated with ongoing climate change. One approach to understanding how whole communities respond to changes in climate and landscape is to use data and methods from the dynamic and exploding field of population genomics. Inferences from population genomics can make detailed inference about the demographic and evolutionary history of a species and by making community-level inference using aggregated data across taxa, researchers can better understand how changes in climate and landscape can drive or destroy regional patterns of biodiversity as well as ask whether groups of presently co-occurring species tracked each other in space and time through cycles of global climate shifts. To illustrate an application of this approach, I present an inferential hierarchical model of multi-species demographic history that makes use of high density SNP data sampled from co-distributed species. As genomic data becomes routinely collected from non-model taxa, researchers will be able to better test hypotheses about the varied and/or parallel responses to climate and landscape changes that affected whole communities. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 415 13

Ecological correlation reinforcement facilitates collective community behaviours without group selection (51958) Daniel A. Power, Richard A. Watson, Eörs Száthmary. University of Southampton, Electronics & Computer Science; University of Southampton, Institute for Life Sciences/Electronics & Computer Science; The Parmenides Foundation, Center for the Conceptual Foundations of Science. Ecosystem population dynamics are shaped by evolution and coevolution amongst their component species. Adaptations to biotic and abiotic environments modify interactions between community members, but we currently lack a framework that predicts how evolutionary responses of community members impact ecosystem properties including stability, resilience, susceptibility to invasion and regime shifts. We use Lotka-Volterra simulations to demonstrate how past events shape communities’ collective behaviours. We show that ecological character displacement, operating strongest where species interact at highest densities: i) Results in systems more resilient to invasion compared with communities with shorter shared histories, and that members of coevolved communities are better able to facilitate one another’s invasion into other ecosystems (invasional meltdown). ii) Provides systems with the potential to learn underlying environmental structure which, when correctly learned, results in greater system biomass and resilience. iii) Enables ecosystems to learn multiple environmental states, and to store a distinct memory of each of these states (alternative stable states). These complex system-level behaviours are not resultant from group selection processes, but arise only from selective pressures reinforcing correlations between community members.

Crucially, we recognise that this pattern of correlation learning is already well understood in connectionist models of learning, where simple reinforcement of connections produces networks with non-trivial collective behaviours. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 MON MAX 415 13

Ecological novelty may facilitate hom*oploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish (52437) Oliver Martin Selz, Ole Seehausen. Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, EAWAG,; Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern. Because hom*oploid hybrids are usually occurring within the range of the parental species, a central challenge to the concept of hybrid speciation is understanding how hybrids can persist in sympatry with their parental species. Persistence within the range of the parents is possible if the hybrid species inherit ecological traits that allow them to occupy a novel ecological niche, thereby allowing the lineage to escape competition from both parental species. Here, we investigate experimentally if novel feeding efficiencies can arise in synthetic first-generation hybrids that could make hybrids superior in ecological niches that neither of the parent species is adapted to. We generated two first-generation hybrid crosses between different species of African cichlid fish. In feeding efficiency experiments we determined the performance of the hybrids and their parental species on food types representing the niches of the parental species and on other “novel” food types that represent niches of other species of cichlids in African lakes. We found that hybridization can result in higher feeding efficiency of the hybrids on novel food types when compared to either parent taxon. These results suggest that hybridization can generate novel phenotypic variation that might allow hybrids to escape competition from the parental species, thereby promoting ecological hybrid speciation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN C 3

Beetles, Birds, Snakes & Flies: The Diversity of Sex Chromosomes and their Evolution (53361) Doris Bachtrog. In many species with separate sexes, gender is determined by heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in both plants and animals from ordinary chromosomes, but little is known about the evolutionary forces driving their differentiation. I will discuss how the study of diverse types of sex chromosomes, ranging

from beetles to birds, snakes and flies, has allowed us to make progress in understanding the diverse mechanisms that drive the evolution of sex chromosomes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN C 3

Interactions Between A Master Regulator Of Sex Determination And Haploid Sex Chromosomes In The Evolution Of Dimorphic Sexes (53315) James Umen, Ayano Miyagi, Takashi Hamaji, Sa Geng. Donald Danforth Plant Science Center. Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and eggproducing females. We recently found that a single conserved mating locus (MT) gene in volvocine algae—MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor—evolved from its ancestral role in Chlamydomonas as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in Volvox. Transgenic Volvox females expressing MID produce functional sperm packets while transgenic male Volvox with RNAi-mediated knockdowans of MID produce functional eggs or self-fertile hermaphrodites.Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncouple sex determination from sex chromosome identity and reveal roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Together these findings suggest the emergence of antagonistic interactions between genes in the male and female sex chromosomes of Volvox. We have begun to elucidate the genetic networks controlled by Chlamydomonas MID (CrMID) and Volvox MID (VcMID) in order to understand how this transcription factor and its targets evolved in the transition from mating types to sexes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN C 3

Baby sex chromosomes in the housefly (51681) Leo W Beukeboom, Daniel Bopp, Ernst Wimmer, Louis van de Zande, Akash Sharma, Yanli Wu, Martijn Schenkel, Sander Visser, Ljubinka Francuski. University of Groningen; University of Zurich; University of Goettingen; Univeristy of Novi Sad. Sex chromosomes carry gender specific sex determining genes. Several stages can be distinguished in the evolution of sex chromosomes, from origin, via molecular evolution as a result of the sex determination function, to degeneration following recombination suppression. We study the dynamic and polymorphic sex determination system of the housefly, Musca domestica. The standard system is XX-XY with a male determiner (M) on the Y chromosome, rendering it a male-determining chromosome. However, M-factors can

also be present on any of the five autosomes and as a result modify such chromosomes into neo-sex (Y) chromosomes. In addition, autosome 4 can carry a dominant female determiner (F), modifying it in a female determining sex chromosome, and a ZZ-ZW system. We provide data on the nature of the female and male determining genes. Recent transposition events of male determining genes over the genome has resulted in new sex chromosomes that are in the very initial stages of differentiation (hence “baby” sex chromosomes). Here we present how we use this unique system to test theories about sex chromosome evolution and to investigate the genomic processes that act during the early stages of differentiation into male and female determining sex chromosomes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN C 3

Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts and the evolution of sex determination in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare (51902) Sébastien Leclercq, Julien Thézé, Isabelle Giraud, Mohamed Chebbi, Bouziane Moumen, Lise Ernenwein, Pierre Grève, Clément Gilbert, Richard Cordaux. CNRS / Universite de Poitiers. In the isopod Armadillidium vulgare, sex determination (SD) follows female heterogamety (ZZ males and ZW females). However, many A. vulgare populations harbor maternallyinherited Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts which can convert genetic males into phenotypic females, leading to populations with female-biased sex ratios. The W sex chromosome has been lost in lines infected by Wolbachia and all individuals are genetic males. Female sex is determined by Wolbachia infection of the A. vulgare individual, thereby shifting from chromosomal to cytoplasmic SD. Surprisingly, some A. vulgare lines exhibit sex ratio biases despite the lack of Wolbachia. In these lines, female individuals are genetic males carrying an unknown feminizing factor. To elucidate the genetic basis of female SD in these lines, we sequenced the genome of a female. We identified a large piece of the Wolbachia genome transferred to the A. vulgare nuclear genome. The transferred genomic fragment co-segregates perfectly with female sex in pedigrees. Our results indicate that SD in these A. vulgare lines is under control of nuclear gene(s) of bacterial origin. More generally, they emphasize that bacterial endosymbionts are powerful sources of evolutionary novelty, e.g. by driving shifts in SD mechanisms in their animal hosts. Funded by an ERC Grant to RC. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN C 3

Why are there so many species with Y-autosome fusions? (51913) Jun Kitano, Matthew Pennell, Mark Kirkpatrick, Sarah Otto, Jana Vamosi, Catherine Peichel. National Institute of Genetics; University of Idaho; University of Texas, Austin; University of British Columbia; University of Calgary; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Sex chromosomes turn over rapidly in some taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms causing the turnover of sex chromosome is a chromosomal fusion between a sex chromosome and an autosome. We estimate the rate at which fusions establish between sex chromosomes and autosomes through phylogenetic analyses of fishes and reptiles. Both the incidence among extant species and the establishment rate of Y-autosome fusions is much higher than for X-autosome, Z-autosome, or W-autosome fusions. Our theoretical analysis showed that the excess of Y-autosome fusions can be explained by (i) fixation of deleterious fusion by drift under the conditions of male-biased origination rates or male-biased variance in reproductive success, (ii) sexually antagonistic selection under the conditions of male-biased origination rates, and (iii) female meiotic drive against fusions. Because some of these evolutionary forces would also affect autosome-autosome fusions, further studies on the driving forces of sex chromosome-autosome fusions will give insight into the mechanisms causing not only sex chromosome turnover, but also karyotypic evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 410 21

The Evolution of Epigenetic Inheritance (53348) Eva Jablonka. The Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas; The SagolTel-Aviv University. Epigenetic inheritance has many direct and indirect evolutionary effects, and it is likely that these are reflected in the evolved mechanisms underlying it. I therefore start with an overview of the effects of epigenetic inheritance on adaptive evolution, speciation, and the major evolutionary transitions. I then present existing models that explore the effects of ontogenetic epigenetic inheritance on evolutionary change, discuss different types of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (somatic and gametic), and examine ideas about the environmental conditions that can lead to the evolution of trans-generational plasticity. I suggest that the diversity of selection regimes may explain the diversity of epigenetic mechanisms that are involved in trans-generational plasticity and metaplasticity. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 410 21

How does plasticity influence adaptive evolution? (53341) Cameron Ghalambor. Colorado State University. A fundamental unresolved question in evolutionary biology is how patterns of plasticity observed within a generation influence evolutionary changes across generations. New environments, such as those encountered during colonization events or those generated by human activities, are likely to induce a range of both adaptive and non-adaptive plastic responses, thus providing an opportunity to test the relationship between initially plastic

responses and subsequent evolutionary change. We experimentally transplanted Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) adapted to a stream with cichlid predators to cichlid free streams, and tested if plasticity in the source population predicted evolutionary change in the transplanted populations. We measured a suite of traits, including gene expression, body shape, growth rate, and metabolism. We found evidence for both adaptive and non-adaptive plastic responses in the source population and rapid evolution of traits and their plasticity in the experimental population. Traits exhibiting non-adaptive plasticity (i.e. a plastic response in the opposite direction favored by selection) diverged from the source population more rapidly. These results suggest traits exhibiting non-adaptive plasticity in new environments are likely to experience stronger directional selection and evolve more rapidly compared to traits exhibiting adaptive plasticity. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 410 21

An evolutionary model of maternal effects (51650) Rebecca Hoyle, Bram Kuijper. University of Southampton; UCL. Theory suggests that maternal effects can have substantial impact on the evolutionary process. However current models typically treat maternal effects as evolutionarily constant parameters. In order to glean insight into how maternal effects themselves are shaped by evolution, we present a quantitative genetics model that captures the interacting evolutionary dynamics of both maternal effects and within-generation phenotypic plasticity. In constant environments, we find that maternal effects evolve to slightly negative values that reduce phenotypic variance in the population. By contrast, in the wake of an extreme environmental shift, they evolve to large positive values over ten to a hundred generations. These transient positive values allow offspring to rapidly adopt beneficial phenotypes that are closer to the new optimum. Once this new optimum has been reached through within-generation plasticity and genetic assimilation, maternal effects drift back towards negative values where they eventually settle. Lastly, in cyclically fluctuating (e.g. seasonal) environments, maternal effects often evolve to positive values when fluctuations are slow, whereas negative maternal effects dominate for faster cycles. We find that cyclical environments favour weak maternal effects unless selection on the overall phenotype is strong and the efficacy of withingeneration phenotypic plasticity is constrained through costs or informational timelags. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 410 21

Paternal heat exposure causes immediate and inherited epigenetic response in Wild guinea pigs (51721) Alexandra Weyrich, Dorina Lenz, Marie Jeschek, Tzu Hung Chung, Felix Heeger, Kathrin Rübensam, Frank Goeritz, Katrina Jewgenow, Jorns Fickel.

Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research; Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research; Zymoresearch, EpiQuest, Irvine, CA 92614, USA.. Epigenetic modifications, of which DNA methylation is the best studied one, are a mechanism to convey environmental information through generations via parental germ lines. The majority of studies have focused on the maternal transmission of epigenetic information to the offspring, whereas the paternal role in transgenerational transmission has received little attention. Here we show that exposure to a temporally increase in ambient temperature led to changes in DNA methylation patterns in exposed males and were transmitted to their male offspring. Five F0 adult male guinea pigs, a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous mammal species, were exposed to an increase in ambient temperature for two months. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing revealed differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in liver samples of F0 fathers before and after heat treatment, as well as in liver and testes of F1 sons sired before and after heat treatment. Since testicular methylation changes imply transmission to the F2 generation, exposure of fathers to increased temperature resulted in rapid and heritable epigenetic modifications that were transmitted paternally. In the context of climate change this mechanism is increasingly relevant for the survival of exposed populations with rising global temperatures. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 410 21

Genome methylation patterns across castes and generations in a parasitoid wasp (51740) Roei Shaham, Tamar Keasar, Rachel Ben Shlomo. University of Haifa - Oranim. Environmental influences play a crucial role in shaping phenotypes within and across generations. In vertebrates, these influences often involve epigenetic modification of gene expression through DNA methylation. Modifications of methylation patterns also mediate caste and task allocation in eusocial insects. However, the effects of parental environment on DNA methylation in offspring are yet unknown in insects. We looked for within- and between-generation variability in methylation in the polyembryonic parasitoid wasp Copidosoma koehleri, which also features a unique simple caste system. To study within-generation effects, we tested for methylation differences between reproductive and soldier clone-member larvae. To explore between-generation effects, we exposed larvae to either high or low rearing densities. We compared methylation in their offspring at three developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults). Methylation rates and patterns were characterized using the methylation-sensitive amplified fragments length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) method. DNA methylation patterns differed significantly between soldier and reproductive larvae, although frequencies of methylated fragments were similar across castes (~20%). Parental rearing density did not affect methylation rates and patterns in their offspring in any of the developmental stages. Thus, DNA methylation is associated with within-generation (caste) phenotypic variation, but we found no evidence for its involvement in trans-generational epigenetic effects.

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Region-specific selection on floral signals in a terrestrial orchid (52200) Karin Gross, Florian P Schiestl. University of Zürich. Geographically structured phenotypic selection can lead to adaptive divergence. In flowering plants, the link between selection and trait divergence has been shown for flower morphology, but not yet for floral signals, despite their importance for pollinator attraction. In this study, we measured phenotypic selection on display size, floral color, and floral scent in four lowland and four mountain populations of the nectar-rewarding orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima. We also quantified differences in these traits and in pollinator-community composition. Our results show positive selection on display size and positive, negative, or absence of selection on different scent compounds. Selection on the main scent compounds was consistently stronger in the lowlands than the mountains in two years, and lowland plants emitted more of most of these compounds. Pollinator-community also differed among regions. We also found an association between population differences in some scent compounds and the respective differences in selection on them. Moreover, selection on floral scent was more variable than selection on display size, and scent emission was also more variable than display size. Overall, our study is the first to document consistent regional differences in selection on floral scent, and suggests this selection pattern contributes to population divergence in floral chemical signaling. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL A 28

Selection and real-time evolution of floral traits in plants with different pollinators (52209) Daniel Gervasi, Florian P Schiestl. University of Zürich. Selection mediated through pollinators plays a key role in floral adaptation and reproductive isolation in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate pollinator-driven selection by experimentally changing pollinator environments. Specifically we investigate the effects of different pollinators on the evolution of floral traits and plant reproductive success. We use Brassica rapa (Wisconsin rapid cycling) as model plant and the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, and the hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus as pollinators. In our study we found that bumblebees and hoverflies differ in the selection they impose on floral traits. The strength of selection on the floral traits also varies significantly between the two pollinators. We observed strong positive selection on plant height and flower number in bumblebees while hoverflies imposed no selection on these traits. In terms of evolutionary response we observed in bumblebeevisited plants an increase in plant height and flower number. Additionally, bumblebee pollinated plants had a significantly higher reproductive success than hoverfly pollinated

plants. After 7 generations hoverfly-pollinated plants showed a significant increase in reproductive success indicating adaptations to this type of pollinators have evolved. This study thus shows for the first time the effects of changing pollinators on plant evolution in an experimental approach over several generations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL A 28

Over-dominance and adaptive gene duplications (52262) Pascal Milesi, Mylène Weill, Pierrick Labbé. Institut des sciences de l'évolution; CNRS; Université de Montpellier. For 40+ years, organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) have been used to control Culex pipiens mosquito populations. A punctual mutation of the ace-1 gene conferring resistance was rapidly selected for, despite the strong selective cost it induces. As a consequence, selection is environment-dependent: susceptible hom*ozygotes are selected in the untreated areas, whereas resistant hom*ozygotes are selected in the treated ones. Nevertheless, with intermediate selection intensities, e.g. in a fluctuating or structured environment, heterozygotes with intermediate advantage and cost could be the fittest, i.e. marginal over-dominance. In the last 20 years, gene duplications at the ace-1 locus invaded C. pipiens natural populations. They associate on a same chromosome a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1, and recent study showed that they confer a phenotype similar to standard heterozygotes. It was thus suggested that these duplications were selected because they alleviate the heterozygote segregation cost, thereby allowing fixation of the over-dominant phenotype. We tested this over-dominance hypothesis and its relation to insecticide dose, i.e. selective pressure intensity. Our results show that selective pressure heterogeneity can play a key role in the emergence of adaptive gene duplications. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL A 28

Temporal fluctuation in the phenotypic optimum of laying date in a wild Blue tit population (52355) Pascal Marrot, Dany Garant, Charmantier Anne. Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive; Université de Sherbrooke. Understanding the role of temporal fluctuations in natural selection in maintaining phenotypic variance in natural populations is central in evolutionary ecology. Temporal fluctuation of natural selection is generally estimated by comparing annual selection gradients, which represent the slope of the fitness landscape. However, such variation in selection gradients does not necessarily reflect variation in the fitness-trait relationship, but can be caused by changes in the extent of phenotypic variance present under genetic drift. In this context, it

could be more informative to investigate temporal variation in the phenotypic optimum on the fitness landscape rather than in selection gradients. Here, we apply a model recently developed by Chevin & Haller (2014) to explore temporal variation and temporal autocorrelation in the phenotypic optimum for laying date using a 23 year blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) data set. Our results show that the phenotypic optimum varied between years and followed a negative temporal autocorrelation pattern. This result suggest that selection pressures within a given year cannot be predicted from selection pressures observed during the previous year, which emphasizes the variability of selection pressures across years. Moreover, this model allows us to investigate the relationship between temporal variation in phenotypic optimum and environmental covariables such as spring temperature or precipitation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL A 28

THERE IS MORE TO POLLINATOR-MEDIATED SELECTION THAN POLLEN LIMITATION: INTERACTION INTENSITY VERSUS FUNCTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE (52367) Nina Sletvold, Jon Ågren. Uppsala University. Spatial variation in pollinator-mediated selection (Δβpoll) is a major driver of floral evolution, but we lack a quantitative understanding of its link to pollen limitation and net selection on floral traits. To determine whether Δβpoll is positively related to pollen limitation and whether differences in the magnitude of Δβpoll can explain spatio-temporal variation in net selection, we quantified Δβpoll on floral traits for 2-5 years in two populations each of two orchid species differing in pollen limitation. In both species, Δβpoll varied among years and populations, and spatio-temporal variation in Δβpoll explained much of the variation in net selection. Selection was consistently stronger and the proportion that was pollinator-mediated was higher in the severely pollen-limited deceptive species than in the rewarding species. Within species, variation in pollen limitation could not explain variation in Δβpoll for any trait, indicating that factors influencing the functional relationship between trait variation and pollination success govern a major part of the observed variation in Δβpoll. Separating the effects of variation in mean interaction intensity and in the functional significance of traits will be necessary to understand spatio-temporal variation in selection exerted by the biotic environment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL A 28

Local adaptation is prevented along patchy ecological gradients (52510) Jon Bridle, Roger Butlin. University of Bristol; University of Sheffield.

Population genetic models of evolution along spatial gradients in selection cannot explain why species have finite geographical distributions and narrow niches. Unless gradients in population density are imposed by locally varying carrying capacity, gene flow helps rather than hinders local adaptation, provided the standing genetic variance it generates does not impose too much of a demographic cost. Continuous evolutionary models therefore either generate extinction or adaptation everywhere, instead of the finite distributions that are ubiquitous in nature and that define biological communities. We use individual-based simulations to explore how non-linear ecological gradients affect local adaptation by varying gene flow and overall carrying capacity along: (1) a steepening ecological gradient and (2) a linear ecological gradient with a flat centre of variable width. We find that adaptation is prevented along non-linear gradients because populations within flat regions escape the demographic load generated by gene flow elsewhere. These flat regions can prevent adaptation even when remarkably narrow relative to mean dispersal. At the same time however, patchy gradients make population establishment easier, and prevent global extinction. We discuss our results in the light of our empirical work on evolutionary responses to climate change in the UK butterfly Aricia agestis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL B 20

Genomics of local adaptation in the face of high gene flow (52868) Outi Savolainen, Timo Knürr, Sonja Kujala, Jaakko Tyrmi, Katri Kärkkkäinen, Tanja Pyhäjärvi. University of Oulu; Luke Natural Resources Center Finland. Populations of many species with high gene flow have little differentiation across much of the genome, but can still be highly differentiated for phenotypic traits related to local adaptation. Scots pine and many other forest trees show this kind of patterns of variation. In common garden experiments, northern Scots pine seedlings set bud much earlier than southern ones, an important adaptive difference. Analysing selection in common garden tests at different latitudes, we found a cline in the optima over latitudes, and within individual populations, strong stabilizing selection on the timing of bud set. The strength of selection varied between sites at different latitudes. Further, we examined clines of nucleotide variation across European wide sampling, using limited SNP genotyping and exome sequencing. The results are compared to predictions of models of clinal selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL B 20

Variation and selection of genes controlling ecologically important traits in nature (53317) Thomas Mitchell-Olds, Nadeesha Perera, Julius Mojica, Lauren Carley, C. Olson-Manning, J. Anderson, C-R Lee. Duke University; University of Chicago; University of Georgia; Gregor Mendel Institute.

Although many studies provide examples of evolutionary processes such as balancing selection or deleterious polymorphism, the relative importance of these processes for phenotypic variation is unclear. To understand the evolutionary forces that influence complex trait variation in a wild relative of Arabidopsis, we cloned an ecologically important QTL in natural populations and measured the fitness of alleles in the populations where they evolved. Ecological measurements of selection indicate that this polymorphism is influenced by spatially heterogeneous natural selection, with changes in rank fitness across environments. Next, we examined the relationship between flux and protein polymorphism in this pathway, showing that flux control is focused in the first enzymatic step, encoded by a gene experiencing selective diversification in several related species. Finally, to identify the genes responsible for ecologically important trait variation in nature, we are conducting a GenomeWide Association Study (GWAS) on a panel of reference genotypes from 500 populations across the species range. For these accessions we combine data from genome-wide resequencing and genotyping by sequencing, as well as trait variation for defensive chemistry, resistance to multiple herbivores, flowering time, and complex traits in lab and field. Implications for ecological genomics will be discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL B 20

Genetic variance associated with overwintering adaptation in a butterfly. (51641) Peter Pruisscher, Christopher Wheat, Karl Gotthard. Stockholm University. Diapause is a pre-programmed state of arrested development in insects that is a crucial part of life cycle regulation. Many species induce diapause depending upon environmental conditions, allowing for either continuous development during optimal conditions (summer) or diapause (overwintering). This adaptation to seasonal stress is primarily triggered by photoperiod and temperature. The propensity of populations to enter diapause in response to a given light/dark regime shows strong adaptive clines along environmental gradients. Diapause is a complex multi-locus trait incorporating cold-tolerance, immunity and growth patterns, suggesting that many loci are likely involved. Here we scan the genome of divergent populations of the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria, as well as data from F1 and F2 crosses, to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying diapause. Our analysis identifies a range of high quality candidate loci known to be involved in diapause in other species [e.g. clock genes, heat-shock proteins]. Furthermore, prime candidates, such as the gene Timeless, show nonsynonymous substitutions fixed between the divergent populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL B 20

Experimental evidence for mitochondrial genomic adaptation to climate (51932) M. Florencia Camus, Carla M. Sgrò, Jonci N. Wolff, Damian K. Dowling.

Monash University. Mitochondria are key components of cellular metabolic processing, providing most of the cellular energy required for survival. It was traditionally thought that the mitochondrial genome exhibits very limited capacity to respond adaptively to natural selection. However, thermal sensitivity of mitochondrial functioning, coupled with the observation that mitochondrial haplotype frequencies tend to associate with latitude or altitude, suggests that thermal selection may play a role in shaping the molecular architecture of the mitochondrial DNA. Here, we present experimental support for this contention. We describe two major mitochondrial haplotypes in Drosophila melanogaster, which exhibit opposing patterns of clinal variation along the Australian eastern seaboard and are delineated by 15 synonymous SNPs. We extracted each of these haplotypes from two opposing populations and introgressed them into a single isogenic nuclear background. After assaying each population for thermal tolerance we found the northern haplotype confers greater heat resistance. The underlying SNPs involved in this phenotypic response lie unambiguously in the mitochondrial genome, and are hypothesized to affect the level of codon bias. Thus, we have uncovered a new-found role for SNPs that were previously considered to be completely non-functional, inside a genome that was likewise traditionally considered to be devoid of functional segregating allelic variation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL B 20

Origin, history and local adaptation of the recent polyploid Capsella bursapastoris (51946) Martin Lascoux, Amandine Cornille, Adriana Salcedo, Dmytro Kryvokhyzha, Karl Holm, Ulf Lagercrantz, Sylvain Glémin, Stephen Wright. Uppsala University; University of Toronto. It took more than 80 years, since George Shull started to use Capsella bursa-pastoris as a model species for the study of Mendelian genetics, to decipher the origin of the species. It took as long to start to unravel its demographic history and to estimate the nature and extent of the natural selection it went through as it colonized the world. The analysis of full genomes shows that Capsella bursa-pastoris is an allotetraploid of the self-incompatible C. grandiflora and the self-compatible C. orientalis. It also indicates that polyploidization was accompanied by relaxed selection but rather limited gene loss. As shown by the genotyping of 260 accessions from Europe, the Middle East and Asia, the species is today made up of clearly delineated genetic clusters corresponding to these three areas. The species likely originate in Western Eurasia from which it later on spread eastwards. Clear differences in gene expression were detected among 24 accessions originating from these three clusters but a contrast analysis also suggest that those differences may simply reflect the demographic history of the species and may not be adaptive. Finally, three common garden experiments of the 260 accessions located in Uppsala, Toronto and Guangzhou are currently under analysis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL B 20

The genomics of avian breeding time – an ecologically relevant trait for adaptation to climate change (51982) Phillip Gienapp, Mario P.L. Calus, Veronika N. Laine, Kees van Oers, Martien A.M. Groenen, Jon Slate, Marcel E. Visser. Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology; Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen UR; Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield. Climate change has led to selection on phenological traits such as avian seasonal breeding time and hence evolutionary rescue will be necessary to ensure population persistence in the long-term. Numerous quantitative genetic studies in wild populations have shown that avian seasonal breeding time is heritable, yet no study could show the expected evolutionary change. One possible explanation for this ‘evolutionary stasis’ is that heritability estimates are inflated by environmental conditions shared among relatives. A good understanding of the genetics of avian breeding time is thus crucial to predict whether this trait can respond to selection. We here explored the genomic basis of avian seasonal breeding time in a wild bird species, the great tit, using our recently assembled and annotated whole genome sequence and high-density SNP-chip of this bird species. We genotyped 2000 individuals with known egglaying dates from our long-term study population on a 675k SNP-chip and identified genomic regions related to breeding time using both QTL-mapping and by quantifying locus-specific allele-substitution effects using a genomic-breeding approach. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL C 11

Defence heterogeneity under the double-edged sword of mammalian immunity (53314) Andrea L. Graham. Princeton University. To mitigate the effects of infection on fitness, hosts must minimize the costs of both parasitism and defence. This may entail clearing parasites, but it may be even more important for hosts to repair tissue damage caused by parasites and by immune effectors. Hosts may also need to maintain physiological homeostasis while mitigating energetic costs. Striking an optimal balance amongst these competing physiological demands is a dynamic problem. For example, the optimal strategy may vary with age, condition, risk of parasite exposure and/or availability of resources in the environment. To what extent can mammalian hosts match their defensive stance to environment? Must competing demands be met simultaneously or are sequential solutions possible – e.g., to kill parasites rapidly then shift to a damage- and energy-reduction strategy later, or, conversely, to tolerate parasites up to a threshold and resist them thereafter? Indeed, how much of defence heterogeneity, including varied susceptibility to autoimmune disease, can be understood in light of this multivariate physiology? I will address these questions using immunological, nutritional and histopathological evidence from both wild mammals and human cohorts.

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Balancing selection and convergent evolution in an antimicrobial peptide (53316) Brian P. Lazzaro, Robert L. Unckless, Virginia M. Howick. Cornell University, USA. Conventional thinking has been that antibacterial peptides (AMPs) are functionally redundant and evolutionarily dispensable at the individual gene level. In Drosophila, this inference has been drawn from observations that antibacterial peptide genes show low rates of amino acid divergence between species and high rates of genomic duplication and deletion, and that genetic variation in individual AMP genes makes little or no contribution to organism-level defense phenotypes. However, we identified a serine/arginine polymorphism in the Diptericin A gene of Drosophila melanogaster that is highly predictive of resistance to specific bacterial infections. The same amino acid polymorphism is segregating in the Diptericin A gene of the sister species D. simulans, with equivalent phenotypic effect and having arisen convergently by independent mutation of the hom*ologous codon. Examination of the larger Drosophila phylogeny reveals that the arginine mutation has arisen independently at least 5 times in the genus. These observation prompted us to revist the molecular evolution of other antibacterial peptide genes and we find that molecular convergence and shared interspecific polymorphism are surprisingly common. We additionally have found multiple loss-of-function mutations, which cause high susceptibility to infection in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We have reevaluated the previously supposed mode of evolution of Diptericin and other antibacterial peptide genes, and now favor the hypothesis that AMP genes evolve under a model where the selection pressure favoring alterative amino acid states fluctuates over time and space. The frequent incidence of loss-of-function alleles in nature suggests that AMP function in immune defense is balanced by deleterious consequences in the absence of infection, and serial pseudogenization and duplication-subfunctionalization may explain the rapid gene family dynamics. Since previous screens for molecular adaptation have explicitly tested for adaptive divergence, these would have failed to detect convergent or balanced mutations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL C 11

Genome wide analysis of selection in immune genes within and among butterfly populations (51667) Naomi Keehnen, Chris Wheat. Stockholm University. Insects are one of the most diverse clades of life on earth. Located in nearly every corner of Earth, they are exposed to a wide variety of pathogens. As populations adapt to their local environment some modifications to their immune system are expected to occur. While the genes encoding for immune responses have been identified and studied in several insect

species, little work has focused upon non-model species originating from natural populations. Furthermore, it is unknown which part of the immune defense modules (recognition, signaling, and the effectors) shows most genetic variation within and between species. Here we focus upon the ecological model species, the Green Veined White (Pieris napi) and Speckled Wood (Parage aegeria). They are common and widespread, with limited gene flow between populations. We have identified many of the immune genes in both butterfly genomes using orthologous blast searches and RNA-Seq analysis of individuals infected with either gram-negative (E. coli) or gram positive bacteria (M. luteus). Genomic scans of these immune genes indicate signatures of local adaptation and reveal significant differences in diversity among the immune defense modules. These findings could explain the observed variation in immune responses within and between butterfly species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL C 11

Functional variation at innate immune loci in the Seychelles warbler (51755) Danielle Gilroy. University of East Anglia. Understanding the relative roles of different evolutionary forces in shaping genetic variation within a population is a key focus in evolutionary biology. Moreover, understanding the levels and distribution of functional genetic variation in bottlenecked populations has great importance to conservation. The Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) is an endemic passerine that went through a severe population bottleneck in its recent past and we investigated whether variation has been maintained within two innate gene groups, avian betadefensins (AvBDs) and toll-like receptor genes (TLRs). We also examine these genes in several other Acrocephalus species, revealing very different selection regimes for the two gene groups within the Seychelles warbler and across the genus. All six AvBD loci were monomorphic in the contemporary population of Seychelles warbler and five out of seven TLR loci were polymorphic. By using population genetic statistical tests and simulation studies, we show that founder effects have reduced levels of variation at TLRs, but balancing selection has indeed maintained some functional variation at five of the loci. Furthermore, a cohort analysis of TLR15, examined allele-specific associations with survival and malaria infection that enabled us to better understand whether pathogen-mediated selection could potentially be the underlying balancing selective force in this population. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL C 11

Genetics of natural variation of Daphnia magna resistance to a bacterial pathogen (51867) Gilberto Bento, Jarkko Routtu, Yann Bourgeois, Dieter Ebert. University of Basel.

Daphnia magna is a model for ecology and evolution, in particular, for host-pathogen coevolution. D. magna is infected by the bacterium Pateuria ramosa with severe deleterious fitness consequences. We investigate the D. magna-P. ramosa system for the genetic and molecular basis of natural variation in host resistance. Specificity in genotype-to-genotype interactions was previously reported. In addition, using a D. magna F2 panel, it was found that one QTL (locus A) explains variation in host resistance to one P. ramosa genotype, C19. We found that one exceptionally large insertion-deletion polymorphism (~50 kb) underlies locus A. Next, we found that variation in locus A is associated to a combination of resistance to P. ramosa C1 and susceptibility to C19 throughout a genetically and phenotypically diverse D. magna meta-population. Our results are consistent with the D. magna-P. ramosa relationship evolving by negative frequency dependent selection. We are currently investigating which specific genes located in locus A are responsible for the phenotypes observed. For that we are using a technique of directed genome editing, CRISPR/Cas9, that was recently established for Daphnia magna. We expect to knockdown candidate genes, and to establish functional relationship between gene and host resistance. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL C 11

Experimental evolution of host specificity by comparing single and multiple infections (51918) Rebecca D Schulte, Joy Bose, Michaela H Kloesener. University Osnabrueck. Host-parasite coevolution is considered as one of the main drivers of evolution since it requires continuous adaptation and counter-adaptation of both antagonists. However, hostadaptation towards specific parasites often entails a loss of adaptation towards other parasites. Evolution of host defence should thus depend on the parasites they encounter and coevolve with, and should result in diversification between populations. We studied adaptation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to its microparasite Bacillus thuringiensis using experimental evolution. Specifically, hosts coevolved either with one parasite strain or with a mix of two strains. We found that hosts evolving with one parasite strain evolve defence against it, but loose defence against an unknown parasite strain, i.e. they evolve specificity. Hosts evolving with two strains simultaneously show intermediate levels of survival when encountering only one strain, but survive better with a combination of both strains compared to hosts which evolved with one strain only. This indicates adaptation trade-offs, i.e. hosts cannot be well adapted to two strains at the same time. Our results show that parasites select for diversification between as well as for diversification within host populations depending on the parasite communities they encounter and thus support the role of parasites for diversification and speciation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 415 30

The thin line between conformational freedom and anarchy - negative epistasis and evolvability in TEM-1 beta-lactamase (53309)

Dan Tawfik. Weizmann Institute of Science. Epistasis is a key factor in evolution, since it determines which combinations of alleles provide adaptive solutions and which mutational pathways towards these solutions are accessible by natural selection. There is growing evidence for the pervasiveness of sign epistasis, particularly in protein evolution, yet its molecular basis remains poorly understood. I will describe the structural basis of reciprocal sign epistasis between two adaptive mutations in the antibiotic-resistance enzyme TEM-1 b-lactamase, G238S and R164S. Separated by 10Å, these mutations initiate two trajectories towards increased resistance. Both mutations allow the enzyme’s active-site to adopt alternative conformations and accommodate the thirdgeneration antibiotic cefotaxime. However, whereas G238S induces discrete conformations, R164S causes local disorder. When combined, the mutations in 238 and 164 induce local disorder whereby nonproductive conformations that perturb the enzyme’s catalytic preorganization dominate. This local disorder is not restored by stabilizing, global suppressor mutations and thus leads to an evolutionary cul-de-sac. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 415 30

How do proteins evolve? Simulating evolution with in silico models of protein thermodynamics (53331) Richard A. Goldstein. University College London. As with the blind men and the elephant, researchers with various perspectives have developed different conceptual models for how proteins evolve. Evolutionary biologists motivated by Fisher's geometric model have emphasised how conservative mutations would be more likely to be accepted than more radical changes, just as how adjusting the fine focus of a microscope is more likely to yield an improvement than adjusting the course focus. Scientists with more of a structural biology background describe the match between location in the protein and the suitability of any amino acid for such a location - mutations to more suitable amino acids, including radical changes, should be accepted at a higher rate. There has been a growing understanding that a protein is an integrated system so that many of the selective constraints are properties of the entire protein such as structure, stability, solubility, and resistance to aggregation. In this perspective, the selection acting on one site is always in the context of the amino acids found in other sites. And as with the tangled bank described by Darwin, there will be a complex network of feedback loops; substitutions at one focal position will affect the selection acting on other sites; the corresponding substitutions at these other sites will, in turn, influence the selection acting on the focal position. One aspect of this is the so-called ‘Stokes Shift’, where the rest of a protein adopts itself to the new amino acid resident at a given site so that, as long as that amino acid remains at the site, it becomes increasingly suitable for that position. These contrasting perspectives suggest different approaches to understanding and interpreting molecular evolution. We can simulate protein evolution in silico over long periods of evolutionary time. We can use these simulations to evaluate how well these

different models capture the evolutionary process, the types of errors that might result from an inappropriate model, and how these approaches can be reconciled. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 415 30

Tandem repeats in coding region constitute another mechanism of adaptive radiation in cichlid fish (51770) Langyu Gu, Walter Salzburger. Zoological Institute, University of Basel, Basel 4051, Switzerland. Convergent evolution provides an ideal scenario for testing the role of natural and sexual selection in adaptive radiations. However, to what extent the same genes and genetic pathways or different ones contribute to convergent phenotypes is still unclear. Cichlid fishes, which feature mutliple convergent phenotypes, provide an ideal model system to answer the questions why certain key traits are important in some lineages but not in others, and how these phenotypes evolved and are maintained developmentally. Egg-dummies are an evolutionary key innovation of East African cichlids that have been suggested to contribute to their evolutionary success. Using comparative transcriptomic and genomic analyses, we identified an egg-dummy candidate gene showing cichlid-specific tandem repeats in its coding region, which represent a a functional domain and are under positive selection. More interestingly, the polymorphism of these repeats is associated with species richness. We hypothesize that the repeats enlarge the available binding properties of this gene, constituting yet another mechanism of adaptive divergence in cichlids. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 415 30

Correlated substitutions are rare under molecular coevolution (52722) David Talavera, Simon Lovell, Simon Whelan. University of Manchester; Uppsala University. Molecular coevolution occurs when substitutions at one site influence evolutionary change at other sites. It is commonly assumed that coevolution results in correlated amino acid substitutions at groups of sites that are close together in the protein structure, and identifying such sites would be useful in (e.g.) de novo protein structure prediction. Many methods have been developed to detect molecular coevolution either directly, through phylogenetic models, or indirectly by identifying covariation, a commonly assumed outcome of coevolution. Despite decades of research these methods still have low power, even with massive alignments of 10000s of sequences. This study examines the consequences of coevolution at the sequence level and how it affects covariation. Our theoretical results predict that all methods for detecting molecular coevolution will have extremely limited power because in order to have enough correlated substitutions to detect coevolution the strength of selection reduces evolutionary rate so much

that very few substitutions are likely to occur. These results are empirically confirmed by studying the performance of covariation methods, where true positive predictions of physical proximity are not associated with correlated mutations, but instead tend to occur from the detection of low rate sites within occur predominately in the protein core. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 415 30

Disease-related mutations in proteins: a study of dynamically correlated networks and coevolved residue clusters (52814) Yasaman Karami, Serge Amselem, Elodie Laine, Alessandra Carbone. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7238, Equipe de Génomique Analytique, Paris, France; CNRS, UMR 7238 , Laboratoire de Biologie Computationnelle et Quantitative, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ICS, Paris, France; Service de Génétique et d’Embryologie Médicales, UMR S933 INSERM / UPMC, Hôpital ArmandTrousseau; Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France. Point mutations can induce effects at distant protein sites, thereby provoking diseases. Networks of dynamically correlated residues play a crucial role in propagating such perturbation signals. These residues are also expected to display high degrees of conservation and/or coevolution. We performed a consensus analysis of dynamically correlated and coevolved residue networks in three archetypal proteins. Dynamically correlated residues were detected from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and grouped into: Communication Pathways and Independent Dynamic Segments (1), which represent two complementary media for allosteric communication. Coevolved residues were detected by sequence analysis using BIS (2) and clustered with CLAG (3). Results reveal a significant overlap between clusters of coevolution and networks of dynamical correlation. We examined the impact of two disease-related mutations on the allosteric communication of growth hormone. The comparison of wild-type and mutant showed a rewiring of Communication Pathways linking coevolved residues. Characterizing the dynamical behavior of proteins provides a means for physical understanding of coevolution signals. Understanding the role of disease-related mutations on the link between coevolution and dynamical correlation can help decipher the molecular mechanisms of mutation-induced allosteric deregulation. 1E. Laine, et al., PLoS CB (2012). 2L. Dib, A. Carbone, PLoS ONE (2012). 3L. Dib, A. Carbone, BMC Bioinformatics (2012). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE MAX 415 30

Complex phylogeny of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (52521) Alex Popinga, Remco Bouckaert, Peter Wills.

Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland; Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution; Machine Learning Group, University of Waikato; Department of Physics, University of Auckland. All aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), of all specificities from all known organisms, fall into two main classes. Each class has a core structure that has been highly conserved since the origin of life 3.8 billion years ago. The aaRSs have evolved from the simplest (core) structures, which provided the basic functional requirements for interpreting a loose binary code, into the complex present day structures that are capable of interpreting the highly specific 61-codon to 20-amino acid universal genetic code. Throughout this process, thermodynamic instabilities drove bifurcation events in the aaRS phylogeny, expanding the amino acid alphabet by one binary digit at each bifurcation. Therefore, in order to analyse the cophylogenies of Class I and Class II aaRSs before the LUCA event, it is necessary to consider epochs in which there were fewer than 20 classes of distinguishable amino acids, invalidating the use of 20 x 20 substitution matrices throughout the phylogenetic inference. To tackle this problem, we have developed an extension of BEAST, using matrices of reduced 2 ≤ n ≤ 20 dimensions for each pre-organismal epoch. Results from the phylogenetic analysis are used in complement with empirical structural data to examine the transitions of specificity in these self-constructing interpreters. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL D 33

Evolution and development of floral signals influencing pollinator behaviour (51809) Beverley Glover. University of Cambridge. The morphology of flowers influences pollinator behaviour in many different ways. We are interested in how changes in flower symmetry, shape, size, colour and texture influence which pollinators visit a plant and how they interact with it. These interactions can lead to reproductive isolation and speciation. Our recent work has focused on a rare example of sexual mimicry outside the orchids, the South African daisy Gorteria diffusa. I will describe our analysis of the fly-mimicking petal spots of this species, focusing on their development and their variability, and discuss how this morphological variability relates to pollinator behaviour. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL D 33

Genetic Parallelism in Flower Color Evolution (51847) Mark Rausher. Duke University.

A recurring question in evolutionary biology is whether parallel genetic evolution underlies parallel phenotypic evolution. Most studies addressing this question, however, are based on only two or three species, which limits conclusions that may be drawn. Using a larger sample of species allows one to perform statistical analyses to determine whether the frequency spectrum of genetic changes differs from random expectations. Using studies on the evolution of floral pigments, I apply this type of analysis to demonstrate genetic parallelism. In addition, I show how information about mutation spectra can be used to determine whether genetic parallelism is due to differences in mutation frequency or in the magnitude of deleterious pleiotropy. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL D 33

The molecular basis of genic ecological speciation in sexually deceptive orchids (51586) Philipp Schlüter, Khalid Sedeek, Shuqing Xu, John Shanklin, Salvatore Cozzolino, Florian Schiestl. University of Zurich, Switzerland; Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Germany; Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA; University of Naples Federico II, Italy. High pollinator specificity and the potential for simple genetic changes to affect pseudopheromone blends, and thus pollination, make sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids an interesting study system for ecological speciation. A survey of different reproductive barriers revealed that only premating reproductive isolation (RI), particularly pollinator-mediated RI, has evolved between sympatric and co-flowering species. Genotyping by sequencing revealed shared polymorphism throughout the Ophrys genome. Genome scans for FST outliers identified few markers that were highly differentiated between species, identifying genes involved in floral odour production. Chemical mimicry of insect pheromones is achieved by the synthesis of alkenes with different double-bond positions, which are primarily controlled by the action of two acyl-ACP desaturase-encoding genes, SAD2 and SAD5. These loci originated by gene duplications from an ancestral, housekeeping-desaturase-like gene, and have undergone changes in both gene expression and protein function. An amino acid change during the evolution of SAD5 may have altered its enzymatic activity and released the protein from pleiotropic constraint, allowing it to carry out its specific function in alkene biosynthesis. Evolutionary modelling of this two-locus architecture of RI reveals the effect sizes of the two desaturases to be unequal and predicts potential and constraints for rapid pollinator-driven speciation in sympatry. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL D 33

Gene flow and the genetic architecture of speciation revealed by 1043 stickinsect genomes (51629) Patrik Nosil.

University of Sheffield. Genome variation during the often-complex speciation process is affected by numerous factors, and can affect the likelihood of evolutionary diversification. Disentangling the processes driving patterns of genome variation is challenging, because different processes can generate similar patterns. In this talk, I will combine data from whole genome re-sequencing of natural and experimentally transplanted populations, genome wide association mapping, and theoretical modeling to test the processes driving genome divergence during ecological speciation in Timema stick insects. The results indicate that even the early stages of speciation can involve numerous genomic regions affected, either directly or indirectly, by divergent natural selection. However, major work remains to be done to objectively determine the traits and genomic regions directly and causally subject to selection and which are most critical for driving speciation. I will discuss how progress on this front can be made using emerging ‘ecological’ model systems in which genome variation can be experimentally studied in the wild. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL D 33

Loss of function mutations in MC4R drive adaptation of Astyanax mexicanus through hyperphagia. (51852) Nicolas Rohner, Ariel Aspiras, Richard Borowsky, Cliff Tabin. Harvard; NYU. Colonization to new environments necessitates changes to morphology, behavior, and physiology. Especially how the latter two evolve remains largely a mystery. The independently derived cavefish populations of Astyanax mexicanus are providing a unique opportunity to study metabolic adaptation to nutrient-poor environments. As the hallmark of cave environments is the scarcity of food, cavefish have adapted different strategies to survive, such as starvation resistance and binge eating when food becomes available. We show that while all cavefish populations tested lose weight slowly during starvation, only some consume more food than surface populations. Here we show a mutation in a conserved residue of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), contributing to this insatiable appetite. Intriguingly, the same mutated residue has been shown to be linked to obesity in humans. We demonstrate that the mutation results in reduced signaling sensitivity in vitro. We further validate in vivo that the mutated allele contributes to elevated appetite and growth. The mutation is fixed in most cave populations and we provide evidence that this could be due to selection from standing genetic variation in surface populations. Our results suggest that drastic metabolic and behavioral changes can occur by coding changes in a single gene in natural populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE POL D 33

Identifying the molecular basis of adaptation and genomic divergence in Heliconius butterflies (51901)

Nicola Nadeau, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Annabel Whibley, Megan Supple, Mathieu Joron, Owen McMillan, Chris Jiggins. The University of Sheffield; Universidad del Rosario; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle; The Australian National University; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; University of Cambridge. The Heliconius butterflies are known for their bright wing colour patterns, which are divergently selected between populations, but convergently selected within a location, leading to mimicry between species. We have described genome-wide patterns of divergence between adjacent populations that are divergently selected for colour pattern and meet in narrow hybrid zones. This has revealed that narrow genomic regions containing the colour pattern controlling loci are differentiated between populations. We have used this information, together with genetic data from other populations and species that share colour pattern alleles, to narrow down the genomic regions and identify the particular genes underlying pattern variation. One of these genes is an unexpected candidate, belonging to a family of conserved cell cycle regulators. We find strong associations between phenotypic variation and DNA sequence variation near this gene in three different Heliconius species, as well as associations between expression of this gene and colour pattern. This gene appears to have adopted a novel function in the Lepidoptera and become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN B 8

¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬Caught in the crossfire: Genome defense in light of genomic autoimmunity (52618) Justin Blumenstiel, Alex Erwin, Mauricio Galdos, Michelle Wickersheim, Chris Harrison, Kendra Marr. University of Kansas. For systems of immunity, a fundamental challenge is to achieve an appropriate balance between sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing self from non-self. Small RNA-based systems of genome defense identify transposable elements (TEs) via aberrant insertions or insertions into genomic regions dedicated to small RNA production. In turn, the production of anti-TE small RNAs from these insertions can mediate transcriptional and post-transcriptional TE silencing. A significant cost of genome defense is off-target gene silencing. Using a system of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis as a model, we have demonstrated how effective genome defense is sensitive to the dose of multiple protective elements. These studies also show how TE destabilization can lead to increased off-target effects within and across generations. Using molecular evolutionary analysis in Drosophila, we find that the primary evolutionary response to increased TE burden is increased translational efficiency of the piRNA machinery. Altogether, these results support a model in which the evolution of genome defense is governed by a tension between sufficient TE repression and off-target effects. I propose that this tension - between sensitivity and specificity - is a key driver in the evolution of systems of genome defense mediated by small RNA pathways.

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The punishment wars (53352) Toby Kiers. Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. How is conflict suppressed? In most mutualisms, an individual host associates with multiple partners that can vary dramatically in the benefit they provide. This creates a potential tragedy of the commons where less-mutualistic partners potentially share in the collective benefits, while paying less of the costs. Our focus is on understanding specific mechanisms that reduce the fitness benefits from cheating, such as sanctions and reciprocal rewards. These mechanisms can play a key role in the evolution of egalitarian cooperation. Ultimately, our aim is to identify patterns of conflict suppression and conflict resolution across diverse mutualistic systems, such as rhizosphere mutualisms. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN B 8

The origins, persistence and decay of bacterial mutualisms (51759) Lee Henry, Godfray Charles. VU Amsterdam; University of Oxford. Bacterial symbiosis has played a fundamental role in the evolution of eukaryotes. However, we still know little about how cooperative relationships with bacteria originate, and why they form in some host species but not others. Facultative symbionts that are beneficial, but not essential, provide unique insights into these processes. Here we use the facultative symbionts of over a hundred aphid species to test how host life history and relatedness of host species influences horizontal transmission, persistence and decay of bacterial mutualism. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN B 8

‘Currency’ exchange underlying the long-term association between squid and bioluminescent bacteria (52192) Natacha Kremer, Julia Schwartzman, Edward Ruby, Margaret McFall-Ngai. University of Madison-Wisconsin, USA; Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5558, France. Long-term stability of horizontally transmitted symbioses must rely on negotiations between partners that result in a gain of fitness for the association. The study of invertebrate species that coevolved with simple microbial communities provides the opportunity to decipher the

chemical conversation between partners, and to highlight the ‘currency’ exchange that contributes to the stability of ‘egalitarian’ cooperative associations. In particular, the symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and its luminescent bacterial partner, Vibrio fischeri, is tractable in its natural environment. The squid light organ is colonized after hatching by V. fischeri, which participates in the squid’s camouflaging behavior. We showed that in the mature symbiosis, host hemocytes migrate toward and release chitin into the symbiotic crypts of the light organ at dusk. This polymeric glycan is used as carbon source and catabolized by symbionts during the night, acidifying the crypt environment. Because oxygen is released from the circulating carrier protein, hemocyanin, in response to a decrease in pH, this acidification increases the amount of oxygen available to the symbionts overnight. Symbionts thus have an increased ability to produce light by their luciferase, whose activity could also be a way to limit a potential toxic effect of free oxygen. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 TUE GEN B 8

Spatial exclusion of non-cooperators from released public goods stabilizes inter-specific cooperation (52231) Samay Pande, Filip Kaftan, Stefan Lang, Sebastian Germerodt, Ales Svatos, Christian Kost. Experimental Ecology and Evolution group, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany; Research Group Mass spectrometry, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany; Department of Bioinformatics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany; Evolutionary biology group, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Metabolic cross-feeding interactions are ubiquitous in natural microbial communities. Explaining their maintenance, however, is challenging, because organisms should avoid investing costly resources into unrelated individuals. We hypothesized that positive assortment within structured environments such as microbial biofilms can maintain mutualistic cross-feeding. To test this, we engineered Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baylyi to reciprocally exchange essential amino acids. Interspecific coculture experiments confirmed that non-cooperating types were selectively favoured in spatially unstructured (liquid culture), yet disfavoured in spatially structured environments (agar plates). An individual-based model and experiments with engineered genotypes indicated that a segregation of cross-feeders and non-cooperating auxotrophs stabilised cooperative crossfeeding in spatially structured environments. Finally, chemical imaging confirmed that auxotrophs were indeed spatially excluded from cooperative benefits. Together, these results demonstrate that in structured environments such as bacterial biofilms, cooperative crossfeeding between different bacterial species is favoured by excluding non-cooperators from cooperative benefits, which could help to explain the widespread distribution of these ecological interactions in nature. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN C 2

The crucial link between ‘how’ and ‘why’ in the evolution of environmental sex determination (51813)

Lisa Schwanz. UNSW Australia. For many organisms, developing as a male or female depends primarily on environmental factors such as temperature or social conditions – a phenomenon known as Environmental Sex Determination (ESD). The costs of such a biological feature in a world with fluctuating or changing environments are high, and the benefits remain largely a matter of conjecture in the field of sex allocation. Instead, the benefits of Genotypic Sex Determination (GSD) seem obvious, and the challenges of transitioning away from GSD seem insurmountable. Despite this, sex-determining mechanisms are highly evolutionarily labile in some taxa, thus demanding evolutionary hypotheses. In this talk, I will discuss my theoretical and empirical research into the forces shaping the evolution of environmental sex determination (mostly temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles). In particular, I will focus on how knowledge of the mechanisms of ESD can reveal 1) the simplicity of evolutionary transitions between sex-determining mechanisms, thus allowing ESD to evolve easily in response to selection; and 2) the plasticity in sex ratio afforded by linking developmental biology to environmental factors, thus facilitating selective advantages of ESD. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN C 2

Sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites: lessons from an emerging model organism (52767) Lukas Schärer. University of Basel. Anisogamous sexual reproduction involves two fundamentally different routes to fitness, namely the male and female sexual strategies, which at their root entail making many small or fewer large gametes, respectively. These two strategies are tightly linked by the rules of sex allocation, because every zygote has one father and one mother, and so exactly one half of the fitness in a population necessarily derives from either sex function. While the two strategies can be distributed over individuals in a population in many different ways, research on sex allocation in animals has primarily focused on species with separate sexes. Over the past decade my research group has established the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano as a powerful emerging model to study sex allocation and other aspects of anisogamous sexual reproduction in simultaneous hermaphrodites, including experiments involving phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic engineering, transgenesis, transcriptomics, and experimental evolution. Among other insights this research has clearly identified local sperm competition, i.e. the competition between related sperm for fertilizations, as a key factor for hermaphrodite sex allocation. Moreover, it is becoming clear that local sperm competition also helps to clarify general aspects of the evolution of sex roles in other species with anisogamous sexual reproduction. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN C 2

Sex allocation, juvenile mortality & the costs imposed by offspring on parents and siblings (51765) Andrew Kahn, Michael Jennions, Hanna Kokko. The Australian National University; The Australian National University; University of Zurich. In general, sex-specific adult mortality is not expected to affect optimal patterns of sex allocation. Several authors have, however, made verbal arguments that this is not true for sexspecific juvenile mortality during the period of parental care. We teach this to undergraduates, but lack a model confirming the argument is sound. Here, we provide formal mathematical models exploring how such juvenile mortality affects optimal sex allocation. We confirm the prediction that biased production of the sex with higher mortality during care is favoured. Crucially, however, this is only true when this juvenile mortality frees up resources for current/future siblings (i.e. the saved investment is transferable). Furthermore, we show that while optimal sex allocation is consistent with the theory of equal investment (as asserted by previous authors, and reflecting how we teach sex allocation theory), thinking in terms of equal investment is not readily feasible in some scenarios. We also show that differences in early mortality overcome biased sex allocation such that the sex ratio at independence is generally, but not always, biased in the opposite direction from that at birth. Our models should be useful to empiricists investigating sex-specific juvenile mortality and, as importantly, to those teaching sex allocation theory to their students. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN C 2

The evolution of unisexual flowers within inflorescences (52179) Rubén Torices, Ana Afonso, Marcos Méndez. Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (CSIC); Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne; Centre of Functional Ecology. University of Coimbra; Biodiversity and Conservation Unit, Rey Juan Carlos University. The evolution of unisexual flowers within inflorescences has been explained as a mechanism of avoiding self-fertilization reducing the negative effects of inbreeding. However, many species with unisexual flowers also have self-incompatibility systems making difficult generalizations of this hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis for this pattern is that flowers within inflorescences compete by resources, and that the sequential development of flowers and architectural constraints lead to a gradient on resource availability. This variation on resource availability produces distinct optima for sex allocation accordingly with the position of the flower within an inflorescence, potentially driving the evolution of sexual specialization on separated flowers. Using as a model the largest family of flowering plants (Asteraceae), we explored this hypothesis. We measured number of flowers and capitulum size to estimate flower density (as a proxy of floral competition) in 101 species with different levels of sexual specialization: hermaphroditic (only bisexual flowers), gynomonoecious (bisexual and female flowers) and monoecious species (female and male flowers). We found that flower number and flower density were higher on those species with a higher degree in sexual specialization,

supporting that an increasing on floral competition might favor sex specialization of male and female functions on different flowers. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN C 2

Genomic conflict over sex allocation in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. (51786) Nicola Cook, Michael G Ritchie, Bart A Pannebakker, Eran Tauber, David M Shuker. University of St Andrews; University of Wageningen; University of Leicester. The study of sex ratios has produced an extraordinarily rich theoretical literature and provides an ideal basis to examine genetic constraints on adaptation. Here, we consider adaptive sex allocation behaviour in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, a species which allocates sex in line with Local Mate Competition (LMC) theory. Despite extensive behavioural work on sex allocation in Nasonia, we know rather little about the genetic basis of sex allocation in this species. However, recent theory has highlighted how genomic conflict may influence sex allocation under LMC, conflict that requires parent-of-origin information to be retained by alleles via an epigenetic signal. We manipulated whole-genome DNA methylation in N. vitripennis females and examined how they allocated sex. Disruption of DNA methylation did not ablate the facultative sex allocation response as sex ratios still varied in line with classical LMC theory. However, our data were consistent with predictions from genomic conflict over sex allocation theory and suggest that observed sex ratios are closer to the optimum expected for maternally- rather than paternally-inherited alleles. Our results also emphasise how elucidating the mechanism of well-understood behaviours can further enrich our understanding of them. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN C 2

Sperm storage and the size advantage model of sex allocation in the protandrous sex-changer Crepidula fornicata (52232) Thomas Broquet, Audrey Barranger, Emmanuelle Billard, Anastasia Bestin, Rémy Berger, Gaelle Honnaert, Frédérique Viard. CNRS - Station Biologique de Roscoff. Sex allocation theory shows that sequential hermaphroditism is adaptive when one sex has a steeper size-fitness curve than the other. Typically, protandry (male-first sex change) is selected for when female fecundity depends on body space for the production of eggs while male reproductive value is less dependent upon size. However, size might also be decisive for males, depending upon the mating system. Which sex has the steepest increase in reproductive value with size determines the direction of sex-change. The slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata is a protandrous gastropod, and yet male success is thought to increase strongly with size in this species. Theory therefore predicts that large females have yet a

higher reproductive rate. We tested this prediction using size-fitness curves for each sex obtained from experimental breeding and paternity assignment. In agreement with the sizeadvantage theory male reproductive success increased with size due to the polygamous system but females nonetheless had a higher success than equally-sized males. Interestingly, this was partly due to sperm storage effects, which appeared a critical determinant of success of both sexes. Moreover, modeling the effect of sperm storage shows that it could hasten sexchange in protandrous species, depending on sperm replacement mechanisms. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 410 21

The evolution of transgenerational integration of information in heterogeneous environments (52246) Olof Leimar, John McNamara. Stockholm University; University of Bristol. An organism's phenotype can be influenced by maternal cues and by directly perceived environmental cues, as well as by its genotype at polymorphic loci. In fluctuating environments, natural selection favors organisms that efficiently integrate different sources of information about the likely success of phenotypic alternatives. In such situations, it can be beneficial to pass on maternal cues for offspring to respond to. A maternal cue could be based on environmental cues directly perceived by the mother, but partly also on the cues that were passed on by the grandmother. We have used a mathematical model to investigate how the passing of maternal cues and the integration of different sources of information evolves as a response to qualitatively different kinds of temporal and spatial environmental fluctuations. The model shows that passing of maternal cues and transgenerational integration of sources of information readily evolves. Factors like the degree of temporal autocorrelation, the predictive accuracy of different environmental cues, and the level of gene flow strongly influence the expression of adaptive maternal cues and the relative weights given to different sources of information. We outline the main features of the relation between the characteristics of environmental fluctuations and adaptive systems of phenotype determination and compare these predictions with empirical studies. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 410 21

Maternal effect on worker size in the seed harvester ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus (52338) Silvia Paolucci, Benjamin Czech, Gregory Hannon, Tanja Schwander, Laurent Keller. Department of Ecoloy and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, USA. Eusocial insects are characterized by extreme phenotypic plasticity, in which different phenotypes can be produced within the same colony depending on environmental conditions.

For example, worker sizes change dramatically across different stages of the colony life cycle. Young founding colonies produce many small workers, instead of few large ones, which are only found in established colonies. The degree to which worker size is regulated through differential feeding during development or controlled by the mother queen via maternal effects remains unknown. We tested for maternal effects influencing the size of workers in the ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus. A cross-fostering experiment showed that eggs laid by young founding queens developed into smaller workers compared to the ones produced from eggs laid by old queens from established colonies, when both egg types were raised by workers from established colonies. Moreover, eggs laid by old queens failed to develop when cross-fostered to founding queens. These results indicate that maternal effects influence worker size and egg survival. To further investigate how these effects can influence the developmental fate of the brood I am quantifying gene expression differences between eggs from old and young queens with a particular focus on the possible role of microRNAs. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 410 21

Pollution-induced non-genetic inheritance and its effect on eco-evolutionary dynamics (52395) Stewart Plaistow, Brian Chan, Helene Collin, Steve Paterson. University of Liverpool. Theory suggests that genetic and non-genetic inheritance (NGI) mechanisms shape the process of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical studies demonstrating the ecological and evolutionary significance of NGI are lacking. We addressed this by testing the hypothesis that pollution induced NGI can alter the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations. 10 Daphnia pulex clones from the same source population were kept as monoclonal populations in polluted and control environments for a year. Animals from these populations were then used to set up competition trials comprising of 40 genetically identical populations (equal proportions of the 10 clones) exposed to four different combinations of ancestral and current pollution exposure (P/P, P/NP, NP/P, NP/NP). Over the following ten months persistent differences in the population dynamics of the four treatment groups were detected, including a significant effect of NGI. We used image analysis and microsatellite analysis to determine whether differences in the dynamics of the four different types of population were explained by differences in the age-structure of populations, differences in the individual ‘state’ dynamics of populations, or differences in the evolutionary dynamics of populations (measured as changes in the relative frequency of different clones over time). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 410 21

Genetic basis of variation in thermal plasticity for body pigmentation (52662) Elvira Lafuente, Patrícia Beldade. Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia.

External environmental cues can influence developmental rates and trajectories leading to the production of different phenotypes from the same genotype. This developmental plasticity sometimes results in a better match between adult phenotype and the environment the organism will experience, and thus helps organisms to cope with environmental heterogeneity. Plasticity is a complex trait that is heritable, subject to selection, and, therefore, can evolve. We know of single alleles that confer environmental sensitivity and of the polygenic nature of changes in reaction norms. However, little is known about the specific loci contributing to natural variation in plasticity. We focus on thermal plasticity in body pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster to explore the genetic basis of inter-genotype variation in reaction norms. We reared flies of over 200 different genotypes at different temperatures, quantified adult color and color pattern, and unraveled genetic differences in the height, slope, and/or shape of reaction norms. These data are now being used to identify the sequence variants responsible for such differences and uncover specific loci, gene classes (e.g. enzymes vs transcription factors), and gene regions (e.g. coding vs. regulatory) that can provide raw material for evolutionary change in plasticity. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 410 21

Transgenerational effects of diet through the maternal and paternal lineage (52765) Z. Valentina Zizzari, Nico M. van Straalen, Jacintha Ellers. VU University Amsterdam. Food shortage is an important selective factor that can influence population abundance. Yet, despite its role in shaping life-history trajectories, many aspects of the interaction between parental and offspring food environments remain unclear. In this study we used a crossgenerational split-brood design where diet quantity was manipulated over two generations. Our model system is Orchesella cincta, a springtail found in the litter layer of forests and feeding primarily on algae. We tested for the within-generation effects of diet and the relative contribution of each parental sex on the performance of offspring reared under matched and mismatched environments. We found adverse effects of food limitation on growth rate and reproductive performance of the parental generation. Offspring life-history strategies were primed by the diet of both parents. Offspring born to food-restricted parents reached maturity faster than offspring born to well-fed parents, irrespective of their own diet. However, mismatches between adult and offspring environments also generate sex-specific adverse effects: parents on high-diet produced daughters which had a lower growth rate under a lowdiet. In conclusion, we showed that in Orchesella cincta offspring life-history strategies may be set by the nutritional history of both parents with different outcomes in female and male offspring. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 410 21

Age-dependent plasticity in reproductive effort is driven by metabolic reserves and mating opportunities, not adaptive allocation strategies (52446)

Thomas Houslay, Kirsty Houslay, James Rapkin, John Hunt, Luc Bussière. University of Stirling; University of Dundee; University of Exeter. When males express an energetically expensive sexual signal repeatedly over their lifetime, trade-offs between current and future signal investment often cause plasticity in patterns of age-dependent signal expression. This variation in reproductive effort with age might represent alternate adaptive strategies (live fast, die young vs. slow and steady), or it could arise simply through condition-dependent constraints on allocation (‘late bloomers’ do not have early investment options). Testing these alternatives is difficult: resource acquisition and allocation are elusive quantities, and metabolic reserves both cause and are affected by reproductive effort. To disentangle the causal relationships between resource acquisition and age-dependent reproductive effort, we manipulated acquisition (through diet) and sexual trait allocation (via access to potential mates) in male decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, while simultaneously assessing age- and signalling effort-mediated changes in metabolic storage components. Increased access to dietary resources caused increased calling effort and metabolic storage, while access to females increased both the likelihood of calling and time spent calling. Males with lower resource budgets called less than rivals, but still suffered metabolite storage loss and viability costs; our results suggest reduced signalling in loweracquisition treatments was due to energetic constraints rather than an adaptive resourceaccumulation strategy. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL A 29

Can't do it alone: Buchnera and its very different partners (52473) Amparo Latorre. Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València, València, Spain. Most aphids harbour the obligate endosymbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola that endow them with several metabolic capabilities required for their survival. Through whole genome sequencing we have determined that in the subfamily Lahninae, Cinara tujafilina, Cinara cedri (both Eulachnini) and Tuberrolachnus salignus (Lachnini) have established co-obligate associations with the typical B. aphidicola and the secondary symbiont Serratia symbiotica. Nevertheless, while in C. tujafilina this endosymbiont is extracellular, rod shape and possesses a big genome, in C. cedri and T. salignus it is intracellular, pleomorphic and has very small genomes that have apparently emerged independently. We have previously proposed that the loss of the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway in the Buchnera from the Lachninae common ancestor, caused S. symbiotica to fix as an obligate endosymbiont. Nevertheless, some other Lachninae aphids have been found to be associated to other bacterial taxa, rather than S. symbiotica. We have analysed many representatives from the Lachninae and have corroborated that all possess a co-obligate endosymbiont, and while for most it is S. symbiotica, some members have lost this ancient endosymbiont that has been replaced by different bacterium.

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How are negative fitness consequences of evolutionary trait loss compensated? (53321) Nathan Bailey, Sonia Pascoal. University of St Andrews. Trait loss or reduction may evolve under favourable selective conditions, for example due to new interactions with other species or changed environmental conditions. However, the evolutionary loss of a trait is likely to cause negative pleiotropic fitness effects involving other traits. The likelihood that a mutation obliterating or reducing a trait will persist depends on how such negative effects are mitigated, either through rapid evolutionary change, phenotypic plasticity, or other mechanisms. My work tackles this problem using a field cricket that has recently lost the ability to produce calling song. The evolutionary loss of song was driven by an acoustically orienting predator, is caused by a morphological change, obeys simple patterns of Mendelian inheritance, and has demonstrable negative pleiotropic effects. I will illustrate the genomic architecture of song loss in two populations and provide evidence that despite its convergent effects, it evolved independently in each. Data from genetic mapping, gene expression profiling and proteome screens illuminate the mechanistic basis of the loss, and I test specific predictions about gene expression changes that might mitigate the mutation’s detrimental effects. Understanding not only the selective forces that lead to trait loss, but also the genomic context that facilitates or constrains such evolutionary change, enhances our understanding of the evolvability of different types of adaptations in nature. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL A 29

Genomic signatures of sexual trait decay in an asexual wasp (51940) Ken Kraaijeveld, Yahya Anvar, Jeroen Frank, Johan den Dunnen, Jacintha Ellers. VU University Amsterdam; Leiden University Medical Center. When animal lineages switch from sexual to asexual reproduction, redundant female sexual traits consistently decay at a rapid rate. Male sexual traits, which are also redundant but not exposed to selection in asexuals, decay at a much slower rate. The genetic mechanisms underlying sexual trait decay are unknown. Genes for redundant traits may accumulate random mutations and become pseudogenes. Alternatively, the expression of sexual genes may be suppressed in asexuals. We sequenced the genomes of a sexual and an asexual lineage of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina clavipes and found evidence of random mutation accumulation. After annotating the genome, we catalogued mutations that changed the amino acid sequence of the protein. Gene ontology analysis of affected genes identified several that are involved in olfactory receptors and other traits known to have decayed in the asexual lineage. While we cannot exclude that trait decay results from suppression of redundant

genes, our results suggest that at least some sexual genes have acquired loss-of-function mutations in the asexual lineage. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL A 29

Explaining siderophore loss, cross-use and exploitation in natural Pseudomonas communities (51954) Elena Butaite, Rolf Kuemmerli. University of Zurich. Fluorescent pseudomonads typically secrete the siderophore pyoverdine (PVD) to scavenge iron from the environment. PVD production is often partially or fully lost in the laboratory because PVD is either not needed under certain culturing conditions, or favours nonproducing mutants that act as cheats exploiting the PVD as a public good. Here, we investigate the pattern of trait loss and PVD exploitation among 920 natural Pseudomonas strains, isolated from soil and pond habitats. We found that PVD trait loss (partial or full) was significantly more common in habitats with higher iron content and lower pH, where iron is more bioavailable. These patterns suggest that trait loss is driven by disuse. However, we also found that PVD producers and non-producers often co-existed in the same community. A mixture of cross-feeding and competition assays revealed that many nonproducers could capitalize on the PVD produced by other community members. We also found evidence for local antagonistic interactions because non-producers were better at using the PVD from non-community than community members. Altogether, our data suggest that PVD loss in natural communities is driven by both social and ecological factors, and that PVD exploitation can select for novel, more exclusive variants of PVD. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL A 29

Strong selection for a loss of metabolic autonomy in bacteria (51955) Glen D'Souza, Silvio Waschina, Christian Kost. Experimental Ecology and Evolution Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology; Theoretical Systems Biology Group, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena. Bacteria that adapt to specialised environments frequently lose biosynthetic genes, which render them dependent on an environmental uptake of the corresponding metabolites. However, it remains generally unclear whether selection or drift is driving this genomestreamlining. Here we experimentally determined the propensity of bacteria to lose biosynthetic functions when the metabolite is environmentally available. For this, we serially propagated replicate lines of the bacterium Escherichia coli for 2,000 generations in an amino acid-containing environment. A subsequent quantification of auxotrophic mutants revealed that genotypes that essentially required amino acids to grow evolved already after 250 generations and were highly abundant (up to 60%) in all replicate populations after 2,000

generations. Derived auxotrophic mutants were significantly more productive and fitter than the prototrophic ancestor in the presence of amino acids. However, this growth advantage was lost in amino acid-deficient environments, suggesting environmental compensation of amino acids contributed to the observed gains in fitness. Our study provides quantitative evidence that nutrient-containing environments exert a strong selection pressure for a loss of metabolic functions in bacteria and has significant implications for the evolution of microbial genomes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL A 29

Loss and (re)gain of color vision in deep-sea fishes: uncovering the secrets of 100 teleost genomes. (52766) Zuzana Musilova, Fabio Cortesi, Martin Malmstrøm, Ole Tørresen, Sissel Jentoft, Walter Salzburger. University of Basel, Switzerland; University of Queensland, Australia; University of Oslo, Norway. Color vision in vertebrates is made possible by the expression of different visual genes (cone opsins for photopic ‘color vision’ and rod rhodopsin for scotopic ‘dim-light’ vision) in retina. In teleost fishes, opsin genes have continued to duplicate creating an astonishing array of photoreceptors, considered to be crucial to adapt to the varying light conditions. Deep-sea fishes have evolved several physiological adaptations including larger eyes or rod-only retinas to counteract the low light conditions of their environment. However, the molecular mechanisms of dim-light-only vision and the loss of color vision remains poorly understood. Here we report opsin gene evolution based on 100 genomes spanning the teleost phylogeny, with emphasize on the deep-sea fish lineages. We found strong evidence for cone opsin losses and pseudogenization in many of the deep-sea fishes, confirming the absence of color vision in these lineages. Moreover fish lineages that have re-emerged from the deep-sea to colonize shallow waters, revealed a rapid expansion and functional diversification of the remaining formerly ‘green tuned’ cone opsin. Most importantly, we found that one deep-sea fish lineage had evolved multiple rhodopsins adapted to different dim-light wavelengths, assuming what may be the first evidence for rhodopsin-based color vision in vertebrates. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL B 20

Identifying locally adaptive loci by scanning for barriers to introgression (52506) Andrea Fulgione, Joachim Hermisson, Angela Hanco*ck. University of Vienna. Maintenance of locally adapted alleles in the face of gene flow is a pervasive evolutionary process, but characterizing the historical and biological details of admixture and introgression events in actual populations is a major challenge. However, continent-island systems provide

simplified cases where it is possible to reconstruct specific evolutionary events that lead to contemporary patterns of genetic variation. The Canary Islands harbor exceptional species diversity and divergence, likely a result of ancient pre-glacial colonization events. Modern populations of Arabidopsis thaliana in the Canary Islands result from admixture of an anciently diverged native population and a recently introduced mainland population. To characterize demographic and adaptive histories in the Canary Islands, we collected whole-genome sequence data from natural populations of Arabidopsis throughout Macaronesia and leveraged data from worldwide samples. We developed a haplotype-based genome scan to perform admixture deconvolution and we identified genomic loci that represent strong barriers to gene flow as well as loci that underlie adaptive introgression from the invaders. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL B 20

A worldwide perspective on isolation-by-distance patterns in humans (52619) Benjamin Peter, Desislava Petkova, Matthew Stephens, John Novembre. Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, USA; Department of Statistics, University of Chicago, USA; Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, UK. Human genetic diversity has been shaped by the initial expansion of humans across the globe and subsequent migration and admixture events. Throughout this history, geographical features such as mountains, oceans, and deserts have presumably shaped rates of gene flow between populations. To obtain maps that represent the spatial structure of human genetic diversity, we jointly estimate migration rates and local diversity using a recently developed, spatially explicit method (EEMS, Estimation of Effective Migration Surfaces). We apply EEMS on global, continental, and sub-continental scales, analyzing genetic data from more than five thousand individuals from multiple studies across the globe. We find many geographical features are indeed barriers with regards to effective migration. In particular, the Saharan Desert, the Mediterranean Sea, and the straits between South-East Asia and Melanesia emerge as particularly strong barriers to migration. High migration rates are found in a corridor connecting Europe with China. In contrast, we find that diversity parameters vary more smoothly, decreasing gradually with distance from Africa. Overall, our results suggest that diversity patterns are consistent with the signature of the Out-of-Africa expansion, but that migration rates are more strongly influenced by geography. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL B 20

Genetic variation linked to climate adaptation in Arabidopsis lyrata (52656) Marco Fracassetti, Yvonne Willi. University of Neuchâtel.

Global climate change has heightened the interest to understand climate adaptation and limits to such adaptive evolution. Progress in the field depends on knowing the genes under this selection and the distribution of genetic variation. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS), linking genetic variation with climate variables. The study organism was the North American Arabidopsis lyrata spp. lyrata, a short-lived herb occurring on sand dunes and rocky outcrops with well-separated and stable populations. We re-sequenced pools of DNA of 55 populations covering the whole geographic range of the subspecies and revealed population-level single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) frequency data. Climate data based on temperature and precipitation and soil data were used for the GWAS. We used a dual approach to detecting SNPs linked to climate variables. First, we analyzed site frequency spectra to detect signatures of selection within populations. Second, we tested SNPs for correlation with climate variables by accounting for genetic structure among populations. SNPs that were significant in both types of analyses were taken as candidates for being relevant in climate adaptation. We discuss the approach taken and the list of genes that is likely relevant for adaptation in the contest of climate change. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL B 20

The role of host plant adaptation in genomic divergence and diversification of Timema stick insects (52805) Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Stuart R. Dennis, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Jeffrey L. Feder, Patrik Nosil. Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, UK; Department of Biology, Utah State University, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, USA. How the often-continuous processes of speciation and adaptive radiation unfold from beginning to end is poorly understood, but is of central importance for understanding biological diversification. One hypothesis is that shifts between very different peaks in the adaptive landscape, although difficult to achieve, are required to generate strong reproductive isolation. Here we test this hypothesis using a combination of ecological data, experimental estimates of reproductive isolation, and both reduced representation and whole genome sequence data from multiple species of herbivorous Timema stick insects. We find that extreme ecological shifts between conifer and flowering plant hosts are more rare than moderate host shifts between flowering plant families, but that such extreme host shifts generate stronger reproductive isolation. Despite clear effects of the magnitude of host shift on reproductive isolation, overall genomic divergence is more strongly promoted by geographic separation. In comparison, host adaptation causes heterogeneous, genomically localised genetic divergence. The results highlight the different but complementary roles of ecology and geography in driving transitions across the speciation continuum. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL B 20

The flexible genome: uncovering the regulatory basis of phenotypic plasticity. (52862) Vicencio Oostra, Marjo Saastamoinen, Bas J. Zwaan, Christopher W. Wheat. University College London (UK); University of Helsinki (Finland); Wageningen University (The Netherlands); Stockholm University (Sweden). Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a given genotype to express different phenotypes in response to environmental variation, often as adaptation to fluctuations in habitat quality. Studying the regulatory basis of plasticity provides insights into the mechanistic basis of this important adaptation, and into how genes and the environment interact to produce complex phenotypes. To study the genetic basis of plasticity we use the afrotropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which displays life history plasticity as adaptation to its habitat's wet-dry seasonality. We combine a full-sib quantitative genetics design with RNAseq, yielding transcriptome-wide estimates of gene expression variation as a function of genetic background, environment, and their interaction. We constructed a de novo assembly, yielding 7365 genes after filtering, and identified season-specific genes, as well as genes whose environmental response in expression was affected by genetic background, indicating genetic variation for plasticity at the transcriptome level. We then asked whether plasticity-related genes were depleted vs. enriched in nucleotide diversity compared to non-plastic genes, indicating constraints vs. potential for evolutionary responses. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory links between juvenile conditions and adult life history. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL B 20

Ecological genetics of local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana (52733) Jon Ågren, Christopher G. Oakley, Sverre Lundemo, Douglas W. Schemske. Dept of Plant Ecology and Evolution, EBC, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, Uppsala, Sweden; Dept of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA . Organisms inhabiting different environments are often locally adapted, yet in most cases the genetic and functional mechanisms of local adaptation are poorly understood. We mapped Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for total fitness and putatively adaptive traits, and determined the relationships between trait expression and fitness using a large RIL population derived from a cross between two locally adapted Arabidopsis thaliana populations, one in Italy and one in Sweden, and planted in field experiments at the parental sites for multiple years. We show that local adaptation is controlled by relatively few genomic regions of small to modest effect. A third of the 19 fitness QTL we detected showed evidence of trade-offs (locally favoured genotype reduces fitness elsewhere). Selection gradient analyses and mapping results indicated that QTL for flowering time and tolerance to cold contribute to fitness tradeoffs. Sequence variation and functional analyses indicate that mutations in previously identified candidate genes may explain some of these trade-offs. Taken together, our results suggest that adaptation to markedly different environments can be achieved through changes in relatively few genomic regions, and that genetically based differences in both life history

and physiology contribute to adaptive differentiation and fitness tradeoffs among native A. thaliana populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL C 11

Individual variation in host health and its consequences for pathogen spread (52471) Pedro Vale. University of Edinburgh. A major hurdle to reducing the burden of infectious disease is that individuals vary substantially in how sick they get and how sick they make others. Here I explore several sources of individual host variation and discuss its potential consequences for pathogen spread and evolution. Hosts may vary in how sick they get because of the variable use of damage limitation therapies. While these anti-virulence or tolerance-boosting drugs are promising “evolution-proof” alternatives to antimicrobials, I present some theoretical results highlighting that their use may, in some situations, lead to high prevalence of virulent pathogens. Hosts also vary in how sick they may make others, for example, when host heterogeneity in pathogen shedding is high, or when host behaviours increase the risk of infection spreading. I will discuss some experimental results of both viral and bacterial gut infections in Drosophila melanogaster. I explore how host genetics, sex and co-infection status may explain some of the heterogeneity in pathogen shedding, and test how key host behaviours are modified by infection. Behavioural responses during infection not only shed light on the risk of disease spread, they also reflect host health, revealing the more nuanced fitness costs of infection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL C 11

Local adaptation to parasites suggests costs of migration and explains immunogenetic polymorphism in sticklebacks (52474) Joshka Kaufmann, Tobias L. Lenz, Martin Kalbe, Manfred Milinski, Christophe Eizaguirre. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Department of Evolutionary Ecology; GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research; School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London. Local adaptation is often key to the process of speciation. Theory suggests that reduced fitness of migrants due to local maladaptation to foreign parasites could be sufficient to reduce gene flow between habitats and ultimately lead to speciation. Here, we experimentally investigated the relative fitness of migrants in foreign habitats, focusing on diverging lake and river ecotypes of three-spined sticklebacks. A reciprocal transplant experiment performed in the field revealed asymmetric costs of migration: while mortality of river migrants was increased under lake conditions, lake migrants suffered from reduced growth relative to river residents.

Focusing particularly on the parasitic environments, we found that macroparasite communities did not only differ between lake and river residents but also between the reciprocal migrants. This pattern of differential parasitisation had consequences for both the innate and the adaptive immune system, where multiple habitat-specific associations between parasite species and locally selected alleles of major histocompatibility immunogenes could be detected. Altogether, these experimental results highlight the role of selection against migrants in the early stages of ecological speciation and reveal complex resistance patterns leading to immunogenetic diversity at the meta-population level. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL C 11

Increased diversity at a locus involved in resistance to parasitism in Daphnia magna (52543) Yann Bourgeois, Peter Fields, Gilberto Bento, Anne Roulin, Seanna McTaggart, Tom Little, Darren Obbard, Dieter Ebert. Zoologisches Institut, Basel University; University of Edinburgh. The study of processes that maintain adaptive genetic diversity have long interested evolutionary biologists. From this perspective, host-parasite coevolution provides valuable insights. In Daphnia magna, an emergent model species in epidemiology and evolutionary biology, it has been suggested that interaction with the obligate bacterial endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa fulfilled all the requirements for negative frequency-dependent selection to occur. Recently, a 150 kb candidate genomic region involved in resistance to P. ramosa has been identified in D. magna. This opens a new window to explore the effects of host-parasite interaction on natural adaptive variation in this system. Here, we took advantage of the recent sequencing of dozens of D. magna genomes sampled across Eurasia. The candidate locus for resistance to P.ramosa displayed evidence for selection. We found increased nucleotide diversity in the 200 kb flanking this locus and an excess of alleles at higher frequencies compared to genomic background. At the resistance locus itself, we observed indel polymorphism, suggesting that resistance coud be tuned by changes in copy number variation of resistance genes. We discuss the consistency of these patterns with selective processes leading to the accumulation of polymorphism, such as heterozygous advantage, negative frequency-dependent selection (Red Queen dynamics) and local adaptation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL C 11

Variation in phenotypic selection on quantitative immune defence traits in a freshwater snail (52671) Laura Langeloh, Jukka Jokela, Otto Seppälä. Eawag; ETHZ.

Understanding how phenotypic selection acts on immune function is important for predicting the outcomes of host-parasite interactions. While ecological factors affecting the range of phenotypic variation in immune traits and infection risk may strongly influence the form and strength of selection on immune defence, they have mostly been neglected in previous research. In this study, Great Pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) from 6 populations were maintained individually in two different environments for 9 weeks: water enriched with opportunistic microorganisms to impose an immune challenge, or clean water. Survival, shell length, reproductive output and the level of two immune parameters, phenoloxidase-like activity and antibacterial activity, were recorded from each snail every second week. Immune activity and reproductive output of snails differed between water quality treatments and populations. Selection gradient analyses suggested differences in selection on the examined immune traits. While no difference between the two laboratory environments could be detected, selection gradients differed across populations. Strong family-level variation in both immune traits within populations suggests sufficient genetic variation for response to selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL C 11

Diversity and divergence of immune genes in four wild rodent species (52718) Andrew Turner, Mike Begon, Amy Pedersen, Steve Paterson. University of Liverpool; University of Edinburgh. Individuals vary substantially in their resistance to infectious disease and experiments on laboratory rodents, such as the house mouse (Mus musculus), have proved invaluable in elucidating the mechanistic basis of this resistance. However, controlled laboratory studies provide few insights into the causes and consequences of genetic variation in the natural environment, where increased genetic diversity, multiple infections and fluctuating environmental conditions are the norm. The study of wild rodents represents an excellent opportunity to link the functional genetic knowledge gained from laboratory rodents with the variation in disease susceptibility observed in natural populations, including humans. Here we examined diversity in >800 immune genes and ~500 size-matched, non-immune genes in four wild rodent species: house mice, wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), field voles (Microtus agrestis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In all species, genetic diversity was significantly higher in immune genes. Through examination and comparison of diversity within and between individuals, populations and species, we investigate which genes have been subject to natural selection, and whether the same genes have been repeatedly targeted by selection across different populations and species. For example, positive selection appears to have driven divergence between species at multiple pathogen-recognition sites within Tolllike receptor (TLR) genes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL C 11

Constitutive protection, mismatch, and secondary exposure in transgenerational immune memory in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (52848) Seth Barribeau, Paul Schmid-Hempel, Ben Sadd. East Carolina University; ETH Zürich; Illinois State University. A number of invertebrates show evidence of immune memory or priming. Individuals given cues of a parasite either as a clearable dose or an inactivated inoculum are better able to resist a subsequent exposure than naive individuals or those given a different priming immune exposure. This immune history can also be transferred across generations with offspring having increased resistance to parasites that their parents were exposed to. Since invertebrates lack the antibodies and T-cells of the adaptive immune system, the mechanisms behind such memory remain mysterious. Here we describe the full transcriptome expression profile of transgenerational immune memory in the European bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found that daughters of mothers exposed to an inactivated inoculum of the Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis constitutively express all known antimicrobial peptides at much higher quantities than daughters that have no immune history. We also describe how a mismatch between immune history and exposure results in a fundamentally different expression pattern. Finally, we explore whether receiving a second exposure to a bacterial inoculum results in greater immune activation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL C 11

Intracellular endosymbiont selection contributes to Drosophila adaptation to viral infection (52942) Vitor G. Faria, Nelson E. Martins, Sara Magalhães, Viola Nolte, Christian Schlötterer, Luis Teixeira, Élio Sucena. Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal; Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade Lisboa; Institut für Populationsgenetik, Vetmeduni Vienna, Austria; Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are intracellular symbionts of many animal species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia has been shown to confer protection to RNA virus infection in a strain-dependent manner. Through experimental evolution, we have selected an outbred Wolbachia-infected population of D. melanogaster for increased resistance to DCV, a natural viral pathogen. Whole-genome sequencing of this population, upon 20 generations of selection, revealed that a Wolbachia sub-strain was fixed. Moreover, we show that challenged inter-population hybrids carrying either Wolbachia variant differ in their fitness, confirming the adaptive value to the host of selected endosymbiont. Finally, we re-assess host genome evolution upon Wolbachia clearance and DCV infection over 20 more generations. These findings demonstrate that the presence of protective endosymbiont plays a role in shaping the host genome and its own evolution may have a profound effect on host adaptation.

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Sexual conflict and social behaviour (52776) Tracey Chapman. University of East Anglia. The intensity of sexual conflict over the level of expression of any reproductive trait value or behavior can be assessed by measuring its costs and benefits, in terms of lifetime fitness, for individuals of each sex. Though relatively underexplored, outcomes of sexual interactions between males and females can be viewed in terms of the wider context of social behaviors: i.e. Hamilton’s famous quartet of social behaviors: mutual benefit (co-operation), selfishness, altruism and spite. Here I discuss how we can reclassify the outcome of interactions between males and females in this way. This reveals the potential for evolutionary disagreements between the sexes, and therefore sexual conflict, in all four types of social behavior classification – particularly so for selfish behavior. Central to this understanding is to clarify the meaning of costs and benefits in terms of positive or negative fitness consequences for males and females. Such fitness effects can be direct or indirect and although we expect sexual conflict to be low when relatedness is positive, it can still occur. I will discuss sexual conflict within this framework and provide examples. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 415 7

Inclusive fitness and sexual conflict (53362) Andy Gardner. University of St Andrews. I will provide an overview of the theory of inclusive fitness and explore its application to the study of sexual conflict. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 415 7

The influence of relatedness on male entomopathogenic nematode aggression (51661) Apostolos Kapranas, Maher Abigail, Griffin Christine. National University of Ireland, Maynooth. Males of entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema spp. engage in aggressive contests that are fatal to losers. Previous studies suggest that males deriving from infective juveniles (IJ),

the free foraging stage that enters the insect host, are more aggressive. Theory predicts that, in closed systems with limited dispersal, intense competition should override any benefits of kin or at least higher aggression should be expected in mixed groups of relatives and non-relatives than in groups consisting solely of relatives or of unrelated animals (a dome –shaped effect). In this study, we examined how both relatedness and group size affect mortality rates among these post-IJ males in both semi-natural and natural conditions. We found that mortality rates are affected both by relatedness and group size. We discuss our findings in the context of current theory and also taking into account certain key life history characteristics of Steinernematid nematodes such as inter-specific competition and group dispersal. Entomopathogenic nematodes can provide new opportunities for testing the conflicting influence of competition and relatedness. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 415 7

Local mate competition mediates sexual conflict over sex ratio in a haplodiploid mite (51846) Sara Magalhaes, Emilie Macke, Isabelle Olivieri. CE3C: Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes; Aquatic Biology, IRF Life Sciences, Science & Technology, KU-Leuven; Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2. In haplodiploids, females pass their genes on to all their offspring, whereas a male’s genes are only passed on to his daughters. Hence, males always benefit from female-biased sex ratios, whereas for females the optimal offspring sex ratio depends on the level of local mate competition (LMC), ranging from highly female-biased under strict LMC to unbiased in panmixia. This generates a sexual conflict over sex ratio, the intensity of which depends on the LMC level, with most intense conflict in panmixia. Such conflicts might lead to an evolutionary arms race, with persistence traits evolving in males and resistance traits in females. Although this prediction is theoretically straightforward, it remains untested empirically. We addressed this by crossing spider mites that evolved under varying intensities of LMC (hence of sexual conflict), to mates from inbred lines. Under high levels of sexual conflict, both sexes evolved manipulative traits to shift the sex ratio to their own advantage. In females, this was partly achieved through changes in egg size. We thus show that (a) LMC levels modulate sexual conflict over sex ratio in haplodiploids, driving the evolution of manipulative traits and (b) fathers can affect sex ratio, challenging conventional assumptions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 415 7

Male Drosophila melanogaster fight more, and sire shorter-lived daughters, when rival male are unrelated and unfamiliar (51991) Pau Carazo, Jennifer Perry, Fern Johnson, Tommaso Pizzari, Stuart Wigby. University of Valencia; University of Oxford.

Competition over access to reproductive opportunities can lead males to harm females. Recent inclusive fitness theory predicts that in structured populations male harm of females may be reduced when local male competitors are related. Previous empirical work has presented evidence consistent with this prediction in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we explore the consequences of relatedness amongst rival males for the next generation. We show that groups of unrelated-unfamiliar (i.e. raised apart) males fight more intensely than groups of related-familiar (i.e. raised together) males, consistent with previous findings, and that exposure to a female is required to trigger kin-biased male-male competition. We further show that differences in male-male competition are associated with transgenerational effects: when daughters where themselves exposed to males, daughters of females exposed to unrelated males suffered higher mortality than the daughters of females exposed to related males. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that within-male group relatedness and/or familiarity can modulate male-male competition with important transgenerational consequences. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED MAX 415 7

How sex-biased dispersal affects the resolution of intralocus sexual conflict (52922) Bram Kuijper, Rufus A. Johnstone. Department of Genetics Evolution and Environment, University College London, UK; CoMPLEX, Centre for Maths & Physics in the life sciences, University College London, UK; Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Classical models on intralocus sexual conflict assume large and well-mixed populations, raising the question whether predictions extend to structured populations with interacting relatives. Here we present a model of intralocus sexual conflict in a spatially structured population with sex-biased dispersal. Strikingly, we find that sexually antagonistic traits that are beneficial to females (and detrimental to males) predominate in populations with femalebiased dispersal, while male-beneficial traits prevail in populations with male-biased dispersal. For the case where females are the more dispersing sex, this can be explained by noting that philopatric males are more related than dispersing females to any juveniles in the local patch. Hence, in dying, males are more likely to be replaced by relatives than females, so that the effective cost of expressing a detrimental sexually antagonistic trait is lower for males than females. As a result of reduced selection in males, the trait evolves towards the female rather than the male optimum. In the presence of mating skew, a similar principle holds, which causes characters to evolve towards the optimum of the sex that endures the strongest competition for matings. Our findings show that the ecological context of sexual antagonism is more important than hitherto anticipated. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL D 33

Artiodactyl limb diversification: attenuated sensing of SHH by Ptch1 underlies adaptive evolution of bovine limbs (52537)

Rolf Zeller, Javier Lopez-Rios, Amandine duch*esne, Dario Speciale, Guillaume Andrey, Kevin A. Peterson, Carol Wicking, Andrew P. McMahon, Denis Duboule. University of Basel; INRA Genetique Animale et Biologie Integrative; EPFL Lausanne and University of Geneva; University of Southern California; The University of Queensland. A fascinating aspect is to understand how basic and robust patterning processes are altered to allow diversification. For example, the pentadactylous blueprint of the limb skeleton has been modified extensively and allowed adaptation to different habits during tetrapod evolution. Cursorial animals such as artiodactyls have modified their distal limb skeleton for fast running by reduction and loss of digits in conjunction with assuming unguligrade posture. Molecular analysis of mouse and bovine limb development reveals the progressive loss of anterior-posterior polarity in bovine limb buds. These alterations are caused by a failure to upregulate Ptch1 expression in the bovine limb bud mesenchyme, which renders the progenitors insensitive to graded SHH signaling. Functional genomics identified a cis-regulatory module (CRM) within the Ptch1 locus that controls expression in the mouse limb bud mesenchyme. Strikingly, the orthologous bovine sequences are unable to activate expression in transgenic mouse embryos, establishing that the bovine CRM has degenerated. In fact, genetic inactivation of Ptch1 in the mouse limb mesenchyme phenocopies molecular differences seen in bovine and pig limb buds. Currently, we are investigating if a microsatellite expansion in the CRM region of all artiodactyls contributes to its functional degeneration in Bovidae and other artiodactyls such as Suidae. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL D 33

Selection on flower colour in snapdragron hybrid zones (52539) David Field, Hugo Tavares, Enrico Coen, Nick Barton. IST Austria; John Innes Centre. A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how diverging populations become distinct species. Much progress has been made in characterising genomic differentiation and the genes that contribute towards phenotypic differences and reproductive isolation. However, directly linking genes to phenotypes to fitness and reproductive isolation in nature has proved challenging. We address this gap in a uniquely tractable plant system, Antirrhinum (snapdragons). In this system, two subspecies with different flower colour give rise to four hybrid phenotypes across narrow hybrid zones. Flower colour is under simple genetic control, allowing us to track individuals, their phenotypes and underlying genes through space and time. Whole genomes sampled across the hybrid zone show the highest regions of genomic differentiation are located around the genes that control flower colour. The existence of steep clines for flower colour and diagnostic SNPs linked to the underlying genes indicates selection against some recombinant phenotypes. A detailed multi-generational pedigree is used to directly measure the reproductive success of the major phenotypes and determine the fitness landscape for interacting flower colour genes. By linking divergent genomic regions to phenotypic traits and how they directly influence fitness in nature, we provide an integrated understanding of the speciation process.

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Adaptation to a special environment: a novel endosymbiotic bacterium living inside an ant (52725) Antonia Klein, Lukas Schrader, Rosario Gil, Alejandro Manzano-Marín, Laura Flórez, Martin Kaltenpoth, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya, Jan Oettler. Institute of Zoology/Evolutionary Biology, University Regensburg, Germany; Institut Canvanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de Valencia, Spain; Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany. Bacteria are ubiquitous in nature and have evolved uncountable adaptations to the environment. For example, so called endosymbionts live inside eukaryotic hosts. Endosymbionts often evolve mutualistic associations with their hosts, where they provide novel ecological traits to the host and in return are maintained in a sheltered environment. We discovered a novel intracellular bacterial symbiont of the invasive ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, ‘Candidatus Westeberhardia cardiocondylae’ and provide a first characterization of its association with the ant host. Westeberhardia shows substantial genome reduction, a typical feature of endosymbionts. Metabolic pathway analyses of the Westeberhardia genome, localization of Westeberhardia via FISH in bacteriomes and an increase of the symbiont in the pupal stage, suggest provisioning with tyrosine precursors during metamorphosis for the host´s cuticle built up as the basis of the mutualism. After hatching of the host the gutassociated bacteriomes degrade but queens maintain Westeberhardia in their ovaries for vertical transmission, whereas bacterial populations in adult workers and males degenerate with age. With the discovery of a naturally symbiont-free host population we have discovered a suitable system for studying ant-bacteria co-adaptation in the future. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL D 33

The hemoglobin repertoire in the order of Gadiformes linked to depth adaptation (52770) Helle Tessand Baalsrud, Ole Kristian Tørresen, Martin Malmstrøm, Walter Salzburger, Kjetill Sigurd Jakobsen, Sissel Jentoft. University of Oslo; University of Basel. Gene and genome duplications can promote evolutionary invention by releasing the copied genetic region from functional constraints. Natural selection acting on the new gene can result in sub-/neofunctionalization or gene loss. In teleosts, the number of hemoglobin genes varies extensively between and within lineages. , This observed phenomenon is likely driven by natural selection as environmental factors such as temperature and oxygen partial pressure, which in turn depends on water depth, influence the oxygen carrying properties of hemoglobin. In the order of Gadiformes (cods and allies), species have adapted to an array of ocean depths, and it has been hypothesized that the ancestor originated form a deep-water

fish. Here we use whole genome sequencing of 27 species to characterize the hemoglobin repertoire across this lineage. By using ancestral reconstruction and tests of natural selection we unveil that hemoglobin may have been key for the evolutionary transition from a deepwater fish to a diversity of species occupying the entire water-column, and could be involved in ecological speciation in this lineage. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL D 33

Molecular structure and functional diversity of a naturally polymorphic enzyme: PGI of Colias (52771) Jason Hill, Ward Watt. Stockholm University; University of South Carolina. Reproductive success in flying insects is heavily dependent on an effective core metabolic pathway, glycolysis, in responding to rapidly fluctuating energy demands. The glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase, PGI, is extensively polymorphic in Colias (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), and its polymorphs’ genotypic functional differences successfully predict performance and fitness differences in the wild. The structural basis for this functional diversity has not been studied directly until now. We produced a high-resolution crystal structure for Colias PGI, and then used that native structure as a template to carry out 50 nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations for different allozymes of PGI. These simulations were coupled with enzyme kinetics measurements of catalytic function and thermal stability in an attempt to match structural differences between the allozymes with biochemically measured functional differences. Kinetics analysis confirmed the already known tradeoff in thermal stability vs. catalytic function in hom*odimers that maintains polymorphism within species and has identified the most likely mutational path between the fixed difference that separates the alpine C. medii and lowland C. eurytheme. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED POL D 33

The genetic basis of parallel speciation in a marine snail (52944) Anja Marie Westram, Marina Panova, Juan Galindo, Roger Butlin. University of Sheffield; University of Gothenburg; University of Vigo. Parallel divergence can provide strong evidence for the role of divergent selection. However, despite parallel phenotypic evolution, loci potentially affected by selection ('outlier loci') are often not shared among geographical locations, suggesting different underlying molecular mechanisms. Alternatively, low sharing might emerge if many outliers are spurious. Low outlier sharing has e.g. been observed in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, which has evolved two ecotypes - adapted to wave exposure vs. crab predation - repeatedly in Sweden,

Spain and the UK. Using capture sequencing, we re-sequenced candidate outlier and control loci in snails from two locations per country. We predicted that, if observed patterns of outlier sharing are genuine, sharing should increase on smaller geographical scales, where genetic variation is more similar and gene flow is higher. If they are caused by spurious outliers, sharing should be low even among geographically close populations, and outliers should often not be confirmable. We found that the majority of outliers could be confirmed, and outlier sharing increased markedly among geographically close populations. Therefore, low sharing between countries is not solely due to technical reasons but can be explained by separate evolutionary histories and / or less gene flow among geographically distant instances of divergence. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN B 35

Drosophila wing shape Integration: A multi-level approach. (52027) Hugo Benitez, Chris Klingenberg. University of Manchester. Different levels of biological variation are generated from distinct sources: genetic, developmental and evolutionary variation. These levels of variation interact in morphology, being for instance observed in how correlated or independent are different traits with respect to each other. The following study applies morphometric methods in order to address questions about Drosophila wing shape at three levels of integration: static, developmental and evolutionary. Static integration refers to the level variation among individuals, where all specimens are at the same ontogenetic stage and belong to the same species; developmental integration is produced from the interactions between developmental processes that generate different features, and evolutionary integration is simply the covariation among evolutionary changes considering the phylogenetic structure of the data. We develop this approach in an analysis of wing evolution in 58 species across the genus Drosophila. The present results show that all the 58 Drosophila species exhibit morphological integration. Wing shape showed a noticeable developmental integration both as an overall structure and between developmental compartments. In addition, a clear evolutionary integration of wing shape was found. It is possible to conclude that wing shape shows strong internal covariation, and that the integration process has evolved in the genus. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN B 35

The evolution of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in ants (52700) Thomas Schmitt, Bonnie Blaimer, Florian Menzel. University of Würzburg; Smithonian Institution; University of Mainz. Insect cuticles are covered with hydrocarbons (CHC), which serve two main functions: desiccation barrier and information transfer. The CHC profiles of ants carry information on

their species identity, colony, caste, sex, etc. Intraspecific variation is usually restricted to quantitative changes in hydrocarbon composition, whereas interspecific variation is characterized by qualitative alterations i.e. variation in substance identities and substance classes. To date, little is known about the evolutionary causes of interspecific CHC variation. Moreover, we do not understand the role of phylogenetic or physiological constraints on CHC evolution. Here, we analysed the CHC profiles of 37 Camponotus and 39 Crematogaster species from around the world. CHC profiles did not appear to experience strong phylogenetic constraints. Even sister species could exhibit completely different profiles. However, we identified several physiological constraints which might be caused by the need to maintain a semiliquid texture of the epicuticular layer. Climate strongly influenced substance class composition. We explain this by variance in waterproofing requirements. Interestingly, the length of the hydrocarbon chains was not affected by climate, but was extended among ants in interspecific mutualistic associations. We conclude that CHC profiles can evolve quickly, but experience constraints posed by climatic conditions, interspecific interactions, and their physico-chemical properties. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN B 35

Queen signalling in the honeybee (52838) Thomas Richardson. University of Lausanne. In complex animal societies in which there is a reproductive division of labour, the reproductively-active individuals sometimes produce signals that advertise their fertility. In the eusocial insects, mated and reproducing queens produce queen pheromones, which can act to inhibit selfish worker reproduction, and suppress worker rearing of virgin queens. Although the debate concerning the ultimate explanations for the evolution of queen pheromones – and in particular, whether they should be classed as honest or manipulative signals – has yet to produce a clear consensus, both hypotheses predict that mechanisms that govern the dissemination of the queen signal should preferentially target (i) older workers with functioning ovaries, as these workers have the potential to selfishly lay unfertilized eggs, and (ii) young nurse workers, as it is these workers that control the rearing of virgin queens. Using a system for simultaneously and automatically tracking the movements of thousands of honeybees, we characterise the ages of the workers targeted by three different pathways for queen pheromone dissemination, (i) direct transmission from queen to workers via physical contacts, (ii) indirect transmission via so-called `messenger' bees, and (iii) indirect transmission via the wax. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN B 35

Transcriptomic underpinning of lifespan differentiation between castes in ants. (52081)

Eric Lucas, Oksana Riba-Grognuz, Miguel Corona, Yannick Wurm, Laurent Keller. University of Lausanne; USDA; Queen Mary University of London. Senescence presents an evolutionary puzzle: why have organisms not evolved to avoid the age-linked degeneration which occurs in most species? The disposable soma theory argues that senescence is governed by a trade-off between longevity and other life-history traits. Ants provide an excellent model for studying the evolution of senescence as they are typically characterised by extreme variation in lifespan between castes, with queens living as much as 15 times longer than workers despite being genetically identical. Furthermore, ant queens are amongst the longest-living insects, with Lasius niger queens living up to 29 years. Using tissue-specific high-throughput RNA sequencing of age-controlled individuals, we tested whether queens and workers of L. niger differ in their expression of genes involved in somatic maintenance. We found that queens over-express these genes relative to workers, but in an age-dependent manner. The difference in lifespan between castes therefore seems to stem from differential investment into maintenance at specific life stages. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN B 35

Adaptive landscapes of transcription factor binding sites (52693) José Aguilar-Rodríguez, Joshua L. Payne, Andreas Wagner. University of Zurich, Inst. of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, Zurich, Switzerland; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland; The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. The adaptive landscape is a central concept in evolutionary theory. Recent advances in highthroughput technologies have provided us with a first glimpse at the structure and navigability of a few incomplete empirical landscapes. Here, we have studied more than one thousand complete and empirical adaptive landscapes. Each landscape describes the binding specificity of a transcription factor to all possible short DNA sequences. The architecture of such landscapes has important implications for evolution, as a transcription factor’s specificity for its cognate binding site determines its influence on gene expression. We find that the adaptive landscapes of transcription factor binding specificities are far less rugged than randomized landscapes and only slightly more than additive landscapes. They contain few peaks that are accessible from throughout the landscape. These peaks do not usually comprise single sites but broad plateaus that can contain dozens to hundreds of sites, indicating the robustness of highly specific binding to mutations. The binding sites found in more accessible peaks are enriched in protein-bound regions of the mouse genome. Our findings suggest that the navigability of transcription factor binding landscapes and the robustness of their peaks may have contributed to the enormous success of transcriptional regulation as a means to achieve novel phenotypes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 WED GEN B 35

Why shuffle genes? The dynamics of integron evolution in changing environments (52620) Jan Engelstädter, Klaus Harms, Pål Jarle Johnsen. University of Queensland; University of Tromsø; University of Copenhagen. Integrons are widespread genetic elements in bacteria that function as gene capture and reshuffling devices. They consist of an array of gene cassettes (often encoding antibiotic resistance determinants), and a gene encoding an integrase that can excise and re-insert gene cassettes. In spite of their importance in clinical contexts, little is known about the evolutionary origin and maintenance of integrons. Here, we present a mathematical model in which bacteria with and without a functional integrase compete with each other. The population is subject to a number of stressors that arise stochastically and to which the different gene cassettes provide resistance. In bacteria carrying a functional integrase, the order of the gene cassettes within the integron is reshuffled, which in turn affects their gene expression patterns. Our model predicts that for a wide range of realistic parameters, a functional integrase can prevail in the population in spite of substantial fitness costs. Similarly to mutator genes, this advantage comes about through increasing genetic diversity within the population and is strongest when environmental conditions change at intermediate rates. We also show that under some conditions a functional integrase can prevent population extinction and explore how new integrons can emerge through horizontal gene transfer. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN C 4

Comparing within and between-sex pleiotropy as constraints on the evolution of male and female gene expression (53323) Stephen Chenoweth. The University of Queensland. Sex-specific selection is widely thought responsible for shaping multiple genomic patterns of sexually dimorphic gene expression. It is well recognised that simultaneous adaptation in males and females can be curtailed whenever alleles controlling regulatory variation have sexually-antagonistic pleiotropic effects. However, pleiotropy between the sexes is but one form pleiotropic constraint, and it may be the case that other forms, such as pleiotropy between genes co-regulated within each sex, contribute greater constraining effects on the evolution of male and female gene expression. In an attempt to address this, I will integrate results across our recent quantitative genetic studies of sex-specific fitness and gene expression, within and among natural populations of the fly, Drosophila serrata. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN C 4

Sexually antagonistic epigenetic marks (53333) William Rice. The sexes share the same autosomal genomes yet sexual dimorphism is common due to sexspecific gene expression. When present, XX and XY karyotypes trigger alternate regulatory cascades that determine sex-specific gene expression profiles. In mammals, secretion of testosterone (T) by the testes is the master switch influencing the gene expression pathway (male vs. female) that will be followed, but many genes have sex-specific expression prior to T secretion. Environmental factors, like antiandrogens, can disrupt sexual development. However, sex-specific ontogeny can be canalized by the production of epigenetic marks (epimarks) produced during early ontogeny that increase sensitivity of XY embryos to T and decrease sensitivity of XX embryos. Here I will integrate and synthesize the evidence indicating that canalizing epi-marks are produced during early ontogeny. I will also describe the evidence that such epi-marks sometimes carry over across generations and produce mosaicism in which some traits are discordant with the gonad. Such carry-over epi-marks are sexually antagonistic because they benefit the individual in which they were formed (via canalization) but harm opposite-sex offspring when they fail to erase across generations and produce gonad-trait discordances. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN C 4

Resource competition and the evolution of sexual dimorphism (51570) Stephen De Lisle, Locke Rowe. University of Toronto; University of Toronto. Theory suggests the evolution of sexual dimorphism in ecologically relevant traits can evolve purely through competition between the sexes for a shared resource. Although more parsimonious hypotheses exist for the evolution of ecological sexual dimorphisms, there are some underappreciated reasons to expect that resource competition may often play some role in the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Here, we outline a set of minimal criteria for empirically demonstrating a role for resource competition in the evolution of dimorphism. Using a series of experiments, we compare the geometry of fitness surfaces across density and sex frequency manipulations in a pond-breeding salamander (Notophthalmus viridescens). We find consistent disruptive selection on multivariate sexual dimorphism in feeding morphology, that increases in strength with density. Fitness and the strength of divergent selection are negative-frequency dependent in the manner expected under competition-driven divergence between the sexes. Taken together, our results constitute evidence of resource competition between the sexes as a contributor to sexually antagonist selection and the evolution of sexual dimorphism. We suggest that resource competition may often contribute to sexual divergence jointly with selection stemming from anisogamy, especially when ecological opportunity is sex-specific -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN C 4

Sexual selection drives short- and long-term evolution of the avian Z chromosome (51711) Alison Wright, Peter Harrison, Fabian Zimmer, Stephen Montgomery, Marie Pointer, Judith Mank. University College London; University of Oxford. Comparisons between sex chromosomes and autosomes are important for understanding the magnitude of sexual conflict acting throughout the genome. We investigated the role of sexual selection in shaping gene expression and coding evolution of the Z chromosome in the Galloanserae, a clade of birds with the full range of sexual selection. Our results reveal that over long-term evolutionary history, the Z chromosome has been convergently and successively masculinized (Wright et al. 2012 Genetics), consistent with theoretical predictions that Z-linked genes should be more often selected for male-benefit alleles due to their unequal inheritance pattern. We next examined the role of mating system in driving masculinization of the Z chromosome over shorter evolutionary timespans, using phylogenetically controlled comparisons among species with high and low levels of sexual selection. Our results, combining coding sequence, polymorphism and gene expression with phenotypic measures of sexual selection, indicate that variance in male reproductive success in promiscuous species reduces the effective population size of the Z chromosome (Wright et al. in review), leading to relaxed purifying selection acting on the coding content. This in turn limits the adaptive role of the Z chromosome in general, and in particular its potential role in encoding sexually selected traits. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN C 4

Insights on Sexually Antagonistic Selection in the Human Genome (51817) Elise Lucotte, Romain Laurent, Evelyne Heyer, Laure Ségurel, Bruno Toupance. Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Sexually antagonistic selection can occur when, within a species, the two sexes have different fitness optima for a trait. If a trait under sexually antagonistic selection is encoded by the same set of genes in the two sexes, an Intralocus Sexual Conflict (IASC) can arise, leading to the evolution of sexual dimorphism. A classical theoretical model predicts that the X chromosome should be a hotspot for the accumulation of loci under IASC, as compared to the autosomes. Although numerous studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis, they provided conflicting results and, so far, no study attempted to map loci under IASC at the genome-wide level in natural populations. Here, we designed a methodological framework to detect loci under IASC using genomic data. Applying this method on a human genome-wide SNP dataset (HapMap, 11 worldwide populations), we show that SNPs exhibiting signatures of ongoing IASC are preferentially located on the X chromosome as compared to autosomes. Moreover, they are enriched in genes involved in the determination of traits known to be sexually dimorphic in humans, including external appearance, metabolism and immune system, supporting an implication of sexually antagonistic selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 410 24

Genetic architecture of aggression and cooperation in the California harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus (52324) Juergen Gadau, Jennifer Fewell, Alexander Mikheyev. Arizona State University; Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology . Aggression is an adaptive behavior that is shown in many different contexts in solitary and social organisms. The regulation of aggression, when, where and how much aggressive behavior is shown, is however an important component that determines whether aggression is adaptive or non-adaptive. Abnormal/non-adaptive aggression in humans is often associated with psychological disorders that are based on an underlying genetic predisposition that can be elicited by a diverse array of environmental factors. Newly mated queens of P.californicus found nests either alone (haplometrosis) or in groups of unrelated yet cooperative individuals. This population differences have a strong genetic basis that manifests itself in significant differences in aggression and conflict escalation during colony founding when queens of the haplometrotic population are paired artificially with queens of their own or the pleometrotic population. We studied the genetic and regulatory mechanisms of aggression and, by corollary, cooperation by comparing the differences in brain gene expression profiles of aggressive and non-aggressive P. californicus foundresses. This allowed shed further light on the evolution of both social phenotypes in P. californicus, and the genetic and regulatory basis of aggression and cooperation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 410 24

Convergent molecular signatures of plastic phenotypes in eusocial evolution (53354) Seirian Sumner. School of Biological Sciences, Bristol Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol. Convergent phenotypes are apparent across the tree of life, despite contrasting evolutionary histories, ecologies and selection pressures. To what extent does convergence at the phenotypic level reflect convergence at the molecular level? To address this we sequenced and compared the genomes and 23 brain transcriptomes of two eusocial insect species with simple societies, the paper wasp Polistes canadensis and the dinosaur ant Dinoponera quadriceps. Both exhibit simple, behavioural castes with comparable highly plastic phenotypes, but the wasp evolved from a solitary ancestor, representing basal eusociality, whereas the ant evolved via a secondary reversion from a complex eusocial ancestor. We found evidence of shared molecular traits associated with phenotypes that are likely to be hallmarks of simple eusocial castes, irrespective of evolutionary history, and putative molecular signatures of plastic phenotypes. These included little molecular differentiation between castes at the gene, network, regulatory or functional level; molecular specialization

in queens but not workers; a role for both conserved and taxon-restricted genes in phenotypic differentiation. We also found molecular traits specific to the wasp that are putative signatures of basal eusocial evolution and included absence of worker-biased transcription, reflecting the generalist behavioural strategies of subordinate social animals. Ant-specific traits we found that are likely to be remnants of inherited complex eusociality included equal transcriptional investment in castes, increased molecular differentiation and role for taxon-specific genes. Identifying the contrasting, as well as conserved molecular processes that underlie convergent phenotypes has the potential to unlock the pathways by which evolution repeatedly solves recurring problems. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 410 24

Bold individuals live in risky environments: nature, nurture or both? (51807) Benedikt Holtmann, Shinichi Nakagawa. University of Otago. A new hypothesis states that animals choose their habitats according to their personality (phenotypic habitat-selection hypothesis). If sensitivity to predation risk (e.g. shy or bold) exists and if the environment is heterogeneous, this hypothesis predicts that variation in personality would be maintained. Yet, a traditional view is that animals become adjusted to their chosen habitat after settling (habituation hypothesis). This hypothesis predicts that individuals change their levels of responsiveness to predators over time. Here, we test these contrasting hypotheses using a population of dunnocks (Prunella modularis) in a public park where human disturbance risk is heterogeneous over space but constant over time. We found that boldness (i.e., flight-initiation distance) was highly repeatable. Bold birds were found in most disturbed areas while shy birds were found in least disturbed areas. In contrast vigilance was more plastic and birds became less vigilant over time. Although these findings support both hypotheses, clearly, personality plays an important role in habitat selection. We also detected a strong behavioural syndrome between boldness and vigilance, highlighting the importance of examining traits with different degrees of flexibility together. In addition, we investigated associations between boldness and the two candidate genes: DRD4 and SERT (dopamine and serotonin receptor genes). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 410 24

Direct and indirect genetic effects shape the social phenotype of great tit* (52114) Reinder Radersma, Joshua A. Firth, Colin J. Garroway, Bernhard Voelkl, Ben C. Sheldon. Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK; Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, Canada.

Many animals regularly engage in interactions with conspecifics. Because those interactions can have fitness consequences, there is scope for selection on social traits. For selection to operate traits need to have a heritable component; however, we know little about the genetic basis of social traits. Here we estimate heritability of social traits derived from six large social networks of foraging great tit* (Parus major) from one pedigreed population in six winters. Networks consisted of 753-1,166 individuals engaging in 12,740-132,143 flocking events each winter. We derived three social traits from association indices: gregariousness, unevenness of relationships and clustering. Because individuals affect each other’s social phenotypes, the heritability of social behaviour is potentially overestimated. To account for this we introduced indirect genetic and environmental effects in the models. We found withinindividual repeatabilities of 34-46% when we did not account for indirect effects and 27-35% when accounting for indirect effects. Heritabilities were 13-17% without indirect effects and 12-14% with indirect effects. We show that indirect genetic and environmental effects can shape the social phenotype. As social selection may act faster and more efficiently than other forms of selection, this study opens up a new perspective on the evolution of social behaviour. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 410 24

Baffling: an alternative signalling strategy using self-made tools (52122) Rittik Deb, Rohini Balakrishnan. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science. In order to reduce the costs of finding mates animals often use different modes of communication. From the sexual selection perspective, the general trend has been that males advertise (signal) and females respond. These signals are also used by males for intra-sexual competition and by females to choose between males. One of the consequences of inter-male competition and female choosiness has been the evolution of alternative strategies. Often these are simple behavioral modifications but occasionally involve extraordinary tools and complex behavioral patterns. In our study species, a tiny tree cricket, Oecanthus henryi, it was found that though the dominant strategy was to call from leaf edge to attract females, some males have evolved an alternative signalling strategy. This strategy encompassed making and use of a complex tool (a precise acoustic baffle) that enhanced their communication efficiency. Field observations and controlled experiments revealed that though all males could make baffles, very few males implemented this strategy in the wild. Following this we examined who were the males that were adopting this strategy and what were their advantages (proximate and ultimate). Further ecologically relevant experiments and simulations were conducted to understand the ecological context and evolution of such an alternative behavioral strategy. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 410 24

The influence of age and gene expression on division of labor in a social insect (52144)

Philip Kohlmeier, Foitzik Susanne, Feldmeyer Barbara. Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. In complex societies of eusocial insects, workers specialize in certain tasks. Whether an individual acts as a forager or a nurse depends on the colony’s needs and is modulated by individual variation in task thresholds. These are influenced by the expression of behavioral genes, which in turn are affected by age, physiology, and environmental factors, among others. For example, old honeybee workers are more likely to forage than younger individuals showing lower titers of vitellogenin but higher expression of octapamine. However, how these factors interact, influence behavioral gene expression, and finally determine behavior, is poorly understood. To disentangle them, we manipulated colony composition in the ant Temnothorax longispinosus to control for worker age and task requirements. Behavioral observations revealed that young workers focus on inside tasks, whereas older individuals take over foraging. However, in manipulated colonies, old workers responded to the young worker removal by increasing their brood care activity, whereas in the reverse case young workers failed to switch to foraging. Whole transcriptomes of designated brood carers and foragers of both ages were then analyzed using RNA-Seq. We here report on the results of behavioral observations and on the genes and functional categories associated with behavioral caste and age. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL A 32

How likely is rapid adaptation? Lessons from eco-evolutionary population modelling (53338) Katja Schiffers. Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F). Recent evidence for rapid adaptive changes in populations exposed to environmental change suggests that projections of species range dynamics based on the premise of ecological niche conservatism may be overly pessimistic. However, eco-evolutionary theory has shown that there exist a number of genetic and demographic constraints that may hamper rapid adaptation and evolutionary rescue. To evaluate the importance of adaptive processes for species' range dynamics, we need to better understand the coupling between ecological and evolutionary processes. In this talk, I will present two studies based on stochastic simulations of joint allelic and demographic dynamics of spatially-structured populations that examine the prerequisites for evolutionary adaptation. The first study evaluates the equivocal effects of dispersal in heterogeneous habitats on a population’s evolutionary potential under changing climate. The second one explores how landscape structure and genetic architecture jointly drive rates of niche evolution. Results of both studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of adaptive processes to genetic, demographic and environmental factors and show that a multitude of prerequisites have to concur to allow populations to rapidly adapt to new environmental conditions. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Session 1 THU POL A 32

Mapping life-cycle phenology of plant genotypes in space and time (53572) Liana Burghardt, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Amity M. Wilczek, Daniel E. Runcie, Johanna Schmitt, Kathleen Donohue. Duke University. Predicting how the environment affects the expression of genetic variation remains a perennial challenge to evolutionary ecologists. We have developed a model that predicts environment-dependent timing of plant life-stage transitions and life-cycle expression. Lifecycle expression strongly influences fitness because it determines the environmental conditions to which each differentially tolerant life stage will be exposed. This model, parameterized for A. thaliana, generates predictions of whole life-cycle phenology of different genotypes in complex environments. First, we simulate life cycles in four locations and compared multiple “genotypes” by varying two parameters associated with natural genetic variation in phenology: seed dormancy and floral repression. The model predicts variation in life cycles across locations that qualitatively matched observed natural phenology and suggests that dormancy variation across the range is necessary to maintain an annual life cycle. We also use this framework to predict the reproductive environment A. thaliana is exposed to across the range. Reproductive environments are important because they influence dormancy levels and reproductive rates. We show that a genetic cline in dormancy reduces the breadth of reproductive environments experienced and may contribute to local adaptation in this species. Lastly, we use this framework to explore how changes in temperature and moisture across the European range due to temporal climate change will influence life-cycle expression of these same genotypes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL A 32

The accumulation of mutation load and range dynamics. (51883) Roslyn Henry, Aurélie Coulon, Kamil Bartoń, Justin Travis. The University of Aberdeen; Centre d’Ecologie et des Sciences de la Conservation, Paris; Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier. Periods of climate change can alter the nature of biological processes within species’ ranges, thus the eco-evolutionary dynamics of range formation and expansion are important for understanding and predicting species distributions. Here, we focus on a process that has thus far been overlooked in both contexts; the accumulation of mutation load. For range formation we show that the accumulation of deleterious mutations severely reduces the extent of a range across an environmental gradient, especially when dispersal is limited, growth rate is low and mutations are of intermediate deleterious effect. For range expansion, we demonstrate that the accumulation of mutation load can substantially slow the rate of range expansion however the evolution of dispersal mediates this effect to some extent. Our results illustrate the important role deleterious mutations can play in range dynamics and as such we highlight the incorporation of mutation load as a necessary focus for further work, noting particularly the

potentially opposing effects that mutation load and migration load may have for species’ range dynamics. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL A 32

Local adaptation versus inbreeding depression in marginal populations of a Mediterranean alpine plant: are they worthy of conservation in a context of climate change? (52284) Javier Morente-López, Alfredo García-Fernández, Carlos Lara-Romero, Maria Luisa RubioTeso, Raquel Ruiz, Ainhoa Sánchez, José María Iriondo. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos. Silene cililata is a chamaephytic cushion plant that grows in alpine cryophylic pastures of the Mediterranean mountains. In the Sistema Central of the Iberian Peninsula, populations occur along an altitudinal gradient from 1900 to 2500 m. Populations that grow at the lower elevations are marginal from the standpoint of the ecological range of the species. However, the higher temperature and lower precipitation regimes that take place in these sites are likely to expand to the rest of the distribution area of the species as a consequence of global warming. In this context, we were interested in contributing to the debate on whether marginal populations are able to locally adapt to the existing limiting environmental conditions or, on the contrary, are genetically impoverished and maladapted. We have implemented an experimental design that involved artificial cross-pollination of mother plants from various marginal populations using pollen from the same population, other marginal populations and central populations. The performance of the resulting seeds was assessed in situ at experimental sowing plots located nearby the marginal populations. This experiment has been complemented with common garden studies implemented in an ex-situ experimental facility to ascertain genetic differences in vegetative, phenological and reproductive traits of the species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL A 32

Forecasting the demographic and evolutionary response of perennial Alpine plants (52404) Olivier Cotto, Wilfried Thuiller, Frédéric Guillaune. UNC Chapel Hill; Université de Grenoble 1,CNRS; University of Zurich. Predicting how climate change will affect species distributions is a major challenge for biologists. Most previous attempts to answer this challenge used projections of the current ecological niche to assess future species distributions. Species niche can change over time due to evolutionary processes and species demography can be deeply affected by selective pressures resulting from climate changes. We used genetically explicit individual based simulations with overlapping generations to investigate the roles of evolution and species

demography for predicting future species distributions. We modeled the life histories and current distributions of four endemic Alpine perennial plant species. We used the latest regional climatic simulations to model the environment up to 2090. We assumed that selection and intraspecific competition occur at the seedling stage. We found that the extinction rate of these species would not change over time. However, the size of local populations would drop accompanied by modifications in age-structure. Old maladapted adults persist and block the recruitment of adapted juveniles. We further found that stopping climate change allow an immediate increase in local population sizes with no extinction debt. Overall we show that, for long-lived species, climate warming would deteriorate the state of local populations without change in extinction rate, possibly until a massive and sudden extinction event. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL A 32

Are plastic changes in tree phenology adaptive in the context of climate change? Insights from a mechanistic model. (52492) Ophélie Ronce, Anne Duputié, Alexis Rutschmann, Isabelle Chuine. ISEM CNRS. Concerns are rising about the capacity of species to adapt quickly enough to climate change. In long-lived organisms such as trees, genetic adaptation is slow, and how much phenotypic plasticity can help them cope with climate change remains largely unknown. Here, we assess whether, where and when phenological plasticity is and will be adaptive in three major European tree species. We use a process-based species distribution model, parameterized with extensive ecological data, and manipulate plasticity to suppress phenological variations due to interannual, geographical and trend climate variability, under current and projected climatic conditions. We show that phenological plasticity is not always adaptive and mostly affects fitness at the margins of the species' distribution and climatic niche. Under current climatic conditions, phenological plasticity constrains the northern range limit of oak and beech and the southern range limit of pine. Under future climatic conditions, phenological plasticity becomes strongly adaptive towards the trailing edges of beech and oak, but severely constrains the range and niche of pine. Our results call for caution when interpreting geographical variation in trait means as adaptive, and strongly point towards species distribution models explicitly taking phenotypic plasticity into account when forecasting species distribution under climate change scenarios. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL B 18

Functional genomics of marine and freshwater sticklebacks (52566) Felicity Jones. Friedrich Miescher Laboratory of the Max Planck Society.

Colonisation of new freshwater habitats has resulted in the repeated adaptive divergence of freshwater sticklebacks from their ancestral marine ecotype. We use these powerful biological replicates of the evolutionary process to identify and functionally dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation. I'll describe how we are using whole genome sequencing and population genomics of stickleback species pairs to identify high-resolution sets of loci underlying parallel adaptive divergence. Many loci fall in non-coding parts of the genome, suggesting non-coding regulatory elements may be particularly important in adaptation. We use a range of methods to functionally dissect the phenotypic effect of these loci. These include transgenic methods to test for divergence in the regulatory potential of marine and freshwater adaptive haplotypes, and powerful new genome editing techniques to knock-out and knock-in adaptive loci. Our ultimate aim is to understand the fitness effects of these loci in natural populations. To do this we study the fitness and survival of naturally occuring recombinant individuals in contact zones between marine and freshwater forms. The ability to identify and functionally dissect adaptive loci in sticklebacks provides powerful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation in natural populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL B 18

The genetic basis for the rapid diversification of male genital morphology among Drosophila species (51763) Kentaro M. Tanaka, Corinna Hopfen, Matthew R. Herbert, Christian Schlötterer, David L. Stern, John P. Masly, Maria D. S. Nunes, Alistair P. McGregor. Oxford Brookes University; Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien (Austria); MPI for Biology of Ageing (Cologne, Germany); Janelia Research Campus (VA, USA); University of Oklahoma (OK, USA). Identifying the genetic and developmental bases of phenotypic evolution is crucial to understanding organismal diversity and the evolutionary forces involved. The morphology of the external genitalia of males of Drosophila simulans clade species has evolved rapidly since their last common ancestor. For example, male D. simulans and D. mauritiana exhibit striking differences in the size, shape and bristle composition of their claspers, posterior lobes and anal plates. To identify the underlying loci we used high-resolution introgression mapping. We detected several small regions on chromosome 3 that contribute to interspecific differences in either the claspers or the posterior lobe and anal plates. While generally these loci affect each trait in the same direction and act additively, we also found evidence for epistasis. We then performed an RNAi screen to investigate if positional candidate genes that are differentially expressed between sexes or species also regulate genital development. We found six genes that are required for development of genital traits consistent with the effects of the introgressed regions in which they are located. We are currently using CRISPR/Cas9 in D. mauritiana and D. simulans to identify which of these candidate genes have contributed to the evolution of genital differences between these two species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL B 18

Functional characterization of an adaptive cis-regulatory polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster (51637) John Parsch, Amanda Glaser-Schmitt. University of Munich (LMU). Drosophila melanogaster, which presently has a worldwide distribution, expanded from its ancestral home range in sub-Saharan Africa within the past 15,000 years. This expansion into new habitats is thought to have been accompanied by extensive adaptation. However, the genes involved in this adaptation are almost completely unknown. Transcriptomic studies found that the gene CG9509, which encodes a choline dehydrogenase, consistently shows higher expression in cosmopolitan populations than in sub-Saharan populations. The expression difference is caused by sequence variation in an upstream enhancer that shows population genetic evidence for a selective sweep in cosmopolitan populations. Detailed molecular genetic analyses have revealed three SNPs that contribute to the expression difference. Interestingly, two SNPs with moderate effects on expression are fixed in cosmopolitan populations, while a third SNP, which has a large effect on expression, is at intermediate frequency. Using RNAi knockdown and a null mutant, we show that high expression of CG9509 is associated with diminished larval growth rate, smaller adult body size, and reduced wing load - phenotypic traits that may be advantageous in temperate environments. Our results demonstrate how large-scale transcriptomics can be combined with population genetic, molecular genetic, and phenotypic studies to characterize the functional effects of regulatory changes on gene expression and organismal traits. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL B 18

From genome to function: Timing adaptations in the intertidal insect Clunio marinus (52203) Tobias S. Kaiser. Max F Perutz Laboratories. The marine midge Clunio marinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) lives in the intertidal zone of the European Atlantic coast. It’s life cycle is timed to the rhythm of the tides by circadian and circalunar clocks. As the pattern of the tides differs along the coastline, C. marinus populations show a variety of local genetic adaptations in circadian and circalunar timing. Population genetic analysis suggests that timing adaptations evolved within the last 20,000 years. QTL mapping indicates that the timing adaptations are controlled by few major effect loci. In order to pinpoint the adaptive timing loci, we sequenced, assembled, annotated and genetically mapped a C. marinus reference genome, leading to a full reconstruction of the three chromosomes. Then we re-sequenced pools of 300 individuals from five populations of C. marinus, which differ in circadian and circalunar timing. Genome-wide we detected timing-associated genes based on the correlation of genetic divergence with timing differences. The distribution of genetic variation in the QTLs suggests that timing adaptation

happened from standing genetic variation and involves regulatory changes. Subsequent molecular analysis substantiated that adaptation in circadian timing relies on modulating alternative splicing of a metabolic enzyme. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL B 18

Characterization of the wing colour patterning supergene in a mimetic butterfly (52256) Suzanne Saenko, Florence Prunier, Violaine Llaurens. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Identification and experimental validation of genes underlying adaptive phenotypic variation is crucial for our understanding of evolution. Heliconius butterflies are famous for their extreme diversity in wing colour patterns, associated to aposematism and Müllerian mimicry. While the majority of Heliconius species are locally monomorphic and vary geographically, H. numata maintains a high local polymorphism throughout its geographical range, with 7-10 forms coexisting in the Amazon populations, each mimicking different species of Melinaea butterflies. This dramatic polymorphism is controlled by alleles of a single supergene P, containing at least 18 genes. Polymorphic inversions at the P locus suppress recombination, maintaining the favourable genetic combinations that produce mimetic colour patterns. However, the exact nature of the wing patterning genes within the supergene has not yet been investigated. Here, we use RNA-sequencing in combination with ‘classical’ approaches such as qPCR and in situ hybridizations to test the involvement of candidate genes from the P supergene in wing pattern formation in H. numata. Remarkably, this locus harbors the genes involved in colour patterning in other species of Lepidoptera and therefore represents a genomic hotspot of evolutionary change in multiple clades. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL C 10

Ecological and evolutionary determinants of disease dynamics (51727) Anna-Liisa Laine. University of Helsinki. Several key theories have been proposed to explain the diversity of pathogen populations and to predict evolutionary trajectories of disease. Among the key theories are the Red Queen hypothesis, life-history trade-offs, and competition for resources under multiple infection, and while each has been relatively intensively studied also empirically, to date we understand remarkably little about the relevance of these processes for realized epidemiological dynamics under conditions that support spatial and environmental complexity. In this talk I will synthesize what we currently about ecological and coevoltionary processes jointly shaping disease dynamics in the metapopulation of fungal pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis infecting its host across a heterogeneous landscape.

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Side effects of parasitism in microbes (53332) Alex Hall. ETH Zürich. Parasitism creates selection for resistant hosts, but can also alter the frequencies of other alleles not directly related to the host-parasite interaction. I will describe some experiments with bacteria and their viral parasites showing that parasitism can alter the spread of alleles that determine bacterial drug resistance, mutation rate and growth rate in the abiotic environment. These effects can come about through mechanisms such as genetic hitchhiking or epistasis, and our results show that they depend strongly on ecological factors, which modify the strength of selection for resistance to parasites and their effects on other phenotypic traits. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL C 10

Parasite evolution in heterogeneous and spatially structured host populations (51787) Sébastien Lion. CEFE, Montpellier, France. Evolutionary epidemiology aims at understanding how host-parasite interactions evolve in response to various ecological factors. However, theoretical studies often assume that the host population is well-mixed, thereby neglecting potential selective pressures caused by genetic and epidemiological spatial structuring. I will present some theoretical and experimental results in order to elucidate the evolutionary impacts of parasite and host dispersal patterns. I will first focus on a population where all hosts have the same quality, and show that the predictions of non-spatial theory are altered by kin competition for susceptible hosts. I will then examine what happens in a heterogeneous population in which a fraction of the hosts are vaccinated. I show that different types of vaccines lead to different evolutionary outcomes, which depend on the interplay between vaccine efficacy, vaccination coverage, and spatial structure. Kin selection is shown to be a key conceptual tool to understand epidemiological feedbacks on parasite traits and to generate predictions for the management of infectious diseases. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL C 10

Relative fitness of a generalist parasite on alternative hosts: a cross-infestation experiment of the hen flea among sympatric passerine hosts. (51793)

Anaïs APPELGREN, Karen McCOY, Heinz RICHNER, Blandine DOLIGEZ. UMR CNRS 5558 - LBBE (LYON, FR); EEL-IEE (BERN, CH); MIVEGEC (MONTPELLIER, FR). Host range is a key element required to understand a parasite’s ecology and evolution and can vary greatly depending on the spatial scale considered. Several studies suggest that generalist parasites frequently show local population structure in relation to alternative sympatric hosts (i.e., host races), and are thus less “generalist” than described. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a common nest-based parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae exploiting two abundant host species that share the same breeding habitat, the great tit Parus major and the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. We performed a cross-infestation experiment of fleas between the two host species during a single breeding season and recorded the reproductive success of both hosts and parasites. Hosts were recaptured the following year to assess the long-term impact of cross infestation. Results suggest the presence of local host-specialized parasite populations, with variation in the relative virulence on the two hosts modulated by the host population locality and history. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL C 10

Parasite evolution in a host sexually dimorphic world (51858) David Duneau, Nicolas Buchon, Brian Lazarro. Cornell university. The evolution of the interactions between hosts and their parasites is multifactorial as it depends on the combination of many factors in both the host and the parasite. In a growing number of infectious disease, host sex is one of the key factors that generates strong differences in the outcome of the disease. The mechanisms underlying the effect of the host heterogeneity due to sexual dimorphism remain poorly characterized. We used Drosophila melanogaster, a powerful genetic model organism, to investigate the sexual dimorphism of the response to infection, its underlying mechanisms and its consequences on parasite evolution. We characterized the sexual dimorphism in response to a broad spectrum of parasites covering different types of pathogens. We found that male hosts imposed a stronger selective pressure on bacteria probably because of an adaptive reduction of immune sensitivity of female recognition of infection. We described in depth the immune components involved in the dimorphic response to Providencia rettgeri, a natural pathogenic Gram negative bacteria of D. melanogaster populations. Then, we investigated the consequence of sexual dimorphism on the evolution of bacteria via an experimental evolution approach. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL D 9

A behavioural ecologists’ view of bacterial life in the lung (53335) Ashleigh Griffin.

University of Oxford. Behavioural ecologists use evolutionary theory to provide adaptive explanations for observations of animals living in their natural environment. Success relies on accurately identifying selection pressures acting upon traits of interest. For this reason, we have made limited progress in understanding the adaptive significance of behavioural traits in microbes. To observe a bacterial cell, we typically isolate it from its natural environment first before bringing it into the lab for examination. This process releases cells from the very selection pressures we wish to understand. Furthermore, the bacteria we are most interested in – human pathogens – live in one of the most inaccessible and irreplicable environments – living human beings. In this talk, I will present evidence that selection to optimise fitness from social interactions can drive long-term phenotypic dynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting patients with cystic fibrosis. After ten years of studying P. aeruginosa in precisely controlled experimental evolution studies, we were interested to know if the competitive dynamics of cooperators and cheats in our experiments had any relevance to the real world. But first we had to overcome the challenge of identifying selection pressures inside a human lung. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL D 9

Cooperation, cheating, and collapse in microbial populations (53366) Jeff Gore. Natural populations can suffer catastrophic collapse in response to small changes in environmental conditions, and recovery can be difficult even after the environment is restored to its original condition. We have used laboratory microbial ecosystems to directly measure theoretically proposed early warning signals of impending population collapse. Our experimental yeast populations are subject to catastrophic collapse because they cooperatively break down the sugar sucrose, meaning that below a critical size the population cannot sustain itself. The cooperative nature of yeast growth on sucrose also makes the population susceptible to "cheater" cells, which do not contribute to the public good and reduce the resilience of the population. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL D 9

Rock-paper-scissors dynamics maintain cooperation and diversity in wellmixed bacterial communities (51679) Rolf Kümmerli, Fredrik Inglis, Jay Biernaskie, Andy Gardner. University of Zürich; Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG); University of Oxford; University of St. Andrews. Cooperation and diversity abound in nature despite the fact that cooperators risk exploitation from cheats and weak competitors risk displacement by superior ones. This is especially true in unstructured, well-mixed environments where cooperators and weak competitors are fully

exposed to exploitative and superior forms. Here, we use theory and experiments with bacteria to demonstrate a simple mechanism that promotes cooperation and diversity in wellmixed conditions: coexistence between cooperators and cheats is stabilized by the presence of loners who sidestep social interactions. This three-way Rock-Paper-Scissor system occurs in communities of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cooperators secrete shareable siderophore molecules to scavenge growth-limiting iron, thereby outcompeting loners who have an independent yet less efficient iron-uptake system; loners outcompete cheats who can only exploit the cooperator’s but not the loner’s iron uptake system; and cheats outcompete cooperators. This circular interaction network maintains cooperation and strain diversity over time. Thus, our analyses establish a general mechanism for explaining trait, strain and species diversity, even in natural settings like aquatic habitats, where individual dispersal is high. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL D 9

Sibling cooperation mitigates effects of low parental care in earwigs: a new perspective on the early evolution of family life (51744) Jos Kramer, Julia Thesing, Joël Meunier. Dept. of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Zoology, University of Mainz. The evolution of family life requires net fitness benefits for offspring, which are commonly assumed to mainly derive from parental care. However, an additional source of benefits for offspring is often overlooked: cooperative interactions among juvenile siblings. In this study, we examined how sibling cooperation and parental care could jointly contribute to the early evolution of family life. Specifically, we tested in the European earwig Forficula auricularia whether the level of food transferred among siblings (sibling cooperation) (1) depends on the level of maternal food provisioning (parental care), and (2) shapes fitness traits measured in family members. We show that the expression of these two behaviors is negatively correlated, reflecting a compensatory relationship between sibling cooperation and maternal care. Furthermore, the level of sibling food transfer did not influence offspring survival, but was associated with negative effects on the production of the second and terminal clutch by the tending mothers. These findings indicate that sibling cooperation mitigates the detrimental effects on offspring survival that result from being tended by low quality mothers. More generally, they are in line with the hypothesis that sibling cooperation is an ancestral behavior that can be retained to compensate for insufficient levels of parental investment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL D 9

Kin Selection and Maternal Effects: the confusion, consequences and case study. (51893) Caroline Thomson, Jarrod Hadfield. University of Oxford; University of Edinburgh.

There is abundant evidence in many taxa for positive directional selection on body-size, and yet little evidence for microevolutionary change. In species where variation in body-size is caused by variation in parental care, a proposed explanation is a negative genetic correlation between direct and parental effects; selecting genes that increase body-size causes a correlated reduction in parental care, which reduces body-size in the following generation. However, empirical evidence seems to suggest that this genetic correlation is not sufficiently negative (less than -0.9) to explain evolutionary stasis. Here we show that these arguments implicitly assume that parental care is cost free, and including a cost could allow evolutionary stasis without requiring such extreme genetic architectures. Using a large cross-fostered population of blue tit*, we estimate selection on parental care (i.e. the cost) and show that evolutionary stasis would be possible under more reasonable genetic correlations. Thus, we highlight the importance of accounting correctly for the complete selection acting on traits across generations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU POL D 9

The role of antimicrobials in the evolution of cooperation (51986) Marie Vasse, Clara Torres-Barceló, Michael E. Hochberg. Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution-CNRS Université de Montpellier, France; Santa Fe Institute, USA. Cooperation is a pervasive phenomenon in biological systems and despite considerable study, its establishment and maintenance are incompletely understood. Theoretical and empirical work on social behaviors in single species indicates that cooperation is fostered by positive assortment. However, numerous studies on more complex systems have shown that environmental and social factors may influence the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of cooperation. Using both experimental evolution and theoretical approaches, we studied the impact of antimicrobial compounds on the dynamics of public good cooperation within a bacterial population. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that facultatively produces iron-scavenging molecules called siderophores in response to iron limitation. Siderophore production is costly for the producer and benefits other local individuals carrying the siderophore receptors, and therefore may be subject to evolution as a cooperative trait. Comparing a wild-type and a mutant strain lacking the most important siderophore producing gene, separately or in competition, we showed that the deleterious effects of antimicrobials can shape bacterial populations and affect public good dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of considering environmental factors when studying the evolution of cooperation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 415 26

The role of epistasis in the evolution and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (53373) Sebastien Gagneux.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global public health emergency. Although much is known about the mechanisms of resistance to the different anti-TB drugs, little is known on the evolutionary trajectory of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposed to prolonged drug pressure and its impact on the spread of MDR-TB. Recent studies by our group and others suggest that this evolutionary trajectory is more complex than previously thought. In particular, epistatic interactions between drug resistance-conferring mutations, compensatory mutations and different strain genetic backgrounds play an important role. For example, we recently identified mutations in rpoA and rpoC of RNA polymerase of M. tuberculosis resistant to rifampicin. These mutations compensate for the fitness cost associated with the resistance-causing mutations in rpoB. Moreover, these compensatory mutations are associated with ongoing transmission of MDR-TB, indicating that compensatory evolution contributes to the success of highly drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in countries with a high burden of MDR-TB. Using an M. smegm*tis model, we observed sign epistasis between rpoB mutations causing resistance to rifampicin and mutations in gyrA conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones, indicating that mutations causing resistance to different drugs can compensate for each other’s fitness costs. Intriguingly, the particular combinations of rpoB and gyrA mutations exhibiting the highest in vitro fitness were also the more common in clinical strains. Taken together, our findings suggest that epistasis is an important driver of MDR-TB epidemics, and that it should be considered in the development and deployment of new anti-TB drug regimens. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 415 26

Convergent evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa within patients with cystic fibrosis (51623) Rasmus Lykke Marvig, Lea M. Sommer, Søren Molin, Helle K. Johansen. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark. Only little is known about how within-host evolution compares between genotypically different strains of the same pathogenic species. We sequenced the whole genomes of 474 longitudinally collected clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sampled from 34 children and young cystic fibrosis patients. Our analysis of 36 P. aeruginosa lineages identified convergent molecular evolution in 52 genes. This list of genes suggests a role in host-adaptation for remodeling of regulatory networks and central metabolism, acquisition of antibiotic resistance, and loss of extracellular virulence factors. Furthermore, we find an ordered succession of mutations in key regulatory networks. Accordingly, mutations in downstream transcriptional regulators were contingent upon mutations in upstream regulators, suggesting that remodeling of regulatory networks may be important in adaptation. Characterization of genes involved in host-adaptation may help prediction of bacterial evolution in cystic fibrosis patients and design of future intervention strategies. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Session 1 THU MAX 415 26

Omics of endosymbiosis adaptation during experimental evolution of legume symbionts (52222) Camille Clerissi, Delphine Capela, Marta Marchetti, François Li, Rachel Torchet, Stéphane Cruveiller, Carine Gris, Eduardo PC Rocha, Catherine Masson-Boivin. INRA, LIPM, UMR 2594/441, 24 chemin de Borde Rouge-Auzeville, 31326, CastanetTolosan, France; CEA/FAR, Institut de Génomique, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91057, Evry, France; Microbial Evolutionary Genomics, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue Dr. Roux, 75015, Paris, France; CNRS, UMR3525, 28 rue Dr. Roux, 75015, Paris, France. Cooperation between legumes and bacteria collectively called rhizobia fixed a fourth of the atmospheric nitrogen each year. Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate bacteria that have diversified through horizontal transfer of key symbiotic genes converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Making the transition to an intracellular lifestyle is a dramatic ecological change. Each plant indeed represents a complex ecosystem to which the bacterium may adapt. How and which re-adjustments allow the shift to endosymbiosis is still poorly unknown. To tackle this issue, we took advantage of the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into legume symbionts. Eighteen lineages of chimeric Ralstonia were adapted to nodule tissues for 16 infection cycles. Evolution was very fast, since most lineages acquired and improved the two first major symbiotic steps, nodulation and intracellular infection. To get an integrated view of adaptive changes driving symbiotic adaptation, we performed a combined genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of the 18 final clones. The clones exhibit convergent changes that may reflect their capacity to face new endosymbiotic conditions. Our work highlights the potential of coupling experimental evolution with omic approaches to get insight into the emergence of plant endosymbionts. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 415 26

Rapid evolution of bacterial pathogens co-infecting an animal host (52348) Kayla King, Michael Brockhurst, Steve Paterson, Greg Hurst. University of Oxford; University of York; University of Liverpool. Co-infections, when multiple pathogen species coexist within an individual, are very common in nature. Studies in natural populations have provided compelling evidence that competitive interactions between pathogen species in a given host species strongly alter pathogen fitness and transmission. Thus, we hypothesised that co-infection would alter patterns of pathogen evolution. We tested this by experimentally evolving two opportunistic, bacterial pathogens – Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus – separately and together within Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in the lab. Using a combination of phenotypic and genomic analyses, we show that the speed and direction of in vivo evolution of pathogen virulence and other infection-related traits were affected by a co-infecting competitor. The evolution of a pathogen, therefore, cannot be understood without knowledge of others infecting the host.

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Phylodynamic analysis of a mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreak (52913) Denise Kühnert, David Stucki, Mireia Coscolla, Lukas Fenner, Tanja Stadler, Sebastian Gagneux. Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Tropical & Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Biosystems Science & Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. The fast evolution of pathogenic viruses gave rise to a number of phylodynamic approaches to extract information about the epidemiological characteristics of viral genomes. Here we apply these approaches to the more slowly evolving bacterial genomes of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Around 1991 the city of Bern, Switzerland, was struck by a small but severe outbreak of tuberculosis. Two initial cases were observed in 1987 and 1988, the majority of patients were sampled between 1991-1998, and up to 2011 patients infected with related strains were observed. Overall 75 infected patients were sampled, and 68 of the resulting bacterial isolates where genetically related and therefore sequenced. In this study we aim at understanding the epidemiological dynamics of the Bernese tuberculosis outbreak. We analyze the genomes with BEAST2, using a birth-death tree prior that allows to incorporate an exposed phase in which patients are infected but not yet infectious. Piecewise constant changes in the reproduction number allow us to estimate changes in epidemiological dynamics through time. Our results suggest that the majority of transmissions took place before 1993, supporting previous suggestions that more recently sampled cases may have been latent for years, before being reactivated. We estimate an average latent period of 2-5 years. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU MAX 415 26

Parallel evolution of a global regulator ameliorates the cost of plasmid carriage (52435) Ellie Harrison, Steve Paterson, Andrew Spiers, Micheal Brockhurst. University of York; University of Liverpool; Abertay University. Conjugative plasmids present a paradox. Although many carry useful bacterial genes, all plasmids exert a burden on their host. Therefore selection should favour plasmid loss and retention of any useful genes on the bacterial chromosome. Previous studies have shown that evolution can resolve this paradox by ameliorating the cost of plasmid carriage, yet the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. We combine experimental evolution, microarray

analysis and whole genome sequencing to investigate how evolution resolves this plasmid paradox. We experimentally evolved replicate populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens carrying the mercury resistance plasmid pQBR103. Prior to evolution plasmid carriage was associated with widespread up-regulation of translation-associated genes, suggesting that pQBR103 exerts a translational burden on its host. Following evolution however this was reversed. Sequencing of evolved clones revealed parallel evolution targeting two bacterial genes: gacA and gacS, a two-component regulator that positively regulates translation of extracellular proteins. Knockouts confirmed that loss of gacA/S function ameliorates the cost of plasmid carriage. As disruption of gacA/S increases post-transcriptional repression of bacterial genes, these data suggest that the bacteria ameliorate the cost of plasmid carriage by reducing their own translational workload to accommodate that of the plasmid. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN B 35

A theoretical study of sympatric divergence of whitefish in Scandinavia (52756) Xavier Thibert-Plante, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kimmo Kahilainen, Kim Praebel, Kjartan Østbye, Sergey Gavrilets. Umeå University; The Arctic University of Norway; University of Helsinki; University of Oslo; University of Tennessee, Knoxville. We have a better understanding of the role of divergent selection and assortative mating in parapatric speciation event. Unfortunately, the application of those theoretical concepts is not straightforward in complex empirical systems of contemporary speciation. One of such complex system is the divergence of whitefish in Scandinavia. There is a large number of lakes in northern Scandinavia where divergence occurred. In some of those lakes, as much as three morphotypes have diverged in situ. We use a large scale individual-based numerical simulation to model the divergence of whitefish in Scandinavia. Our aim is to distinguish the role of different driving factors (such as habitat preference, divergence in resource distribution, divergence in mating time and divergence in spawning site) in this divergence. Speciation and adaptive radiation are the result of a complex intertwined factors. The leading factor is the divergence in resource types, but reproductive isolation is the result of a much more complex interaction between habitat preference and assortative mating. It is fairly instructive to apply theoretical models to empirical systems, as we learn how the different driving factors interact during speciation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN B 35

Genomic imprinting and its systematic perturbation in abortive interspecific tomato seeds (51694)

Ana Marcela Florez Rueda, Margot Paris, Anja Schmidt, Alex Widmer, Ueli Grossniklaus, Thomas Städler. Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland; Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, CH-8008 Zurich, Switzerland . Hybrid seed failure represents an important postzygotic barrier to interbreeding among species of wild tomatoes (Solanum section Lycopersicon) and other angiosperm groups. We studied this phenomenon in the closely related S. peruvianum and S. chilense; hybrid crosses between these species yield very high proportions of inviable seeds due to endosperm failure and arrested embryo development. Based on seed size differences in reciprocal hybrid crosses and developmental evidence implicating endosperm failure, we hypothesized that (perturbed) genomic imprinting might be involved in this strong postzygotic barrier. Consequently, we surveyed endosperm transcriptomes obtained via laser-microdissecting developing seeds representing both intra- and interspecific pollinations. We implemented a novel approach to estimate parent-of-origin–specific expression using both hom*ozygous and heterozygous nucleotide differences between the two parents and identified hundreds of candidate imprinted genes. Importantly, we uncovered systematic shifts of the ‘normal’ (intraspecific) maternal:paternal transcript proportions in hybrid endosperms; the average maternal proportion of gene expression increases in both directions of the hybrid cross but is strongly negatively correlated with ‘normal’ maternal proportions. This genome-wide shift almost entirely eliminates paternally imprinted gene expression in hybrid endosperms but also affects maternally imprinted genes (which on average shift to lower maternal proportions) and all other genes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN B 35

Why are ring species so rare? (52898) Ayana B. Martins, Marcus A. M. de Aguiar. Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas; Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo. Ring species are groups of organisms that dispersed along a ring shaped region in such a way that the two expansion fronts, that meet after many generations, are reproductively isolated despite ongoing gene flow. Here we study the formation of ring species by simulating population expansion around a central geographic barrier. We combine different strategies of parameter space exploration and compare two models with independent sets of assumptions to propose the conditions for ring species formation by speciation by distance. If population expansion takes less than 10000 generations, ring species formation occurs when the time to contact secondary and the time to reproductive isolation are of the same order. We show that both these times depend on landscape, population and individual features. However, in ring shaped scenarios, population structuring leading to the acquisition of reproductive isolation is better explained by landscape configuration than by local mating. The conditions that allow ring species formation appear to be limited, which could by itself explain their rarity. Furthermore, these complexes are most likely to

form for extremely narrow species distributions which are unlikely to persist in nature, and, therefore, are expected to be rare in nature. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN B 35

Male barn swallows mimic nestlings to attract females (51938) Masaru Hasegawa, Emi Arai, Mamoru Watanabe, Masahiko Nakamura. Sokendai; Tohoku University; University of Tsukuba; Joetsu University of Education. Courtship behaviors of male birds often resemble the food-begging behavior of their young, at least from a human perspective. However, it is still unclear whether such behavior in males is objectively similar to nestling behavior and, if so, how such similarity is evolved and maintained. The sensory trap hypothesis proposes that this similarity is a consequence of signal evolution, whereby male signals mimic stimuli to which females respond in other contexts (i.e., parental care, in this case). We demonstrated that the enticement calls of male barn swallows structurally resemble the food-begging calls of nestlings, compared with the other three male vocalizations (i.e. songs, alarm calls and contact calls). In addition, we found that females were attracted to the playback of nestlings’ food-begging calls during the courtship period, despite nestlings being absent at this time. The response of females to foodbegging calls was similar and positively correlated with their response to male enticement calls. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the objective similarity as well as a similarity in receiver response towards the two behaviors during courtship, supporting the sensory trap hypothesis. We discuss the evolutionary importance of nestling mimicry in this model species of sexual selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN B 35

How sick are sexy males? Testing Hamilton & Zuk hypothesis with a metaanalytical approach. (52575) Zofia Prokop, Mateusz Buczek, Agata Plesnar-Bielak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Lukasz Michalczyk. Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland; University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Female preferences for specific male phenotypes have been documented in many animal species, including those where males contribute only gametes to offspring production. However, selective pressures responsible for the origin and maintenance of such preferences remain elusive. The Hamilton and Zuk hypothesis proposes that female preferences target those male traits that reliably signal heritable disease resistance, and hence preferences evolve by indirect selection – because offspring of choosy females inherit disease resistance alleles from their fathers. One of the predictions of this hypothesis is a negative correlation between secondary sexual traits and disease in males. We use meta-analysis to evaluate empirical evidence for this prediction. Our preliminary results (analysis of ~75% of the final data base)

do not support Hamilton and Zuk hypothesis: the meta-analytic mean for the correlation between sexual traits and disease measures, calculated across studies and taxa, is not significantly different from zero (r=-0.14, CI: -0.32 to 0.05). Interestingly, however, we find a substantial effect of phylogeny on the magnitude of this correlation. In further analyses, we also test for the effects of several moderators related to biology of host and pathogen taxa, and to methodology of the study, on the magnitude of the effect. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 THU GEN B 35

Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands and associated mechanisms (52146) Claire Doutrelant, Matthieu Paquet, Julien Renoult, Pierre-André Crochet, Arnaud Grégoire, Rita Covas. CEFE-CNRS Montpellier, France; ACTE- CNRS Paris, France; CIBIO Porto, Portugal. Islands are natural simplified replicates around the world that harbour original selective environments and offer unique opportunities to investigate patterns of convergent adaptation, referred as syndromes. Communicative traits are decisive to animal fitness, mediating interactions with the environment. However, whether and how these traits are part of an insularity syndrome is still unclear. We quantitatively analyzed with spectrophotometry and a model of avian vision, the plumage colouration of 232 bird species comprising island endemics from around the world and their close mainland relatives. We found that both plumage brightness and colour conspicuousness (volume in a bird colour space) were reduced on islands in both sexes, and further evidenced a decrease in colourfulness (number of distinct colour patches) in males. We then investigated the ‘species recognition’ and ‘life-history trade-offs’ hypotheses as two of the possible explanations for these changes and found some support for both. Hence, our results reveal convergent colour changes on islands worldwide and confirm that interspecific interactions and trade-offs are two of the important underlying mechanisms affecting the evolution of bird plumage colouration. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI GEN C 19

The promise of reverse ecology (53311) Matthew Rockman. New York University. Unbiased genome-wide population-genetic analyses hold remarkable promise for revealing the molecular variants whose frequencies have changed in response to selection within and among populations and species. These methods have been applied to two classes of question. One question centers on the roles of selection, linkage, and demography in shaping the dynamics of genetic variation. A second question centers on discovering specific loci that have been targets of selection and inferring the causes of selection. Approaches to the second

question are sometimes called reverse ecology, by analogy to reverse genetics, which starts with mutations and then seeks impacted phenotypes. Reverse ecology promises to provide an unbiased view of the selective forces operating on populations, but we lack a principled method for connecting genetic variants discovered in such screens to the ecological factors that act on them. This gap is especially acute for genetic variants whose known phenotypes are cell-biological rather than organismal. I will illustrate the challenges with evidence for ongoing selection on meiotic genes in Caenorhabditis nematodes and the alternative models of natural selection that can account for the patterns. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI GEN C 19

Human adaptation to life in the high arctic (53312) Rasmus Nielsen. UC Berkeley. The native people of Greenland, the Inuit, are of special interest to anthropologists and evolutionary biologists because of their extreme adaptations to life in the high arctic. In particular, Inuit traditionally have a diet based primarily on hunting marine mammals, which have a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Inuit provide an opportunity to investigate genetic adaptations to such a diet. We analyze SNP chip data and exome sequencing data from 191 and 18 Inuit, respectively, in order to identify regions targeted by positive selection specifically in Inuit related to metabolic processes. We find extreme selection signals in several loci and using association mapping, we show that alleles associated with positive selection in these loci are strongly associated with multiple phenotypes, including weight. Our study illustrates the use of small understudied populations for understanding the genetic basis of human biological variation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI GEN C 19

Genomic basis of the evolution and variation in Drosophila immunity against parasitoids
 (52187) Bregje Wertheim, Laura Salazar-Jaramillo, Sylvia Gerritsma, Kirsten M. Jalvingh. Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences; University of Edinburgh ; Universite de Lausanne. To understand the intricate genetic networks that underlie variation in immunity, and to map how the genome changes during the evolution of immunity, we use the Drosophila-parasitoid interactions as model system. The ability to survive parasitoid attack varies hugely both among and within species of the Drosophila genus, from absent to high resistance. Combining phenotypic assays, comparative genomics, population genomics and experimental evolution approaches, we identified genome changes associated with gains, losses and increases of parasitoid resistance. Comparing 11 sequenced Drosophila species, we showed that evolution

of parasitoid resistance coincided with the acquiring of a novel type of differentiated hemocyte (i.e. insect blood cell) and with the duplication of 11 genes that are up-regulated during the immune response after parasitization. To characterize the impact of a selective sweep for parasitoid resistance on the genome, we used experimental evolution followed by genome sequencing. Several narrowly defined genomic regions showed strong signatures of selection and candidate genes were identified that potentially confer increased parasitoid resistance. Comparing 8 natural D. melanogaster populations, we find that physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation differ substantially among populations. Combined, this emphasizes that short- and long-term evolutionary responses can result in markedly different genome changes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI GEN C 19

A complementary method to genome scans for selection against maladaptive gene flow (52429) Simon Aeschbacher, Graham Coop. University of California, Davis. We quantify the genome-wide signal of selection against maladaptive gene flow, such as in the context of local adaptation or hybridisation. Combining the concept of effective migration rate with the structured coalescent, we predict the aggregate effect of selection against locally deleterious alleles as a function of recombination. Given a linkage map and estimates of between-population diversity, we infer the selection intensity per basepair, the time of onset of selection, and the baseline migration rate. Our method complements genome scans for candidate loci. In particular, it avoids issues of Fst outlier approaches such as their inability to distinguish between global background selection and selection against gene flow. It also borrows strength across multiple sites of weak effect, many of which would be missed by genome scans. Analytical approximations suggest that it is difficult to separate the average selection coefficient from the genomic density of selected sites, but their compound effect can be identified. We test our approach against simulations and apply it to two datasets from the yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus), one in which we detect the signal of local adaptation to serpentine soils, and another where we show evidence for selection against introgression from the sister species M. nasutus. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI GEN C 19

The genomic consequences of local adaptation in deer mice (52614) Susanne P. Pfeifer, Stefan Laurent, Matthieu Foll, Brant Peterson, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Hopi E. Hoekstra, Rowan D.H. Barrett. School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland; School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland;

Department of Organismic and Evolution Biology, Harvard University, USA; Department of Biology, McGill University, Canada. Although natural selection is the major force driving phenotypic evolution and adaptation to new environments, uncertainty persists concerning the magnitude and causes of genomic changes that occur when populations evolve under novel ecological conditions. Moreover, ecological sources of selection and the genomic basis of adaptive traits are often complex, limiting the predictability of local adaptation. To determine whether natural selection may indeed have predictable effects on specific phenotypes and their underlying mutations, we identified the genetic polymorphisms responsible for adaptive pigmentation traits in wild deer mouse populations (Peromyscus maniculatus) inhabiting the Nebraska Sand Hills, formed 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, and directly estimated the consequences of natural selection on these phenotypes. We conducted a large-scale field-based selection experiment that involved the introduction of 480 wild deer mice (with known genotypes and phenotypes) into replicated field enclosures, representing the two extremes in substrate color found in their natural habitat. These observations were used to estimate the targets and strength of selection acting on pigmentation traits at the phenotypic level. Additionally, we characterized genomewide changes in allele frequencies in order to estimate how local adaptation can shape broader patterns of evolution at the genotypic level. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI GEN C 19

The genetic architecture of recombination rate variation in a wild population. (52859) Susan Johnston, Jon Slate, Josephine Pemberton. University of Edinburgh; University of Sheffield. Genome scans provide a useful tool for detection of genomic regions underlying both local adaptation between populations (e.g. FST outlier analyses) and fitness-related variation within populations (genome-wide association studies). To date, most studies have focused on detecting the effects of single markers, yet recent work shows that such approaches may fail to capture loci of moderate or small effects on phenotype. Therefore, multi-locus frameworks are more likely to accurately characterise genetic variation segregating within and between populations, especially when the trait has a polygenic architecture. In this study, we used information from a high density SNP chip to calculate individual recombination rate variation in wild Soay sheep. We then investigated the genetic architecture of this moderately heritable trait (h2 ≈ 0.13) using chromosome partitioning and regional heritability mapping. This integration of traditional quantitative genetic approaches and multi-locus information allowed us to identify regions of the genome associated with recombination rate variation, but also allowed us to estimate the proportion of heritable variation caused by additional polygenic effects at unknown loci. We describe additional steps taken to prevent identification of falsepositive signals, and show how these statistical approaches allow more accurate investigation of trait evolution both within and between populations. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Session 1 FRI MAX 410 23

Genetic and neural basis for the evolution of schooling behavior in sticklebacks (53318) Catherine L. Peichel, Anna K. Greenwood, Abigail R. Wark, Margaret G. Mills. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Graduate Program in Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Washington; Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Washingto. The formation of social groups is prevalent across the animal kingdom, but can vary dramatically among different species, within species, and even across the lifetime of an individual. Schooling behavior in fish provides a particularly dramatic example of social group formation. To study the proximate genetic and neural mechanisms that contribute to the evolution of schooling behavior, we developed the “model school assay” and used it to demonstrate that there are heritable differences in schooling behavior between threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations adapted to divergent marine and freshwater benthic habitats. Marine sticklebacks have both a stronger tendency to school and a better ability to maintain a parallel body position when schooling than benthics. Our genetic mapping studies revealed that differences in these two components of schooling behavior are controlled by distinct genetic modules. These studies also revealed that the Ectodysplasin (Eda) gene is tightly linked to body position while schooling. Interestingly, the Eda gene is also tightly linked to variation in the patterning of the sensory hair cells (neuromasts) of the lateral line sensory system, which had been implicated in schooling behavior. To test whether the Eda gene is responsible for variation in both lateral line patterning and schooling behavior, we used transgenic methods to broadly express the marine version of the Eda cDNA in benthic sticklebacks. These transgenic sticklebacks have a marine-like pattern of neuromasts, and the presence of the transgene causes benthic sticklebacks to school in a more parallel orientation. This change in schooling behavior seems to be mediated by the effects of Eda on the lateral line system. Our results thus provide mechanistic insight into how and why fish form schools and yield one of the first genes known to shape vertebrate behavior in an evolutionary context. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI MAX 410 23

Using live bearing fish as short generation time models in the study of vertebrate brain evolution (52743) Niclas Kolm. Stockholm University Zoology/Ethology. Brain morphology variation is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. Yet the evolutionary processes and mechanisms that have generated this variation remain poorly understood. Till now, the study of the causes and consequences of this variation has mainly used comparative analyses to investigate correlations between brain morphology and behavior, ecology, sexual selection and life histories. Using artificial selection experiments of brain size in the guppy, a

live bearing fish with short generation time, we study multiple hypotheses concerning the costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain. I will present some of our findings on these selection lines regarding the genetic architecture of brain size and how several traits, including behavior, investment into other organs, sexual traits, immune competence and fitness, are affected by rapid evolution of brain size. Finally, I will present how we use new artificial selection experiments on the guppy to unravel the evolutionary possibilities and consequences of rapid evolution of separate brain region sizes and how brain morphology is affected by artificial selection of social abilities. My aim is thus to show that short generation time vertebrates such as live bearing fish may form new models for the study of evolutionary and ecological neurobiology. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI MAX 410 23

Innate differences in auditory perception and reproductive isolation in an avian species pair (51804) David Wheatcroft. Uppsala University. Vocal learning is a defining characteristic of human intelligence. Researchers have used the song learning process in birds, where over 4000 species learn their vocalizations, to understand the cognitive basis and evolution of vocal learning. The vocal learning process in birds is based on innate auditory preferences that bias young birds to learn the songs of their own species. Divergence across species in the genes underlying song perception may play a key role in the build up of reproductive isolation between species, but their evolutionary origin remains mysterious. Here, I compare innate auditory preferences in two closely related species of songbirds, the collared and pied flycatchers (Ficedula spp.). I demonstrate that juveniles from both species innately recognize their own species’ songs. I use immunohistochemistry to investigate the neural and genetic basis of these behaviours, and present behavioral data suggesting that early perceptual differences influence adult song production and preferences. My results imply that genes involved in auditory perception play a driving role in the vocal learning process, which in turn affects sexual isolation between these species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI MAX 410 23

From the jungle to the barn: Independent genetic control for increased brain and body size and Mosaic brain evolution in chickens during domestication (52310) Rie Henriksen, Leif Andersson, Per Jensen, Dominic Wright. Linköping University; Uppsala University; Linköping University; Linköping University.

The evolution of brain size and its relationship with body size and brain substructure composition has proven to be both enduring and perplexing to disentangle. By crossing a domestic breed of chicken with its wild counterpart for multiple generations, we can address this problem by looking at the genes that control intra-specific species variation (and specifically inter-population variation) for overall brain size, body size and brain substructure size independently. We show (i) these traits have entirely separate genetic architectures, with different genes governing these traits. (ii) In contrast to popular belief, domestic chickens have larger, not smaller, brains than their wild counterparts, but as these genes are confounded by LD with the genes for extreme growth in pure domestic populations, this effect is masked by standard allometric measurements. (ii) Different regions control the development of different substructures, and that the cerebellum and cerebral hemisphere is enlarged in domestic birds. (iv) Brooding behaviour (a key behaviours missing from domestic hens) correlates negatively with cerebellum size in this intercross. These results have far-reaching consequences for the use of allometry in brain size study, and highlight how within-species variation can be used to answer general questions regarding the evolution of brain size. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI MAX 410 23

Evolution of acid-sensing olfactory circuits in Drosophila (52332) Lucia Prieto Godino, Rapahel Rytz, Steeve Cruchet, Liliane Abuin, Benoite Bargeton, Ana Silbering, Vanessa Ruta, Matteo Dal Peraro , Richard Benton. Centre for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Rockefeller University, New York, USA; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Nervous systems evolve to adapt animals’ behavior to their ecological niches, but the genetic and cellular changes underlying this process are poorly understood. We have compared the olfactory circuits of the specialist fly species Drosophila sechellia, which feeds and breeds exclusively on the acid-rich fruit of Morinda citrifolia, with its generalist cousins D. melanogaster and D. simulans, which are associated with a wide range of fermenting fruits. We have identified both loss and gain of sensory responses to acids in D. sechellia and link these to single nucleotide differences within a tandem array of olfactory receptor genes, IR75a-IR75b-IR75c. These receptor functional differences are accompanied by multigenicdependent changes that shape the species-specific neuroanatomical organization of acidsensing pathways in the periphery, while leaving the organization of second order central neurons largely conserved. Importantly, we show that these peripheral traits can account in part for the distinct behavioral preferences of these species toward environmentally relevant odors, thereby linking chemosensory ecology to adaptive genetic changes influencing nervous system structure and function. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI MAX 410 23

Communication scenes of weakly-electric fish recorded in natural habitats challenge sensory processing (52598)

Jan Benda, Jörg Henninger, Rüdiger Krahe. University of Tübingen, Germany; McGill University, Montreal, Canada. The importance of using naturalistic stimuli for studying the neurophysiology of sensory information processing has been generally recognized. However, knowledge of speciesspecific natural stimuli in natural habitats - relevant for the evolution of the neural systems - is largely missing to date. We demonstrate that automated, large scale observations of electrocommunication scenes of the neotropical gymnotiform weakly electric fish Apteronotus rostratus in natural habitats provide unexpected and novel insights to both neurophysiological and evolutionary aspects of animal communication. We continuously monitored electric fish behavior and communication interactions during courtship, spawning, and aggression using an array of 60 electrodes over many days. From the data we reconstructed frequencies and amplitudes of electrosensory stimuli received by the fish and compared them to the filter properties of electrosensory receptor neurons. While during male-male interactions the signal frequencies matched the tuning of the electrosensory periphery the signal amplitudes could be dramatically low. Conversely, during male-female interactions the signal amplitudes were much larger, but the frequencies clearly exceeded the receptors' best frequency. Electrocommunication is thus used at the limits of electrosensory processing. Our field data provide novel naturalistic stimuli for studying sensory processing and raise interesting questions about the coevolution of sensory and motor systems. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL A 31

Nucleotide polymorphism and physiological diversity underlying pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster (52481) Aya Takahashi. Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Natural variation in pigmentation intensity in D. melanogaster, which is likely to be under some form of natural selection, is mainly caused by changes in cis-regulated gene expression level of a melanin biosynthesis gene, ebony. We found that knocking down this gene by RNAi changes desiccation resistance, which may be one of the pigmentation-associated physiological traits under selection. We also conducted a fine-scale quantification of the cisregulated expression levels and sequence analyses of this gene using the sampled alleles from Drosophila Genomic Resource Panel (DGRP). Detailed comparisons between nucleotide and expression polymorphisms showed that there are multiple functional cis-regulatory alleles segregating in the population. Also, a long range LD was detected in the upstream region of this gene, which suggested an existence of complex interactions between nucleotide variants within the region. The detailed analyses on within population variants of this gene revealed a more complex picture compared to the simple model of expression divergence among species by changes in modular enhancers. In addition to the results on ebony, associations detected between various pigmentation traits and other genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway will also be discussed. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Session 1 FRI POL A 31

Do good genes induce a higher metabolic rate? A study in the colour polymorphic barn owl (52555) Alexandre Roulin, Robin Séchaud, Paul Béziers. University of Lausanne; University of Lausanne; University of Lausanne. Variation in the degree of melanin-based coloration can have a strong underlying genetic basis. Colour morphs often differ in a number of other phenotypic attributes and it is not rare to observe that one morph better performs than other morphs in a large number of situations. This begs the question about how colour variation is evolutionary stable. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), females displaying larger black feather spots better cope with a number of stressful factors raising the question of how variation in spot size persists. We show here that larger-spotted female nestlings consume more oxygen independently of ambient temperature. This suggests that to sustain costly physiological processes that help cope with stressful environmental conditions, larger-spotted females invest more energy and hence have a higher metabolic rate. Large-spotted barn owls may therefore adopt a high cost/high benefit strategy and small-spotted barn owls a low cost/low benefit strategy. Our study may explain why polymorphism in the degree of melanin-based coloration is evolutionary stable. From a proximate point of view, our findings may due to the melanocortin system. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL A 31

Tests of the thermal melanism and melanisation desiccation-resistance hypotheses in New Zealand Hemideina maori (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). (51925) Keith King, Brent Sinclair, Jon Waters, Graham Wallis. Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. The New Zealand alpine tree weta (Hemideina maori) has melanic and yellow colour morphs. Melanism appears to have evolved repeatedly in this species, occuring sporadically in seven of eight clades mitochondrial DNA clades. The adaptive significance of melanism in H. maori has not been established. There is no evidence that melanism is associated with either increased immune response or incidence of parasitism. We investigated two additional hypotheses; thermal melanism and melanisation-desiccation resistance. Heat gain was measured in weta directly exposed to a heat source (basking simulation) as well as indirectly exposed (microhabitat simulation). In both simulations, thermal melanism was not supported as heat gain was not significantly increased in melanic morphs, compared to yellow. Weight was the significant covariate, with heat gain slower in heavier weta. We used open flowthrough respirometry to compare water-loss rates between morphs. Melanic morphs had significantly lower rates of cuticular water loss than yellow morphs, thus supporting the

melanisation-desiccation resistance hypothesis. However, melanic H. maori are typically found at lower (and presumably less-desiccating) elevations than yellow morphs, suggesting that desiccation resistance is not the primary adaptive mechanism for melanism in H. maori. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL A 31

Effects of MC1R gene on sexual dimorphism in barn owls and the potential conflict between natural and sexual selection on melanin-based colorations (51974) Luis San José Garcia, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Valerie Ducret, Paul Béziers, Céline Simon, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Alexandre Roulin. University of Lausanne; Fujita Health University. The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene has been repeatedly observed to underlie adaptive colour variation in vertebrates. MC1R induces large changes in melanin-based colourations favoured by natural selection as an adaptation to diverse processes such as predator-prey interactions and thermoregulation. However, melanin-based colourations are often sexually dimorphic, suggesting that sexual selection could interact or even conflict with natural selection if MC1R also induces changes in the degree of sexual dimorphism. This hypothesis has not been tested despite evidences support that more sexually dimorphic galliform species accumulate more synonymous mutations at the MC1R. We present results confirming that MC1R colour effects induce correlated changes in sexual dimorphism in the barn owl, Tyto alba. Plumage colour traits in this species vary from white to red and from unspotted to heavily marked with black spots and depend on natural and sexual selection. Although males and females exhibit any phenotype, males are on average whiter and less spotted. MC1R largely explains variation in coloration but, more importantly, certain MC1R alleles allow for larger sexual dimorphism. These findings indicate that MC1R could epistatically act with factors determining sexual dimorphism, supporting that evolution of adaptive colouration through MC1R may interact with sexual selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL A 31

Could melanin-based plumage colouration be adaptive in environments polluted with trace metals? (52028) Marion CHATELAIN, Julien GASPARINI, Adrien FRANTZ. Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences of Paris. Anthropogenic activities release significant amounts of trace metals in the biosphere, several of which are known to have deleterious effects on animals. Because of their toxicity, these trace metals may induce selective pressures and select for detoxification mechanisms. Interestingly, metals can bind to both keratin and melanin, resulting in high concentrations of metals in feathers. Metal chelation may consequently constitute one of the main current

biological functions of melanin. We aimed at investigating the adaptive role of melanin by testing 1) the selective pressures that zinc and lead exert on wild birds, 2) the relation between plumage melanin colouration and metal concentrations in both feathers and blood, and 3) the beneficial effect of highly melanic plumages in habitats with high amounts of trace metals. Indeed, we found noxious effects of a low but chronic experimental exposure to lead on feral pigeons’ reproductive success and immunity. Positive correlations between both zinc and lead concentrations and plumage melanin colouration suggest that this pigment may allow eliminating circulating metals and may consequently be selected in environments polluted with toxic trace metals. The heterogeneity of metal concentrations in the environmental may participate to the evolutionary maintenance of melanin-based plumage colouration polymorphism. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL A 31

Larval UV exposure impairs adult immune function through a trade-off with larval investment in cuticular melanin (52344) Sara Debecker, Ruben Sommaruga, Tim Maes, Robby Stoks. Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, University of Leuven; Laboratory of Aquatic Photobiology and Plankton Ecology, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbr. Despite the strong impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on invertebrates, it is unknown whether immune function is affected across metamorphosis. More general, the mechanisms on how larval stressors bridge metamorphosis and shape adult fitness remain poorly understood. We studied whether cuticular melanin content is upregulated under UV exposure in the larval stage of the damselfly Coenagrion puella and whether this is traded off across metamorphosis against a key component of the invertebrate immune response, the melanotic encapsulation response, in the adult stage. Larvae exposed to UV increased the melanin content in the exoskeleton and metamorphosed later and at a smaller mass than animals reared without UV. Across metamorphosis, this was associated with a reduced melanotic encapsulation response, thereby constituting the first proof for a UV driven impaired immune response in an invertebrate. Path analysis indicated that the immunosuppressive property of larval UV exposure was not mediated by age and mass at metamorphosis, but instead that the adult immune response was traded off against larval cuticular melanin investment. This melanin-based trade-off across metamorphosis provides a new pathway by which effects of larval stressors are carried over to the adult stage and thereby advances our understanding of the mechanisms of carryover effects of larval stressors across metamorphosis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL B 17

Whole genome duplications and recruitment of ecologically relevant genes in alpine Mustards (52011)

Céline Geiser, Amélie Bardil, Terezie Mandáková, Béatrice North, Kevin Leempoel, Martin Lysak, Stéphane Joost, Christian Parisod. Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland; Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Czech Republic; Laboratory of Geographic Information Systems, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland. Polyploid taxa represent excellent models to address the underpinnings of genome evolution and the building up of new species in heterogeneous environments. Here, I present an overview of recent works in the alpine Biscutella laevigata autopolyploid complex (Brassicaceae). Transcriptomics inferred recurrent whole genome duplication (WGD) events specific to clade of species and that were used to infer processes fostering genome evolution across different timescales: (i) After a 7-8 million years old WGD event, intense chromosomal repatterning selected for clusters of retained duplicates enriched in functions associated with responses to abiotic stresses. Low coverage genome sequencing unraveled the dynamics of several retrotransposons, supporting interplay between genome reorganization and environmental opportunities in shaping the evolution of paleopolyploids. (ii) Retrotransposons in autotetraploids having recolonized the Alps after the ice ages showed considerable dynamics going along with ecological radiation following this recent WGD. Ecological genomics involving transplant experiment indeed supported distinct autopolyploid gene pools firmly associated with contrasted habitats despite gene flow. These ecotypes demonstrated adaptive differentiation at loci whose functions match habitat requirements. WGDs thus recurrently fostered genome reorganization and adaptive recruitment of genes responding to environmental factors, indicating that similar proximate and ultimate factors of genome dynamics may consistently act through time. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL B 17

Application of Associative Transcriptomics to polyploid crops (53307) Andrea Harper. University of York. Associative Transcriptomics is designed to be rapidly applied to diverse crop species, and has proven particularly useful in polyploid species as, by focussing on transcribed sequences, it reduces the level of complexity that often complicates genetic analyses. Even without access to high quality genomic references, the method enables identification and ordering of both gene sequence and gene expression markers, which can then be associated to traits of interest. By using both types of marker, the method often simplifies the identification of candidate genes, and can uncover valuable information about the causative nature of the underlying variation. In this presentation, the approaches used to adapt the method to the allopolyploids oilseed rape and bread wheat will be discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL B 17

Zinc accumulation, transcriptomics and asymmetric adaptation in the allopolyploid Arabidopsis kamchatica (51574) Timothy Paape, Masaomi Hatakeyama, Jun Sese, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Kentaro Shimizu. University of Zurich; Tokyo Institute of Technology. A feature that makes gene duplication through allopolyploid hyrbridization interesting compared to that of autopolyploidization (autosomal duplication within a single diploid ancestor) is that homeologous copies are not ancestrally identical but have unique evolutionary histories as a result of each diploid progenitor’s evolution and their respective adaptations. Uniquely derived ancestral gene copies therefore have the potential to result in the retention of phenotypes that were present in either of the ancestors. Using de novo reference assemblies of both diploid ancestors and a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline to separate homeologous RNAseq reads, we have demonstrated that zinc accumulation in A. kamchatica is largely the result of transcriptional patterns and polymorphism derived from the diploid hyperaccumulating ancestor A. halleri ssp. gemmifera despite hybridization with a non-accumulating A. lyrata ancestor. Moreover, allopolyploid hybridization of the diploid parents which each possess highly divergent metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation phenotypes is equivalent to having diverse F1 crosses but without allelic recombination disrupting linkage as the ancestral gene copies evolve as hom*ozygous homeologs. Our findings therefore allow us to explore the dynamic genome evolution of an allopolyploid species when asymmetric adaptations can be measured when stress conditions are applied. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL B 17

Evolutionary analysis and demographic inference for polyploid genomes using ABC (52703) Camille Roux, John Pannell. UNIL; UNIL. Polyploidization is a major contributor to diversification of both plants and animals. However, despite its high incidence, the population genetic and evolutionary study of polyploid species has been seriously limited by challenges associated with multiple-copy genomes. Until now, for example, it has been difficult to infer important details histories of polyploid lineages, including the mode of polyploidisation and patterns of gene exchange between genomes and diverging lineages. These challenges stem both from complications arising during data acquisition (e.g., the need to attribute sequences to genome copies) and data analysis. Here, we present the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) for the analysis of sequence data from non-model polyploid species using short-read NGS technologies to expose the recent evolutionary and demographic history of polyploid populations. Our study uses both simulated datasets and real nucleotide sequences from species in the Brassicaceae. We find that ABC is a powerful tool for discriminating between an autopolyploid vs. allopolyploid origin of a tetraploid species, is robust for detecting signatures of introgression between tetraploid populations and and their close diploid relatives, and allows parameter estimation for a range of competing evolutionary and demographic models.

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Molecular basis of ecological diffusion after recurrent allopolyploidization in Dactylorhiza (52831) Ovidiu Paun, Francisco Balao, Maria Lorenzo, Daniel Diehl, Bao-Hai Hao, Emiliano Trucchi, Mikael Hedrén. University of Vienna; University of Sevilla; University of Lund. Early-generation allopolyploids need to accommodate divergent genomes into one nucleus by adjusting organization and function, thereby influencing the ecological properties and adaptive success of resulting lineages. To identify the drivers of adaptation to distinct environments after iterative genome doubling, we investigate ecologically-divergent, sibling allopolyploids Dactylorhiza majalis and D. traunsteineri (Orchidaceae). By using RADseq we document a genome-wide absence of genetic differentiation between these allopolyploids, despite their phenotypic divergence. In addition, we bring evidence of frequent gene flow between the polyploids in sympatry, which points toward a strong divergent selection required in order to maintain the observed phenotypic divergence. By using the sibling allopolyploids of different ages in their native environmental context we investigate with RNAseq the progression through time of gene expression alterations after allopolyploidization, and their importance to the ecological properties of the polyploids. We observe a general trend of increased overexpression in the younger polyploid, whereas the transcriptome of the older resembles more closely those of the diploid parents. The differential expression between the polyploids is mainly driven by parental dominance in opposite directions and affects genes related to metabolic processes and response to stimulus. We discuss the importance of qualitative versus quantitative expression alterations in allopolyploid genomes, and their role for diversification in general. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL B 17

Whole genome duplication events and evolution of the self-incompatibility system are strongly associated within the Brassicaceae (52955) Xavier Vekemans, Laura Henocq, Vincent Castric, Céline Poux. CNRS-Universite Lille1. Recent studies using phylogenetic approaches, mapping of trait evolution, and quantification of species diversification have shown that transitions from outcrossing to selfing and from diploidy to polyploidy are associated with large reductions in species diversification rates. However, the joint evolution of polyploidy and mating system genes has rarely been addressed. We studied the impact of whole genome duplication events on the evolutionary dynamics of the self-incompatibility system in Brassicaceae. A clear signature of strong genetic bottleneck, followed by allelic re-diversification at the S-locus has been detected in three unrelated groups. In all three cases, this bottleneck appears to be associated with an

historical event of polyploidy. Detailed analyses of the S-locus genomic region in two cases have revealed common patterns (deletion of the S-locus in its ancestral position, evolution of a new S-locus at a different position), as well as striking differences (the genes involved in pollen-pistil recognition at the new S-locus are either orthologous or non-orthologous to the SCR and SRK genes of the ancestral Brassicaceae). These results suggest a scenario with temporary loss of self-incompatibility after polyploidization, followed by re-establishment of SI at a different genomic location with rapid allelic re-diversification caused by strong balancing selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL C 12

The effects of deleterious mutations on patterns of influenza A/H3N2’s evolutionary dynamics (53349) Katia Koelle. Duke University. Recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that RNA virus populations carry a substantial deleterious mutation load. This mutation load has the potential to shape patterns of adaptive evolution via genetic linkage to beneficial mutations. Here, we examine the effect of deleterious mutations on patterns of influenza A subtype H3N2’s antigenic evolution in humans. By first analyzing simple mathematical models of influenza that incorporate a mutation load, we show that deleterious mutations act to slow influenza’s rate of antigenic evolution, while making it more punctuated in nature. These models further predict three distinct molecular pathways by which antigenic cluster transitions occur, and we find phylogenetic patterns consistent with each of these pathways in influenza viral sequences. Simulations of a more complex phylodynamic model incorporating both antigenic and deleterious mutations further indicate that deleterious mutations act in concert with antigenic mutations to reproduce influenza’s spindly hemagglutinin phylogeny, antigenic cocirculation, and high annual attack rates. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL C 12

Estimating heritability: old-school parent-offspring versus next-gen phylogenetics (52186) Gabriel Leventhal, Sebastian Bonhoeffer. Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich. The heritability of a trait is one of the most used tools to quantify how fast a trait will evolve in a population. As a result, many different methods have been proposed to measure heritability in real populations. With the rise of the availability of genetic data, traditional methods such as parent-offspring regression or sibling analysis have been superseded by phylogeny-based methods to estimate heritability. However, as with all phylodynamic

models, tree-based methods for heritability estimation require an underlying model that describes how the trait evolved along the tree. Using set-point viral load in HIV as an example, I will show that tree-based estimates of heritability are very sensitive to model misspecification such as the absence of selection. In contrast, estimates from parent-offspring (donor-recipient) regression are more robust to such misspecification. The difficulty of obtaining good parent-offspring pairs must thus be weighed against potentially strongly biased estimates of heritability. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL C 12

New routes to phylogeography (51904) Nicola De Maio, Daniel Wilson. nuffield Department of Medicine. The inference of migration from pathogen genomic data is important to investigate routes of transmission, within-host infection dynamics, and sources of outbreaks. Statistical investigation is usually performed with discrete trait analysis models (i.e. Mugration) and similar, or with structured coalescent-based methods (e.g. MultiTypeTree). We propose a new method called BaStA (BAyesian STructured coalescent Approximation) based on an efficient approximation to the structured coalescent. We implemented BaStA in BEAST2. Furthermore, we performed a thorough comparison of the three approaches using both simulations and real data. Simulations show that our approach has comparable accuracy to MultiTypeTree, but much broader applicability. In contrast, Mugration showed generally unreliable estimates of both migration rates and ancestral locations. These differences were recapitulated in an analysis of zoonotic transmission events in real-world outbreaks, where Mugration inferred diametrically opposite results from the alternative approaches. Finally, we applied BaStA to an HIV compartmentalization dataset beyond the computational feasibility of MultiTypeTree and other structured coalescent-based methods due to the elevated number of demes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL C 12

Heterogeneity in antibody range and the antigenic drift of influenza A viruses (52307) Gabriela Gomes. Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia. In this paper we explore the consequences of a heterogeneous immune response in individuals on the evolution of a rapidly mutating virus. We show that several features of the incidence and phylogenetic patterns typical of influenza A may be understood in this framework. In our model, limited diversity and rapid drift of the circulating viral strains result from the interplay

of two interacting subpopulations with different types of immune response, narrow or broad, upon infection. The subpopulation with the narrow immune response acts as a reservoir where consecutive mutations escape immunity and can persist. Strains with a number of accumulated mutations escape immunity in the other subpopulation as well, causing larger epidemic peaks in the whole population, and reducing strain diversity. Overall, our model produces a modulation of epidemic peak heights and patterns of antigenic drift consistent with reported observations, suggesting an underlying mechanism for the evolutionary epidemiology of influenza, in particular, and other infectious diseases, more generally. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 1 FRI POL C 12

Phylodynamic analysis of poliovirus outbreak (52809) Lucy Li, Nicholas C Grassly, Christophe Fraser. Imperial College London. Background: Traditional surveillance of polio via Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) reporting under-estimates the number of poliovirus infections as 100 marine species contributed by DIPnet (formed by the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center working group ‘Advancing genetic diversity research in the Indian and Pacific Oceans’). We describe genetic diversity gradients considering nestedness and turnover to identify evolutionary ‘sinks’ (where immigration predominates) and ‘sources’ (where mutagenesis is evident), and reveal the significance of nestedness and turnover in forming genetic breaks. These measures, commonly used in community ecology, provide a nuanced understanding of genetic patterns in the Indo-Pacific that cannot be detected using traditional population genetic measures. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 MON MAX 415 13

Specificity of the microbiome: insights from Daphnia hosts. (52516) Samuel PICHON, Mahendra MARIADASSOU, Dieter EBERT.

University of Basel, Switzerland; INRA Jouy-en-Josas, France. Environmental and host genetic factors shape the composition of host-associated microbiota. To estimate the relative importance of each of both factors, we characterized the structure of the bacterial communities by amplicon pyrosequencing in three sympatric Daphnia species and of their environments (pond water and sediments). The three Daphnia species harbor a unique and diverse microbiota dominated by Proteobacteria, including members of the Comamonadaceae family. Previous results and the global similarity of these three symbiotic communities suggest that some of these associations may be evolutionary stable. However, differences among Daphnia species resemble the host phylogenetic relationships, suggesting that the hosts evolved with specific microbiota and that genetic factors are predominant in structuring their microbiota. We developed a local specificity index and introduce a permutation based test to assess the significance of the specificity. Analysis of multiple datasets (Daphnia, humans, etc.) suggests that microbial species that are specific to one habitat are most abundant in that habitat. The positive association between abundance and specificity was found in every dataset. We suggest that this relationship is a main structuring force of microbiota. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 MON MAX 415 13

From neutral theory to competition-dispersal trade-off: dispersal polymorphism effects on species diversity patterns (52634) Fabien Laroche, Philippe Jarne, Thomas Perrot, François Massol. AgroParistech - CEFE; CNRS - CEFE; CNRS - GEPV. Neutral models provide important insights on patterns of species diversity in metacommunities. Introducing some variance in the carrying capacity of local communities may select for dispersal polymorphism under otherwise neutral conditions in metapopulation models. We extend this approach to a neutral metacommunity using a multi-species, multicommunity model and show that dispersal polymorphism may readily emerge both withinand among-species depending on community carrying capacity distribution. Importantly small communities are occupied by dispersing species (“drifters”) while large communities harbours species with limited dispersal (“dwellers”). When dispersal converges toward a unique evolutionarily stable equilibrium, diversity within communities and dissimilarity among communities do not differ qualitatively from neutral expectations. This is no more true when a dispersal polymorphism can emerge, suggesting that deviation from neutral predictions can be detected when comparing diversity indices among communities differing in carrying capacity. We discuss how our model contributes to unify two classical approaches in metacommunity ecology, namely neutral and competition-colonization models. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 MON MAX 415 13

Evolution of ecological communities through the lens of an island chronosequence (52653)

Rosemary Gillespie, Andrew Rominger, Jun Ying Lim, Fernanda Valdavinos, John Harte, Kari Goodman, Daniel Gruner, Kerry Shaw, Donald Price. University of California; Pacific Ecoinformatics; University of Maryland; Cornell; University of Hawaii Hilo. Islands are bedrock model systems in the development of ecological and evolutionary theory. The Hawaiian Islands in particular have expanded our understanding of island biogeography, with phylogeographic studies of rapid diversification and the dynamics of adaptive radiation overlaid upon a detailed understanding of ecosystem development and senescence. These studies demonstrate the overriding importance of in situ speciation in biodiversity patterns of highly isolated archipelagoes, beyond the reach of equilibrium colonization dynamics. We synthesize ecological and evolutionary perspectives to analyze processes driving emergent patterns of island biodiversity. We apply this approach to a simple and relatively isolated system that occurs across a 5 million-year space-for-time chronosequence provided by the island hotspot. We use this natural experiment to develop a novel analytical pipeline that combines both macroecological (interaction networks and maximum entropy inference) and evolutionary (population genetics and phylogenetics) approaches and hence build a predictive understanding of the interplay between ecology and evolution in dynamically shaping the macroecology of complex ecosystems. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN C 3

Coevolution of the sex chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster (52014) Katrine Lund-Hansen, Edward H. Morrow, Jessica K. Abbott. University of Sussex; Lund University. Theory predicts that the Y chromosome may accumulate genes beneficial for males, even if these are harmful to females. As the Y chromosome is not present in females, selection does not act directly against these sexually antagonistic genes. Genes on the X chromosome would then be predicted to evolve to counteract the harmful Y genes or become resistant to them. To test this, we carried out a sex chromosome replacement experiment in males from five outbred, wild type, lab-adapted Drosophila melanogaster populations with different geographic origins. We replaced either the X or the Y chromosome and found that half of the novel genotypes had a significantly higher reproductive fitness than their source population. This change in fitness was not caused by interactions with the autosomes, but by the mismatching of the sex chromosomes, indicating that coevolution of the sex chromosomes must have occurred. We will present data on the effect of the introduction of a novel sex chromosome on various components of male fitness. We will also present a novel theory about the nature of sexually antagonistic coevolution on the X and Y. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN C 3

Evolution of an unusual sex determination system in a Mammal, the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides (52017) Paul Saunders, Ophélie Ronce, Pierre-André Crochet, Frédéric Veyrunes. Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, France; Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS, Montpellier, France. All therian mammals have a similar XX/XY sex determination system (SDS) except for a dozen species. In the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, males are XY, and there are three types of females: XX, XX* and X*Y (the asterisk designates a sex-reversal mutation on the X chromosome). The evolution of such a system is a paradox as sex-reversal mutations lead to sterility or subfertility in mammals, precluding departure from the standard system. Nevertheless, the X* is old (>0.9My) and highly prevalent in this species. To investigate the evolutionary forces involved in the emergence and maintenance of this system, an empirical approach and mathematical modelling are combined. Data gathered from our laboratory colony reveal (i) that X*Y females have a greater reproductive success and (ii) the existence of sex chromosome transmission distorters. These findings can be related to two hypotheses proposed to explain transitions in SDS: Fitness differences between genotypes and sex-ratio selection. Our mathematical models suggest that either feature could be responsible for the appearance of the X* and that they both participate in its maintenance. These results provides valuable insight into understanding the constraints acting on SDS with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes and conditions that can loosen these constraints. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN C 3

The PhyloSex project: towards a better understanding of sex determination diversity and sex chromosome evolution in fish. (52201) Jennifer Anderson, Christophe Klopp, Hugues Parrinello, Laurent Journot, John H. Postlethwait, Yann Guiguen, Manfred Schartl. INRA, Laboratoire de Physiologie et Génomique des Poissons, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France; INRA, SIGENAE, UR875, INRA Auzeville, BP 52627, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex, France; MGX (Montpellier Genomix), 34094 Montpellier Cedex 05, France; University of Oregon, Institute of Neuroscience, Eugene OR 97403, USA; University of Wuerzburg, Physiological Chemistry, Biocenter, 97074 Wuerzburg, Germany. Fish show a great variety of sex determination mechanisms, which in the case of genetic sex determination is linked to a similarly high variability of sex chromosome differentiation. Curiously, neither phenomenon follows any obvious phylogenetic pattern. To obtain a better understanding of the biological meaning of the diversity of sex determination and the mechanisms driving sex chromosome evolution we are attempting to decipher the molecular basis of the primary sex determination mechanisms and the structure and genetic organization of sex chromosomes across a broad diversity of rayfin fish. On the one hand we are analyzing a collection of species that represent major branches of the fish tree of life and on the other

hand we focus on closely related species within branches of the phylogenetic tree (Esociformes, Danios, Poeciliids). We use high throughput marker mapping in 40 species as well as transcriptomics and long insert clone sequencing to delineate sex-specific chromosomal regions and to identify candidate sex determining genes. Our first results indicate that many species harbor very poorly differentiated sex-chromosomes. Our RAD-tag based approach led to the identification of sex-specific markers, allowing to delineate the extent of recombination suppression. We also identified candidate sex determining genes in some species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN C 3

Evolution of sex-determining modes in amniotes: transitions, stability and ancestral state (52534) Lukas Kratochvil, Michail Rovatsos, Marie Altmanova, Jasna Vukic, Martina Pokorna. Charles University, Prague; Czech Academy of Sciences, Libechov. It is believed that in contrast to mammals and birds frequent turnovers of sex chromosomes and transitions between genotypic sex determination (GSD) and environmental sex determination (ESD) in both directions are typical for poikilothermic amniotes. Nonetheless, using comparison of genes linked to X and Z sex chromosomes across wide species sampling, we demonstrate that sex chromosomes are highly conserved for dozens million of years in iguanas and snakes. Current knowledge on the hom*ology of sex chromosomes among particular GSD clades as well as on the phylogenetic distribution of GSD and ESD is in agreement with ancestral ESD for amniotes. Transitions from ESD to GSD were frequent, but transitions in the opposite direction were rare (if any). Previously, we argued that this stability of GSD with respect to ESD could be attributed to the stability of well-differentiated sex chromosomes. However, within reptiles, we have recently found two independent disappearances of highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Still, even here the derived states represent again GSD, not ESD. We call for a general explanation of the resistance of GSD to the invasion by ESD and suggest that it may be based on the wider potential to resolve sexual conflict under GSD. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN C 3

The evolution of sexual specialization in an artificial dioecious fungus (52652) Bart Nieuwenhuis, Hanna Johannesson, Simone Immler. Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University; Department of Systematic Biology, Uppsala University. One possible scenario for the evolution of males and females is the occurrence of mutations in a simultaneous hermaphroditic ancestor acting as sex determining loci, which render individuals male or female. This division into male and female individuals not only should

lead to phenotypic divergence but also to rearrangements in the underlying genomic architecture. To study this important first steps in the evolution of two separate sexes from a hermaphroditic ancestor, we created mating-type specific male-sterile and female-sterile strains of the haploid fungus Neurospora crassa. Effectively this creates dioecious individuals, in which the mating type locus has become a sex-determining locus. Using experimental evolution with these dioecious strains, we studied how the strains adapt to their novel role as male or female, both at the phenotypic and the genetic level. Sexually antagonistic traits are expected to become associated with the sex determining locus, either due to mating type regulated expression or through linkage. We will present measurements on male and female fitness contributions from competition essays between dioecious and hermaphroditic individuals. Then we will describe phenotypic and genetic changes in the male and female strains after 15 generations of experimental evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 410 21

Non-genetic transmission and sex-linked inheritance of prenatal maternal effects in a precocial bird (51834) Barbara Tschirren, Ann-Kathrin Ziegler, Monika Okuliarova, Michal Zeman, Joel Pick, Mathieu Giraudeau. University of Zurich; Comenius University Bratislava. Resources and developmental cues provided by the mother during the first stages of life can have pronounced and long-lasting consequences for offspring morphology, physiology and behavior. Whereas the role of such prenatal maternal effects in mediating offspring phenotypic plasticity is well documented, their potential consequences for subsequent generations are still debated. Important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in birds are hormones that are transmitted from the mother to the eggs. Using a breeding experiment over three generations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we show that maternal yolk hormone deposition is inherited exclusively along the maternal line, suggesting W-chromosome linkage. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an experimental manipulation of yolk hormones in the eggs, mimicking environmentally-induced maternal effects, affects the daughters’ egg composition later in life, thereby influencing the grand-offspring’s developmental trajectories. We assess the adaptive value of such a non-genetic transmission of information across generations and the role of sex-specific selection in shaping the evolution of sex-linked inheritance of maternal effects. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 410 21

Does molecular pleiotropy constrain evolution, plasticity or both? A proteomic perspective in a salmonid fish metapopulation (51853) Spiros Papakostas, Asbjørn Vøllestad, Matthieu Bruneaux, Tutku Aykanat, Joost Vanoverbeke, Mei Ning, Craig Primmer, Erica Leder.

University of Turku; University of Oslo; KU Leuven. The significance of gene expression pattern modification as a mechanism promoting rapid evolution has received considerable attention recently but the relative roles of plastic vs evolutionary expression change remain unclear. We conducted a common garden experiment and studied the proteomic expression profiles of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) sub-populations that have adapted to different thermal environments in just 25 generations. The proteome expression changes included both evolutionary and plastic components, with each component having an independent, but complementary, effect on the expression profile. A QST–FST analysis indicated that the observed differences in proteomic expression profile between cold and warm origin sub-populations likely included an adaptive component. We also found that temperature-driven gene expression changes were constrained by the level of gene pleiotropy estimated by either the number of protein interactions or gene biological processes. Genes with low pleiotropy levels were the main drivers of the observed changes in both plastic and evolutionary global expression profiles, while highly pleiotropic genes had a limited expression response to temperature treatment. These findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms facilitating rapid adaptation in changing environments and suggest that gene pleiotropy should be considered more carefully when interpreting gene expression profiling data -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 410 21

Evolutionary and ecological plasticity in short order: genome-wide evidence for in-situ evolution and adaptation in invasive Florida Burmese pythons (52049) Todd Castoe, Daren Card, Drew Schield, Margaret Hunter, Kristen Hart. University of Texas Arlington; United States Geological Survey. Substantial evolutionary changes are thought to happen over long time periods in most species, making analyses of natural selection and its effects on the genome difficult. Invasive species, however, represent a promising model for analyzing the processes of evolution and adaptation on timescales that are tractable for study, and have been shown to demonstrate rapid evolutionary responses and high plasticity over short or ‘ecological’ timescales. The invasive Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) is ideal for studying rapid evolution due to its recent establishment and proliferation in sub-tropical Florida, a location with climatic conditions that are notably different from those in the species' native range of tropical Southeast Asia. Among other major selective events that have impacted this introduced population, a significant die-off (>50%) of individuals in the Florida python population (FPP) occurred during a 2010 freeze event. We used genome-wide SNP sampling of the FPP (via RADseq) before (2007) and after (2013) the freeze event to test for evidence of evolution and locus-specific selection. We found multiple regions of the genome that appear to show major shifts in heterozygosity over a surprisingly short time period (time of a single generation), indicating in situ evolution and adaptation in the FPP. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Session 2 TUE MAX 410 21

Bridging Ecology and Evolution by Symbiotic and Epigenetic Mechanisms (52052) Yoav Soen. Weizmann Institute of Science. While adaptations to novel environments extend over evolutionary timescales, a new environment can emerge already within a single generation and can immediately impact the physiological and epigenetic state of the organism. Whether and how the initial response might be connected to longer-term establishment of new adaptations are not clear. We take an experimental approach to address these questions by studying responses of flies to novel scenarios of stress. We identified epigenetic- and symbiotic-mediated mechanisms which promote increased developmental plasticity under stress, influence the germline, and contribute to non-Mendelian transfer of variation across generations. I will discuss these epigenetic- and symbiotic-mediated processes and their potential contribution to the establishment of initial adaptations that can bridge part of the gap between ecological and evolutionary processes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 410 21

Plastic vs genetic responses to temperature acclimation: quantitative traits to transcripts. (52063) Allannah Clemson, Marina Telonis-Scott, Carla Sgro. Monash University. Relating environmental variables to a range of phenotypes expressed by a genotype is a ‘tried and true’ method for studying responses to varying environments. Given the critical role of temperature in shaping the geographic distributions in terrestrial organisms, attention is now shifting to consider thermal performance when assessing the potential impacts of climate change. Examining populations that inhabit diverse thermal environments provides insights into traits and genes that are important in environmental adaptation, and can enhance predictions of species’ ability to mitigate any deleterious effects of a changing environment. Here we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model to understand how environmental adaptation affects thermally responsive traits and genes. We collected two outbred populations along the Australian eastern coast (north and south) and developed them at six temperatures. We then compared the expression of temperature responsive candidate genes as well as life-history traits to understand the link between genotype and phenotype driving thermal adaptation. Our goal is to develop an approach to link climatic preference with stress performance, life-history, morphology and molecular processes. Ultimately, can genes that respond differentially to developmental temperature explain fitness differences

across environmental gradients, and thus provide insight into future responses to climate change. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 410 21

Adult transcriptome variation is determined by egg to adult development time in a desert drosophilid (52041) William J. Etges, Cassia de Oliveira, Subhash Rajpurohit, Allen Gibbs. University of Arkansas; Lyon College; University of Pennsylvania; University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Complex life cycles offer an opportunity to investigate the genetic influences of early life stage variation on later components of the life history. We investigated whole genome transcriptional variation in populations of Drosophila mojavensis by day of preadult development time (DEVT) in aged adults reared on different host plants. Because DEVT variation is genetically correlated with sexual isolation between populations as well as cuticular hydrocarbon differences, transcriptional variation in adults differing in DEVT is of direct consequence to understanding host plant related adaptation, life history evolution, and reproductive isolation. We found hundreds of genes enriched for different functions in adults that varied due to DEVT including those influencing gene regulation, mitochondrial energetics, and cuticular hydrocarbon production. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 410 21

Within and across generation life-history responses to nutritional stress during development (51875) Marjo Saastamoinen. University of Helsinki. Organisms in the wild are constantly faced with a wide range of environmental variability, such as fluctuation in food availability. Understanding the processes and underlying mechanisms that allow organisms to cope with such environmental variation is a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. I will synthesise across studies in which we have assessed the influence of short-term nutritional stress during development on adult life-history variation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Poor developmental conditions often have a negative impact on fitness-related traits, such as reproduction and lifespan. However, conditions experienced during development can sometimes be used as cues for the likely environmental condition the individual will encounter later on in life (i.e. predictive adaptive responses). Accordingly, individuals can shape their adult physiology or life history in a way that allows them either to deal with the predicted conditions later on in life or to move away from these deteriorating environments. Predictive adaptive responses seem to occur also across generations, as mothers that experienced nutritional stress during their own

development produce offspring that have improved compensatory strategies to cope with nutritional stress. We are currently assessing whether differences in methylation underlie these observed phenotypic differences in response to developmental nutritional stress. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL A 28

Antagonistic coevolution with competing consumers alters the dynamics of selection over time (52528) Frickel Jens, Becks Lutz. Community Dynamics Group, Dept. Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology. Coevolutionary changes in antagonistic interacting populations can constantly change the mode, strength and direction of selection through a link between ecological and evolutionary dynamics on the same time scale. To explore the role of eco-evolutionary dynamics and their effects on variation in selection over time, we conducted a series of experimental evolution studies using host-virus systems. We will present results from experiments where we compared the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of experiments when host and virus coevolved with and without an additional consumer for the host (predator). We found that predator and virus could only coexist after the host evolved a general resistance against the virus and that coexistence of the two consumers shifted the ecological dynamics towards cyclic populations compared to the experiments with only host and virus. Most importantly, the presence of the predator changed the evolutionary dynamics from fluctuating selection when host and virus evolve alone, to constant selection when virus, host and predator coexisted. Overall, our study shows the important consequences of rapid evolutionary change and highlights that the details of coevolutionary dynamics matter for community stability (cycles vs. stability) and structure (coexistence), which in return determines type of selection (fluctuating vs. constant). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL A 28

Stress response of mutation accumulation lines of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii across two environmental gradients (52130) Susanne Kraemer, Andrew Morgen, Peter Keightley, Nick Colegrave. University of Edinburgh. Understanding the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of novel mutations is central to many areas of evolutionary biology. Importantly though, mutational effects are not fixed but will depend on the environment that the organism experiences. However, the effect of the environment on DFE, expressed as changes to the mean and variance of fitness, has been rarely investigated experimentally. Intuitively it might be expected that selection coefficients against deleterious mutations will increase in stressful environments but experimental tests so

far have produced conflicting results. Clones of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were previously subjected to a mutation accumulation experiment. Here, we measured fitness of two independent MA lines and their ancestors across two different environmental gradients, increasing salt and decreasing phosphorous. We investigated changes in expressed genotypic variation and the consistency of the genetic response to environments between the two MA lines, between the two different stressors, between MA lines and their ancestors and in relation to the severity of stress. This allowed us to determine how DFE changes in response to stressful conditions, which, in turn, will determine the future capacity for adaptation in this model plant. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL A 28

Geographical variation in predation pressure toward warning signals of an Arctiid moth Parasemia plantaginis (52702) Katja Rönkä, Bibiana Rojas, Emily Burdfield-Steel, Swanne Gordon, Ossi Nokelainen, Tönis Tasane, Janne Valkonen, Johanna Mappes. University of Jyväskylä; University of Tartu. The wood tiger moth (P. plantaginis) is an aposematic species of which hind wing coloration can be white, yellow, orange or red combined with variable amount of black pigmentation. Throughout its Holarctic distribution both monomorphic and polymorphic populations exist. We asked whether differences in frequency dependent selection by predators could explain geographic differences in warning signals. We recorded local passerine and Lepidoptera communities during large-scale field experiments in four geographic locations (in Estonia, Scotland, Georgia and Southern Finland) where artificial moths of white, yellow and red hind wing coloration were exposed to natural predators. In Estonia white morphs, in Scotland yellow morphs and in Caucasus red morphs dominate whereas in Finland white and yellow morphs coexist. Predation pressure differed between the populations and natural selection seemed to favor locally common morphs in Scotland (yellow) and in Georgia (red) as expected according to the theory of aposematism. However, in Finland and Estonia we did not find evidence of positive frequency dependent selection. In addition to the local wood tiger moth population, we found some evidence that the structure of predator populations as well as local alternative prey communities influence the strength and direction of selection contributing to warning signals. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL A 28

Environmental suitability influences the evolvability of morphological traits: linking biogeography and evolutionary dynamics (52708) Jesus Martinez-Padilla, Alba Estrada, Regan Early, Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez.

Estación Biológica de Doñana; CIBIO/InBIO, Universidade de Evora; College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter; Centre for Evolutionary Biology, The University of Western Australia. Natural selection is the main mechanism driving evolution. Yet, our knowledge on how evolution works under different environmental circ*mstances is extremely limited in wild populations. Here we explore how environmental variation influences the evolvability of phenotypic traits of European wild bird populations. We reviewed studies that provided, or allowed calculation of, the coefficient of additive genetic variation (CVA) as a proxy of the ability of populations to respond to natural selection. We obtained 132 estimates of CVA of morphological traits from 13 species of 19 populations. We built Species Distribution Models of those species in Europe at a resolution of 50x50Km2 considering spatial, topographical and climatic variables with the favourability function. We then matched the environmental suitability of the location with the CVA of each population and species we had data from. We explored the association between favourability and CVA. We found that CVA of morphological traits was higher at intermediate environmental suitability and lowest in very favourable or unfavourable environments. Our results highlight the need to consider the populations’ environmental context to accurately contextualize evolutionary potential. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL A 28

Climate-change driven evolution of an ornament in a wild bird (52921) Simon Evans, Lars Gustafsson. Department of Animal Ecology, Uppsala University. Despite extensive empirical research, and theoretical expectations of rapid adaptation in response to selection, empirical evidence for contemporary evolution of secondary sexual traits is scarce. We explored this issue in a population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), in which the heritable (~35%) ornamental forehead patch of males has shown a marked phenotypic decline in size over 34 years. Based on estimates of annual fitness selection, we report a reversal in selection on forehead patch size over the study period, driven by climate-dependent viability selection (interannual survival) on males: early in the study, males with larger ornaments had higher survival. Conversely, in latter years, when temperatures at the breeding ground have been higher, less ornamented males had higher survival. Using a Bayesian animal model to quantify genetic and environmental variation in forehead patch size, we find a highly significant temporal decline in the breeding value of males, and show via simulations that genetic drift is unlikely to account for this. Our study thus demonstrates evolutionary reduction of ornamentation in the wild within the timeframe of a contemporary study and in response to climate change. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL B 20

Genomics of local adaptation in the Mediterrenean blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (52007)

Marta Szulkin, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire, Nicolas Bierne, Anne Charmantier. CEFE CNRS; ISEM CNRS; ISEM CNRS; CEFE CNRS. Demonstrating local adaptation in nature requires establishing connections not only between genotype, phenotype and fitness, but also between genomic differentiation and its covariation with habitat heterogeneity. Here, we investigated the origins of a strong habitat-linked phenotypic differentiation across Mediterranean populations of wild blue tit* (Cyanistes caeruleus) breeding in a highly heterogeneous environment. First, we tested for population genomic structuring related to habitat type. By applying a RAD-Seq approach to generate c. 12 000 SNPs, we detected large-scale and fine-scale genetic differentiation between populations. This included differentiation in adjacent habitats within Corsica less than 6 km apart, which was unexpected in highly mobile organisms such as birds. Complementary population genomic analyses revealed a pattern of isolation-by-environment (IBE) where genetic differentiation correlated with habitat type independently of geographic difference. Second, we established a quantitative genomic framework to study local adaptation in the Mediterranean blue tit. We compare pedigree and marker-based heritability for key reproductive traits, which are also known to differ between habitats. Third, we discuss the importance of using sample replicates and complementary statistical inference for genomic data validation to generate reliable insight into the genomics of local adaptation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL B 20

Utilizing large sampling frames to investigate the genomic determinants of short-term adaptation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (52282) Jessica Hedge, Timothy Walker, Sarah Walker, Derrick Crook, Tim Peto, Daniel Wilson. University of Oxford; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics. Short-term adaptation plays a major role in the success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the aetiological agent of TB disease in humans. The most obvious example is the emergence of drug resistance under the strong selective pressure from antimicrobial drugs. We have also identified signatures of short-term selection outside of genes associated with any known resistance, suggesting that M. tuberculosis must also adapt to different local environments within hosts. Although the exceptionally low clock rate of this species makes studies of within host adaptation challenging, intensive population-level sampling frames can increase the sensitivity to detect variants occurring over the short term. By performing phylogenetic analyses of 3651 M. tuberculosis whole genome sequences representing the global diversity of this pathogen, we have investigated the genetic pathways involved in local adaptation to the host environment over the short-term. The genetic variants identified in this way may help to explain why M. tuberculosis occasionally leaves the lungs, from where it can successfully transmit to other hosts and easily enter the bloodstream, to infect other tissues, which represent an evolutionary dead-end. By testing for associations between sites under selection and disease manifestation, we can begin to characterise the genomic signatures of adaptation in this pathogen. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Session 2 TUE POL B 20

Signatures of selection in an admixed feral chicken population (52293) Martin Johnsson, Eben Gering, Pamela Willis, Thomas Getty, Dominic Wright. IFM Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.; Zoology Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.; Biology Department, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada. Feralisation is the evolutionary process that occurs when a population of domestic animals is returned to wild conditions. Domestication as well as feralisation can serve as models of adaptation to new environments. Our observations of phenotypes and genetic data suggest that feral chickens of Kauai are an admixed population of wild and domestic chickens. We performed whole-genome SOLiD sequencing on 23 Kauai chickens (~ 5X individual coverage), called single nucleotide variants and performed selective sweep mapping by sliding window pooled heterozygosity. As a comparison, we reanalyzed a dataset of selective sweeps in domestic chickens. Consistent with their probable admixed origin, the Kauai population had on average higher heterozygosities than domestic chickens. We found 37 putative selective sweeps on Kauai, largely separate from those in domestic chickens, and potentially driven by feralisation and adaptation. One among the potential sweeps on chromosome 13 is close to a candidate gene for relative comb mass identified in a laboratory cross between wild and domestic chickens. We speculate that this is due to restoration of natural and sexual selection on comb size on previously domesticated genotypes. High heterozygosities suggest ongoing feralisation on Kauai that may offer an opportunity to map this process in real time. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL B 20

Experimental genomic tests for pollution driven rapid evolution in the Mediterranean mussel (52305) Anamaria Štambuk, Stuart Dennis, Dorotea Polović, Maja Šrut, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Vid Baković, Goran Klobučar, Patrik Nosil. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Cr; Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK; Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA. Anthropogenic disturbance can rapidly and substantially alter the environment such that exposed organisms are challenged to quickly adapt to these changes. We studied evolutionary responses to pollution in marine environments using the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. We sampled 15 natural populations along a pollution gradient and used a subset of these to perform transplant experiments between clean and polluted environments in both the wild and in lab mesocosms. The results of the experiments showed consistent differential survival between treatments and source populations driven by an acclimatization effect in the wild transplant and by population by environment interactions in the mesocosm experiment. For over 1800 mussels used in these studies we collected genome wide SNP data

using a genotype-by-sequencing approach. These SNPs were analysed to test for genetic structure in natural populations and the genomic architecture of survival (i.e., fitness) in the experiments. By combining data obtained from the native populations and two types of transplant experiments we identified interactions between environment, genotype, and fitness, thus providing new insight into pollution driven evolution and the effect of adaptive processes on the mussel genome. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL B 20

Parallel and non-parallel genomic signatures of selection in three-spine sticklebacks from different regions (52380) Shenglin Liu, Anne-Laure Ferchaud, Michael M. Hansen. Aarhus University; Université Laval. Multiple independent colonizations of freshwater areas by marine three-spine stickleback represent some of the most well-known examples of parallel evolution, both at the phenotypic (especially lateral plate polymorphism) and genomic levels. However, whereas high degrees of parallelism are observed in some geographical regions (e.g. American northern Pacific), parallelism appears less pronounced in other regions (e.g. the North Sea and Baltic Sea in Europe). We test the hypothesis that the degree of similarity of environments and ecosystems between freshwater bodies also explains the degree of parallelism. Using RAD sequencing we analyze marine and freshwater sticklebacks from 1) Greenland, where ecosystems are very simple and similar across lakes, with only few fish predators present and 2) Denmark, where ecosystems are complex and differ strongly between habitats. In accordance with our hypothesis, we do find pronounced phenotypic and genomic parallel evolution in Greenland, but only limited parallel evolution in Denmark. We furthermore estimate divergence time between marine and freshwater sticklebacks and demographic history of populations in the two regions in order to rule out that different time since founding or strong bottlenecks could explain the differences of results. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL B 20

Extreme local adaptation in Drosophila chemosensory perception (52494) J. Roman Arguello, Margarida Cardoso-Moreira, Jaaved Mohammed, Jennifer K. Grenier, Srikanth Gottipati, Andrew G. Clark, Richard Benton. University of Lausanne, Center for Integrative Genomics; Cornell University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics; Cornell University, Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology; Translational Medicine and Think Team, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development and Commercialization, Inc. How organisms adapt to new environments is of fundamental biological interest but is poorly understood at the level of genes and neurons. A particularly interesting question regarding

local adaptation is how sensory systems and perception are altered during this process. To investigate the extent to which selection has shaped the chemosensory perception within D. melanogaster - a preeminent model for studying sensory neurobiology – we have analyzed genome-wide polymorphism and divergence data from the Global Diversity Lines (84 D. melanogaster genomes derived from 5 geographically diverse populations). By couching population genomic analyses of chemosensory protein families within parallel analyses of all other large protein families we demonstrate that, surprisingly, chemosensory proteins do not stand out as outliers with respect to signals of adaptive differences between species. However, chemosensory proteins do experience local adaption at extremely high rates, often displaying the strongest signals of selection among large protein families. We show that adaptation has operated almost exclusively on standing variation, and that positively selected genes often harbor unanticipated levels of diversity. Our curated set of selected chemosensory proteins is currently guiding functional studies aimed at understanding the phenotypic impacts of the variants under selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL C 11

Toll-like receptors in birds: diversifying selection, pseudogenization and gene duplication (51989) Hana Bainova, Maria Weronika Gutowska, David W. Burt, Michal Vinkler. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Genomics and Genetics, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, UK. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an essential class of pattern recognition receptors that plays a key role in the first line of vertebrate innate immune defence against various pathogens. Avian TLR family comprises in its original state ten receptors, where each receptor hom*odimer or heterodimer is capable of recognizing a distinct set of microbe-associated molecular patterns. Herein we present the result of our investigation of avian TLR evolution. We analysed all TLR sequences available from 65 bird species covering major avian clades. The sequence data were extracted from whole genome sequences obtained within the Avian Genomes project as well as from public sequence repositories. Our selection analyses revealed that positive diversifying selection acts more on extracellular than on endosomal TLRs. Furthermore, we described the unique phenomenon of TLR5 pseudogenization recently published in passerines also in other bird taxa (e.g. in Psittaciformes, Cariamiformes, Trogoniformes, Phaethontiformes, Eurypygiformes and Apodiformes). TLR7 duplication predicted until today only in passerines seems to be common also in other avian taxa as e.g. in Charadriiformes, Cuculiformes and Mesiornithiformes. The assessment of evolutionary patterns explaining the genetic variability in genes of the TLR family may shed light on selective pressures shaping host-parasites interactions on large evolutionary scales. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL C 11

Diversity through alternative splicing: Do Dscam1 splice variants respond to bacteria exposure? (52023) Sophie Armitage, Wei Sun, Xintian You, Joachim Kurtz, Dietmar Schmucker, Wei Chen. University of Münster; Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine Berlin; VIB University Leuven. One way that a host can evolve diversity in immune recognition and effector molecules is through alternative splicing. It has been proposed that the extensively alternatively spliced gene Dscam1 (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule), might be involved in pancrustacean immune responses against diverse parasites. It has been proposed that the phenotypically variable isoforms (combinations of exons) that it can produce may be involved in the recognition of diverse parasite epitopes, although evidence to support this is sparse. One prediction is that the Dscam1 gene expression of alternatively spliced exons is influenced by exposure to an immune elicitor. To test this hypothesis, for the first time in an immune context, we used Pacific Biosciences long read RNA sequencing methods to investigate splicing patterns after exposing Drosophila melanogaster and a cell line to live Escherichia coli. Using long reads allowed us to examine the expression of different isoforms. Contrary to our prediction, we found no significant changes in exon or isoform expression in response to bacterial exposure. However, these data represent only one of a vast number of possible hostmicrobe interactions. In order to test the general significance, future studies are needed to test other host-parasite combinations and more ecologically relevant conditions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL C 11

Major-effect mutations provide resistance to viruses in natural Drosophila populations (52031) Chuan Cao, Rodrigo Cogni, Michael Magwire, Frank Jiggins. University of Cambridge; University of São Paulo; Syngenta. Coevolutionary arms races between hosts and parasites mean that there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. We have used the powerful tools of Drosophila genetics and genomics to understand the evolution of resistance. By combining high-resolution QTL mapping and association studies we have found that there are a small number of major-effect polymorphisms that control virus resistance in natural Drosophila populations. For three of the genes involved, we have modified them to experimentally confirm the exact mutations involved, showing that diverse molecular changes can lead to resistance. A single amino acid change in the restriction factor pastrel dramatically increases the resistance against Drosophila C Virus. A transposable element insertion in gene CHKov1 results in a new transcript, which protects flies against sigma virus infection. Meanwhile, a large deletion in the protein Ge1 makes flies resistant to sigma virus infection, likely by altering its role in RNA degradation. In all cases the resistant allele is the derived state and the genes often show signs of strong selection. Together our results indicate that major-effect mutations that provide resistance to viruses continually arise and are driven through populations by natural selection.

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Bumblebee immune response upon faecal transplant and microbiota community structure in host-parasite interactions (52154) Kathrin Näpflin, Paul Schmid-Hempel. ETH Zürich. Microbial symbionts are suspected to closely interact with the host immune system. Recently, their role in mediating levels of resistance in host-parasite interactions has thus come into focus. So far, however, experimental investigations of the impact of the microbiota on the host immune system and vice versa are virtually absent. Experiments done in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, demonstrated that the microbiota both provides a protective function against the trypanosome gut parasite, Crithidia bombi, and mediates the specificity of the host-parasite interaction. Here, we investigated how the crosswise transplantation of "resistant" and "susceptible" faecal microbiota into “resistant” and “susceptible” backgrounds of microbe-free worker bees affects the activity of the host immune system. In a first step, we measured the primary immune gene expression response to the transplant. In a second step, we investigated if these gene expression patterns are associated with differences in the microbiota community structure as described by 16s rRNA sequence data. Our results underline the importance of the host genotype (i.e. resistance background) in host-parasite interactions. Most likely, the host genotype is able to exert selection via differences in gene expression upon the establishing gut community. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL C 11

Evolution of anti-parasitic behaviors in monarch butterflies (52207) Jaap de Roode. Emory University. Hosts have evolved a wide variety of defenses against parasites, including anti-parasitic behaviors. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, which strongly reduces monarch survival, mating ability and fecundity. Monarchs are specialized on milkweeds as their larval food plants, and milkweed species with high concentrations of cardenolides (secondary toxic chemicals) reduce parasite infection and virulence. We investigated whether monarchs can use medicinal milkweeds to prevent or cure disease, and whether monarch medication behaviors depend on parasite risk in natural populations. Our experiments suggest that infected female butterflies preferentially lay their eggs on medicinal milkweeds that make their offspring less sick. Moreover, the type of medication behavior depends on parasite risk in natural populations. In eastern and western North America, where parasite risk is low, only infected monarchs had a preference for medicinal plants, indicating therapeutic medication. In contrast, in South Florida, where parasite risk is high, both infected and uninfected monarchs preferred to lay

eggs on medicinal milkweed, indicating prophylactic medication. Overall, our results suggest that monarchs can use medicinal milkweeds to mitigate the negative effects of their prevalent protozoan parasites, and that variation in parasitism risk contributes to variation in medication behavior. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL C 11

The effectiveness and costs of pathogen resistance strategies in a long-lived host (52294) Hanna Susi, Anna-Liisa Laine. University of Helsinki. Hosts have evolved different strategies to resist pathogens but little is known about how variable, effective, and costly these mechanisms are in long-lived hosts. In the interaction between Plantago lanceolata and its powdery mildew causing fungus Podospahera plantaginis the same host may block infection by some strains of the pathogen while being susceptible to others and once infected, hosts may quantitatively mitigate disease development. We conducted a laboratory experiment to assess variation in resistance strategies across 41 plant genotypes originating from 8 P. lanceolata populations. To test stability and costs of different resistance strategies, we established multi-year experimental populations of plants possessing qualitative resistance, quantitative resistance, or susceptibility to disease. We found variation among the resistance phenotypes in laboratory with no evidence for trade-offs between qualitative and quantitative resistance strategies. Throughout the three year study qualitative resistance efficiently blocked infections but quantitative resistance was not effective against infection in the experimental populations. We detected fitness costs of resistance in the absence of the pathogen for qualitative and quantitative resistance compared to susceptible plants. Our results demonstrate that different resistance strategies can be maintained in a natural population by costs of resistance and by shifts in resource allocation under infection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL C 11

Trade-off between dual roles of the gut in nutrient acquisition and immune defense: experimental evolution and physiological basis (52313) Tadeusz Kawecki, Roshan Vijendravarma. University of Lausanne. In addition to its role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, the digestive tract is the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, and thus the site of potential evolutionary trade-offs between nutrient acquisition and immunity. We will present evidence for such a trade-off from experimental evolution, with Drosophila as the study system. We found that populations adapted during 160 generations of experimental evolution to chronic larval malnutrition became more efficient at extracting the diluted nutrients, but also more susceptible to

intestinal infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila. Detailed experiments reveal an unexpected mechanism of this trade-off: elevated predisposition to loss of intestinal integrity upon infection, leading to sepsis. These results provide a potential evolutionary explanation for the maintenance of genetic susceptibility to opportunistic intestinal pathogens. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 415 27

The adaptive value of within-individual covariation between floral signals and rewards. (51709) Santiago Benitez-Vieyra. Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba CONICET). When pollinators visit a sequence of flowers they experience a continuum of variation in advertisem*nt traits and in the amount and quality of reward, ranging from full rewarding to deceptive flowers. They can combine this information, evaluate the reliability of plant signals and use previous knowledge to decide when to leave that plant. Hence, in most plant species the within-individual covariation among signals and rewards could be the target of pollinatormediated selection if pollinators verify the reliability of floral signals and penalize cheating individuals. We examined whether within-individual signal-reward correlations evolve under selection at micro- and macroevolutionary levels, detecting the occurrence of current phenotypic selection on natural populations and testing the adaptive divergence of floral signals in plants visited by different pollinators. In the latter case, we used a sample of Neotropical Salvia species and took advantage of the differential use of floral signals by bees and hummingbirds to predict which specific traits are predominantly associated with nectar reward at the within-individual level. Our findings support the idea that signal honesty is selected by pollinators and highlight the adaptive value of within-individual variation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 415 27

Learning about natural variation of floral odors sets boundaries for generalization among flowers with the same reward value (51798) Brian H Smith, Fernando F Locatelli, Patricia C Fernandez. Arizona State University; Universidad de Buenos Aires; INTA EEA Delta del Paraná y FAUBA. Floral odors are typically mixtures. Mixtures that have the same meaning – e.g. food - can vary in composition from flower to the next. Therefore a central problem in recognition of floral odors is generalization among flowers that differ but have the same meaning. We propose that mechanisms of plasticity in early sensory processing in the brain are central to solving this problem. Accordingly, plasticity should work to improve grouping of odors that

have the same meaning. Using synthetic mixtures that mimic natural odor variation, we studied how honey bees learn about and generalize among floral odors. We conditioned honey bees on a discrimination problem using synthetic mixtures that mimic natural variation among snapdragon flowers. We then employed bioimaging of calcium responses in projection neurons of the antennal lobe, which is the first synaptic relay of olfactory sensory information in the brain, to study how ensembles change as a result of conditioning. We show how neural networks in the antennal lobes become ‘tuned’ through plasticity to improve grouping of odors that have the same meaning. We argue that this tuning allows more efficient use of the immense coding space of the antennal lobe to solve the generalization problem with floral odors. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 415 27

Paternity analysis reveals mating patterns in an Antirrhinum hybrid zone incorporating sibships and phenotypes (51642) Thomas Ellis, David Field, Nick Barton. IST Austria. Pedigree estimation of natural populations allows a direct and powerful insight into mating patterns of wild organisms and the traits which contribute to variation in reproductive success. I will present data on paternity for open-pollination seedlings from an Antirrhinum hybrid zone. Here yellow and magenta subspecies hybridise and form transgressive white, orange and pink pigmentation phenotypes. Comprehensive phenotypic sampling permits joint estimation of paternity and the strength of selection on floral characters. This is performed in a new Bayesian framework which combines information on phenotypes and shared alleles among siblings to assign relationships, which is efficient for modern SNP genotype datasets. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 415 27

The double role of Salvia viridis' extrafloral display (51644) Yoram Gerchman, Tamar Keasar. University of Haifa at Oranm. Salvia viridis is a Mediterranean annual plant, growing in small groups ("patches"), and characterized by an extra-floral structure, a group of conspicuous purple tufts of leaves (‘‘flags’’), which terminate each vertical inflorescence. We have studied the role of these flags in the interaction of the S. viridis plant with different animals, both pollinators and herbivores, and found that removal of the flags increased herbivory. Furthermore, removal of the flags from whole patches, but not from individuals within patches, reduced pollinator visits. Chemical analysis suggested that the flag leaves' purple color is due to a high content of anthocyanin. Comparison of reflectance data for flags and leaves suggest that they can be visually discriminated by both pollinators and herbivores. Finally we have also looked into

the biomass 'cost' of the flag and concluded that it is probably negligible. Our results shed light on visual based selection for extra-floral traits by pollinators and herbivores. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 415 27

Heritability of floral volatiles and pleiotropic responses to artificial selection in Brassica rapa (52051) Pengjuan Zu, Florian Schiestl, Wolf Blankenhorn. Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich; Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich; Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich. Plants produce a large diversity of volatile organic compounds that serve fundamental functions such as pollinator attraction and herbivore deterrence. Plant volatile emission is often highly variable and sensitive to environmental factors. To date, nothing is known about heritability of plant volatiles, and whether individual compounds can evolve independently or merely in concert with the whole volatile bouquet. To fill this gap in our understanding of plant volatile evolution, we conducted bi-directional artificial selection on four target floral volatiles representing four main chemical groups to estimate heritability and correlated pleiotropic responses in fast cycling Brassica rapa. The realized heritability of the four target volatiles ranged from 20% to 45%, as estimated from the “high amount” selection lines. The average narrow-sense heritability of all 13 analyzed floral volatiles was 18% based on parentoffspring regressions. There were pleiotropic effects of the selected volatile compounds on other volatiles, on flowering time, and on some morphological traits. We found that the whole floral scent bouquet changed even when there was selection on only single compounds. Our study demonstrates that floral scent can evolve fast under phenotypic selection, but this can come with additional correlated responses in traits that are not direct targets of selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE MAX 415 27

Are florivores agents of selection on floral colour? Review and Synthesis (51743) Mahua Ghara, Yuval Sapir. Tel Aviv University. Colour in flower is an advertising signal, important to visually attract pollinator which in turn acts as an agent of selection on colour. Floral tissues such as petals, style, pollen, or ovules are consumed by insects (florivores) that may use colour to visually orient themselves to host. Florivores cause loss of fitness directly through consumption of gametes (pollen and ovules), and indirectly through alteration of signals important for pollinator attraction. Florivores are likely to impose selection on floral colour. We systematically reviewed available literature for evidences on pollinator- and florivore-mediated selection on floral colour, and for evidences on selection mediated by interaction between pollinators and florivores. Although

publications on pollinator-mediated selection were abundant, the role of florivores as agent of selection on floral colour remained relatively uninvestigated. A few studies provided evidence for florivores as agents of selection and some studies that failed to provide evidence for pollinator-mediated selection alluded to the possibility of selection mediated by florivores. The review summarizes the studies on florivore-mediated selection on floral colour, and suggests a frame-work to estimate the role of florivores in floral colour evolution. A possible cause for such shortage in studies on florivore-mediated selection, as compared to pollinators is discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL D 33

Multiple morphological and behavioural modifications converge into a function that promotes invasion and diversification within a new adaptive zone (52191) Antonin Crumière, Abderrahman Khila. IGFL. Evolutionary key innovations may open new ecological opportunities and facilitate adaptive radiations. However, the adaptive value of key innovations during initial stages of the colonization of new niches and genetic mechanisms underlying their emergence are rarely established. The Gerromorpha, a monophyletic group of semi-aquatic Heteroptera, transited from terrestrial life to life on the water surface, and radiated into remarkable forms that colonized a vast array of sub niches. Using phylogenetic mapping, we discovered that the transition to water surface life is associated with an increase in the frequency of leg strokes and an increase in leg length which is exploited by Gerromorpha to cover larger stroke amplitudes during water surface locomotion. The combined modification in these biomechanical parameters contributes to increase locomotion efficiency compared to exclusively terrestrial relatives. The emergence of these traits at the base of the Gerromorphan phylogeny coincides with the novel deployment of the Hox gene Ultrabithorax in the second thoracic segment. Using RNAi knockdown we highlight the importance of Ubx in the emergence of these traits and the role of fluid substrate as a selective force in the evolution of Gerromorpha. Therefore, evolutionary changes in highly pleiotropic genes can generate multiple discreet phenotypic changes, which can have a spectacular impact on organismal ecology and diversification. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL D 33

Natural Arabidopsis BRX Loss-of-Function Alleles Confer Root Adaptation to Acidic Soil (52240) Christian Hardtke. University of Lausanne.

To understand gene action at the cellular, tissue and organismal levels is the ultimate goal of developmental biology and can connect to ecological-evolutionary aspects through analysis of corresponding natural genetic variation. In our lab, we have isolated a regulator of root growth vigor in Arabidopsis thaliana named BREVIS RADIX (BRX) through the natural variation approach. Although generally highly conserved, hyperactive as well as loss-offunction BRX alleles exist in nature. A physiological feature of brx null mutants, proton pump hyperactivity, could explain their occurrence, because on overly acidic media or soil this feature confers more robust growth and increased fitness as compared to wild type. In these conditions, the fitness advantage might over-compensate for the loss of root meristem growth, for which BRX is essential. In summary, the existence of independently maintained brx lossof-function alleles in nature and their association with low pH soils supports the notion that they are advantageous in acidic soil pH conditions. Physiological assays based on brx characteristics now enable us to map other genes that confer adaptation to acidic soil and to rapidly identify their causal allelic variants through next generation sequencing approaches. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL D 33

The genomic architecture of adaptation and speciation in ecologically divergent forest trees (Populus spp.) (52358) Margot Paris, Stölting Kai N. , Meier Cécile, Heinze Berthold, Castiglione Stefano, Bartha Denes, Macaya Sanz David , Gonzalez-Martinez Santiago, Lexer Christian . University of Fribourg; Federal Forest Research Centre Vienna; University of Salerno; West Hungarian University; INIA-CIFOR. Recent advances in sequencing technologies offer great opportunities to address the molecular basis of adaptation and ecological speciation. In Eurasia, several phenotypically differentiated forms within the ‘model tree’ genus Populus have diverged in the face of gene flow. Populus provides a promising model to explore the determinants of adaptation and divergence along a continuum, ranging from differentiated populations and phylogeographic lineages to divergent species with fairly strong postzygotic barriers. We report a whole genome sequencing effort involving multiple populations of Eurasian Populus alba and P. tremula including multiple post-glacial recolonization lineages within the former. We find a complex genomic architecture of adaptive differentiation from both, standing genetic variation and new mutations. In Central European P. alba alone, screening of 14 million sequence polymorphisms reveals 430 highly differentiated genes mainly linked to soil adaptation (e.g. ion transport, root development, and water stress response). High divergence between hybridizing species appears to be maintained by widespread coupling effects, whereas 4% of the studied genome windows do not exhibit any fixed between-species polymorphism. Some of these regions also exhibit intraspecific footprints of selection, thus suggesting that introgression contributes to the functionally important variation available for adaptation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL D 33

The origin and spread of premating isolation driving incipient speciation in Mimulus (52401) Matt Streisfeld, Sean Stankowski, James Sobel. University of Oregon; Binghamton University. Speciation is a continuous process that occurs across a broad range of spatial settings and scenarios. Yet, the historical events contributing to the origin and spread of traits that generate reproductive isolation are poorly understood. We elucidate the ecological genetic changes driving the early stages of divergence in a classic example of incipient speciation in Mimulus aurantiacus. Red- and yellow-flowered ecotypes are parapatrically distributed and partially isolated due to differences in habitat and pollinator behavior. However, postmating barriers are weak, resulting in gene flow across much of the genome and a narrow hybrid zone where ranges overlap. Nevertheless, a small set of loci remain differentiated, demonstrating the preliminary stages of genomic divergence. Indeed, six floral traits associated with pollinator isolation vary clinally in nature, providing strong evidence for divergent selection despite gene flow. Our molecular studies have revealed a cis-regulatory mutation in the MaMyb2 gene that is primarily responsible for red floral pigmentation. We show that this adaptive allele entered the red-flowered ecotype via introgressive hybridization with a more distantly related subspecies, a result that not only sheds light on the complex history of divergence but also the power of ecological adaptation to drive the early stages of speciation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL D 33

Sexual isolation and the genetics of chemical cues involved in speciation in Heliconius butterflies (52450) Claire Mérot, John Davey, Richard Merrill, Sarah Barker, Ene Leppik, Brigitte Frérot, Chris Jiggins, Mathieu Joron. ISYEB UMR 7205, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris; Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge; UMR 1392 iEES, INRA Versailles ; UMR 5175, CNRS-Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier. Speciation with gene flow implies the evolution of reproductive isolation under selection favouring lineage differentiation. Understanding how divergent selection leads to speciation requires characterizing the ecological, phenotypic and genomic modalities of reproductive isolation. Heliconius butterflies are now an established example of ecological speciation driven by a “magic trait”, wing colour pattern, because a shift in this trait triggers disruptive selection for mimicry, as well as sexual isolation involving the same trait as a mating cue. However, sibling species with similar wing patterns exist in sympatry, meaning that other traits maintain or accompany reproductive isolation. To understand the multidimensionality of speciation, we investigated Heliconius sister-species with similar patterns. Behavioural experiments show that pattern similarity interferes with mate location, yet species isolation remains strong due to mate choice based on short-distances cues. Chemical analyses on genitalia and wing scents demonstrated species-specific chemical signatures, suggesting

chemical communication participates to reproductive isolation. Using genome-wide RADmapping of interspecific crosses, we revealed the genetic architecture of pheromone profiles, analyzed it in the light of the genomic landscapes of divergence, and tested the linkage with other loci involved in speciation. This opens the possibility to explore the coupling and order of appearance of the different speciation modalities. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL D 33

Key Physiological Innovations during Colonizations of Fresh Water and Land (52488) Carol Eunmi Lee, Seong-il Eyun, Marijan Posavi, Gregory Gelembiuk, Jane Remfert, Guy Charmantier, Mireille Charmantier-Daures. University of Wisconsin; University of Nebraska; Université de Montpellier. Arthropods are the most successful animal phylum on the planet, both in terms of number of species and total biomass. While arthropods evolved originally in the sea, they have become extraordinarily successful across an extremely wide range of habitats and ecological niches. Arthropods now dominate many marine, freshwater, hypersaline, and dry environments across the globe. While most marine invertebrates have no need to osmoregulate, invading freshwater habitats requires the active uptake of scarce ions, whereas invading land adds the additional challenge of also regulating water (at times to reduce water loss). In addition, challenges are imposed by the differences in physical properties between water versus air. Yet, arthropods have invaded freshwater and terrestrial environments multiple times independently. This talk discusses some key adaptations that occurred during the transitions from marine to freshwater to terrestrial habitats, based on results from laboratory selection experiments, comparative physiological studies, and genome sequence analyses. Evolution of ion transporter function appears to be critical for the transition from marine to freshwater habitats, and these functions appear to be concentrated in the legs in many arthropods. Additionally, across the phylum Arthropoda we observe curious gains and losses of chemoreceptor gene families in arthropod lineages. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE POL D 33

Distinct genetic mechanisms of parallel speciation in phytophagous ladybird beetles (52536) Kei Matsubayashi, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Moritz Muschick, Akemi Togashi, Haruo Katakura, Hideki Ueno, Patrik Nosil. The University of Sheffield; The University of Sheffield; Utah State University; The University of Sheffield; The University of Sheffield; Hokkaido University; Hokkaido University; Niigata University; The University of Sheffield.

Adaptation to similar environments can create new species and this process can occur repeatedly to result in replicate species pairs (i.e., parallel speciation). The genetic basis of this process is poorly understood but is assumed to usually occur by new pairs of species forming via divergence from a single shared ancestor. By combining genomic analyses with experimental estimates of several isolating barriers we found that parallel speciation in phytophagous ladybird beetle species involves distinct historical and genetic processes in different species pairs in Japan. In one geographic region a species pair was formed by divergence from a single common ancestor and specialization on different host plants. In contrast, in another locality a new species was formed by hybridization between two different closely related parental species. Although the latter case also involved host adaptation, it was facilitated by hybridization between the two parental species. The results indicate that individual species can contain much genetic variation due to variation derived from distinct ancestors, and that hybridization between populations can generate new highly distinct species even in the early stages of ecological speciation. The collective results illustrate complex origins of different species with a potential role for hybridization in facilitating this process. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN B 8

How do beneficial microbiomes form and adapt within mutualisms? (52278) Tabitha Innocent, Mahmoud Al-Bassam, Morten Schiøtt, Douglas W. Yu, Matthew I. Hutchings, Jacobus J. Boomsma. Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen; University of East Anglia, School of Biological Science, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England; Chinese Academy of Science, Ecology, Conservation and Environment Center (ECEC), Kunming Institute o. The fungus-farming attine ants live symbiotically with multiple species of antibioticproducing actinobacteria. We know the diversity of bacterial species provides a diversity of antibiotics, thus maintaining long-term protection against pathogens that attack the ant’s fungal mutualist. However, only one of these actinomycete species is vertically transmitted by the ants, so it has remained unclear how and at what life stages more diverse beneficial microbiomes are established by selective recruitment of additional actinomycete strains from the environment. This is an important general problem: how do the dynamics of bacterial competition lead to the formation of a microbiome that benefits a host and mutualistic partner? While mutualisms between bacteria and other species are both abundant and influential (e.g. multiple insects, crop plants, coral systems), these systems tend to be difficult to experimentally manipulate in the lab. With the attine ant model we can empirically test the latest evolutionary theories on mutualism stability with ramifications well beyond this system. In this light, I will present genomic and experimental data covering several genera of attine ants suggesting the ants promote interference competition among bacteria, and this competition favours beneficial actinobacterial communities.

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Mutualism in a community context: lessons from ants, aphids and their gut microbiomes (52797) Aniek B.F. Ivens, E. Toby Kiers, Daniel J.C. Kronauer. The Rockefeller University, New York, USA; VU University Amsterdam, NL. Ant-aphid interactions are classic examples of interspecific cooperation. The ants depend on honeydew excreted by the aphids for sugar; the aphids depend on the ants for protection and hygiene. Such mutualistic interactions are inherently prone to destabilizing conflicts of interest. Several mechanisms can align the partners’ interests, such as partner fidelity through reduced rates of aphid dispersal and partner choice based on honeydew quality. Although historically regarded as two-species interactions, mutualisms are now increasingly recognized as complex multispecies networks. Using genetic barcoding, we show that an interaction of subterranean Lasius ants tending Prociphilus aphids in fact comprises a mutualistic community of multiple species of ants and aphids. Moreover, aphids harbor specialized endosymbiotic bacteria, which facilitate feeding on specific plants; likewise the ants’ gut microbiome likely facilitates honeydew digestion. In our experiments, we aim to identify the roles these microbes play in the mutualism’s evolutionary stability. Their impact is potentially huge: by influencing honeydew quality, aphid endosymbionts can affect partner choice. Likewise, ant gut microbes can affect partner fidelity by determining on which aphids’ honeydew the ants can feed and thus with whom they can associate. Including additional organisms can thus drastically change our understanding of the evolutionary ecology of mutualism. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN B 8

Colony fusion as a route to cooperation without kinship in ant supercolonies (52676) Ea B. M. Hørsving, Louise S. Pedersen, Dóra B. Huszár, Luigi Pontieri, Jacobus J. Boomsma, Jes Søe Pedersen. Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15,. One of the most spectacular cases of cooperation among unrelated individuals is ant supercolonies, where large networks of interconnected nests may extend over hundreds, or even thousands, of kilometres without territorial aggression. Several species exclusively form supercolonies and always as genetically closed lineages that have emerged by budding from existing ones (fission). Alternatively, here we asked whether fusion of colonies has the potential to lead to the emergence of new supercolonies in the common red ant Myrmica rubra. We found that two colonies do not fuse only if they are both tight families headed by a single queen. All other M. rubra colony combinations always fused, even when the

geographic origin was as distant as Denmark and Finland (different haplotype groups). This indicates that supercolony formation in M. rubra is more dependent on family structure than genetic distance, and that multiple-queen colonies can expand in the habitat and merge. Genetic evidence for mixed origins of supercolonies indicates that fusion indeed happens in the field. These complexities suggest that there may be more than a single evolutionary route to the paradoxical state of supercoloniality, and that colony fusion could lead to cooperation without kinship in evolutionarily derived ant lineages. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN B 35

Specialist and generalist oviposition strategies in butterflies: maternal care or precocious young? (52208) Alexander Schäpers, Sören Nylin, Mikael Carlsson, Niklas Janz. Department of Zoology, Stockholm University. Herbivorous insects specialized on a narrow set of plants are believed to be better adapted to their specific hosts. Species with a broader diet breadth seem to pay a cost through decreased oviposition accuracy. Despite many studies investigating oviposition behavior we lack knowledge on how larvae cope behaviorally with their mothers’ egg-laying strategies. We examined how five nymphalid butterfly species with different host plant ranges differed in female oviposition preference and in neonate larval behavior in several disadvantageous situations. We found a general synchrony between female and larval abilities, where species with more “caring”, discriminating females had larvae that were less able to deal with a suboptimal initial feeding site. Conversely, relatively indiscriminate females had more precocious larvae with higher abilities to cope with suboptimal sites. Remarkably, despite similarities between the tested species with similar host ranges, there were also striking differences. Generalist and specialist species can be found side by side in many clades, with each clade having a specific evolutionary history. Such clade-specific, phylogenetically determined preconditions apparently have affected precisely how a broad or narrow diet breadth can be realized. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN B 35

Factors affecting the evolution of host-switching in infectious diseases (52407) Alethea Wang, Magda Meier, Francois Balloux. UCL; UCL; UCL. Although new infectious diseases have become increasingly prevalent in the past several decades, the underlying factors leading to their emergence remain unclear. Epidemics have frequently been linked to pathogen host switching, but few studies have broadly examined the overall prevalence of host switching across pathogen groups. Here, we examine how two evolutionary factors - host taxonomic relatedness and pathogen host range - influence a

pathogen's ability to infect new host species. Although pathogens often infect closely related species, there are also many cases in which the original and new hosts are taxonomically diverse. Second, pathogens vary considerably in their host ranges, with some being specialists that only infect a single species and others capable of infecting hosts from a number of different taxonomic groups. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of ~550 bacterial pathogens of humans and animals to quantify whether host taxonomic relatedness and breadth of host range are important factors underlying the potential for pathogen host switching. This understanding will improve our ability to predict, prevent and control future disease outbreaks. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN B 35

The long reach of a tapeworm parasite in its social host (52951) Sara Beros, Evelien Jongepier, Felizitas Hagemeier, Susanne Foitzik. Institute of Zoology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University. Parasite-induced alterations are well-known on the individual level, but the consequences of parasite infections for social groups are less clear. Manipulative parasites with complex life cycles could extend their influence to non-infected group members by chemical or behavioural manipulation to ensure their own survival and transmission. An infection with the tapeworm Anomotaenia brevis induces multidimensional changes in its intermediate host, the ant Temnothorax nylanderi. Despite having a deviant chemical profile that would usually lead to social rejection, infected ants are tolerated and well-cared for in their colonies, as evident in their increased survival rate. Here, we tracked infection-mediated effects by manipulating the composition of ant colonies through addition and removal of infected workers, and determined colony aggression. Our results reveal that the presence of infected ants clearly influences the colonies´ response to intruders. Parasitized colonies behaved less aggressive towards conspecifics, and this change was based on a lower aggression in non-infected ant workers. We argue that this lower aggression might be the outcome of behavioural manipulation and could ensure the care for infected workers, consequently increasing parasite fitness. In summary, individual parasite infections can have far-reaching consequences in social groups, hereby influencing the behavioral performance on the colony level. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 TUE GEN B 35

Wing pigmentation and immune response in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (51704) Elena Rosa, Marjo Saastamoinen. University of Helsinki. Melanin production in insects is typically involved in pigmentation and immune response, and both of these traits depend on the phenoloxidase enzyme pathway. During attacks by

exogenous pathogens, encapsulation response is activated, resulting in clotting and melanisation of the foreign bodies. In butterflies, melanin production is important in the cuticle and adult wing pigmentation, and it has a key role in thermoregulation. However, as melanin production is costly, trade-offs among competing life history traits are expected, especially under restricted resource conditions. In Finland, the Glanville fritillary butterfly occurs in its northern range limit and is restricted to the Åland archipelago, where a conspicuous variation in wing darkness among individuals has been observed. Our aim is to investigate within and among population level variation in the relationship between immunity and pigmentation. Darker patterns are predicted to be influenced also by developmental conditions: individuals under cool environmental conditions are expected to be darker as a predictive adaptive response to allow faster heat absorption and increased activity under those conditions. However, immune challenge during early life may activate melanin production and influence its allocation to wing patterns, or to adult immune response. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN C 4

Field estimates of parentage reveal sexually antagonistic selection on body size in a population of Anolis lizards (51824) Katie Duryea, Patrick Bergeron, Zachary Clare-Salzler, Ryan Calsbeek. Lund University; University of Sherbrooke; University of Montana; Dartmouth College. Sexual dimorphism evolves when selection favors different phenotypic optima between the sexes. Such sexually antagonistic selection creates intralocus sexual conflict when traits are genetically correlated between the sexes. We investigated sexually antagonistic selection on body size in the brown anole lizard, Anolis sagrei. Brown anoles are highly sexually dimorphic: males are on average 30% longer than females and 150% more massive in our study population. Viability selection on body size is sexually antagonistic and directional selection favors larger males whereas stabilizing selection constrains females to remain small. Here, we measure reproductive components of fitness over three generations in a population of brown anoles. We estimated the number of offspring produced by an individual that survived to the following year, a measure of individual fitness that includes aspects of both individual reproductive success and offspring survival. Using this measure of fitness, we found directional selection on male body size, consistent with previous studies of viability selection. However, selection acting on female body size varied among years, including periods of positive directional selection, stabilizing selection, and no selection. Thus, selection acts differently in the sexes through both survival and reproduction and sexual conflict appears to be a persistent force in this species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN C 4

Identification and characterisation of sexually antagonistic loci in Drosophila melanogaster (51842)

Mark Hill, Ted Morrow, Kevin Fowler, Max Reuter. University College London; University of Sussex. Divergent evolutionary interests between the sexes generate sexually antagonistic selection, where opposing trait values are selected in males and females. However, a response to these selective pressures is constrained by the sexes' shared genome, leading to 'intralocus sexual conflict' (IASC). Despite our increasing understanding of the taxonomic prevalence of IASC and the traits affected, the identity of antagonistic loci remains almost entirely unknown. Here, we present the results of a study addressing this question. We identified antagonistic loci in D. melanogaster by combining genomic data from a set of sexually antagonistic haplotypes with an evolve-and-resequence experiment. Both studies identify well-supported candidate loci and significantly overlapping sets of genes. Enrichment analyses show that antagonistic genes are predominantly involved in developmental and regulatory processes and, interestingly, include a significant number of genes involved in the sex-determination cascade. Collectively these studies represent the first detailed information regarding the genetic basis of IASC and provide a good foundation for studying the functional genetics of sexual antagonism and elucidating its evolutionary dynamics. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN C 4

Male-male competition in the pistil causes rapid sexually antagonistic evolution in a plant and a correlated response on a mating-system related floral trait (51995) Åsa Lankinen, Sofia Hydbom, Maria Strandh. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden. Adaptive evolutionary change in response to sexual selection and sexual conflict can be surprisingly fast in animals. In plants, however, such knowledge is limited, as experimental evolution studies manipulating the strength of sexual selection have not been conducted. In Collinsia heterophylla, a ‘mixed-mating’ annual that combine outcrossing and selfpollination, early fertilizations are associated with female fitness costs, which is in accordance with a sexual conflict over timing of pistil receptivity to pollen. To test how sexual conflict influences trait evolution we conducted artificial selection on pollen by creating monogamous and polyandrous lines (crossed with one or two pollen donors, respectively, at early floral stages). After four generations of artificial selection we found increased pollen competitive ability and enhanced female fitness costs in the polyandrous selection line compared to the monogamous selection line and a control line, showing rapid sexually antagonistic evolution of pollen. Additionally, we found evidence for a correlated positive effect on timing of antherstigma contact, a trait that determines timing of self-pollination. In conclusion, our study suggests that artificial sexual selection on pollen can lead to rapid evolutionary change in plants, female fitness costs and correlated effects on mating system-related traits. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN C 4

Sex biased expression as a sexually antagonistic trait (52078) Paris Veltsos, Yongxiang Fang, Andrew R Cossins, Rhonda R Snook, Michael G Ritchie. Centre for Biological Diversity, University of St Andrews; Centre for Genomic Research, University of Liverpool; Centre for Genomic Research, University of Liverpool; Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield; Centre for Biological Diversity, University of St Andrews. Sexually antagonistic traits such as growth rates, colouration or immunity are often under sexual selection. The availability of transcriptomic data has led to comparisons of gene expression levels under different sexual selection treatments, linking gene expression and sexually antagonistic trait studies. We have experimentally manipulated the strength of sexual selection, by either enforcing monogamy or exposing females to higher than natural number of male partners, for over 150 generations in lab populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Such manipulation may influence one sex more than the other and can result in the inversion of sex bias for some genes. By employing replicated sampling over two tissues and mating statuses we demonstrate that, in most cases, the expression of sex biased genes responded to experimental sexual selection more than unbiased genes. However the direction of the shift in gene expression was difficult to predict and sensitive to both tissue and mating status. We conclude that sex biased gene expression can be considered a sexually antagonistic phenotype, but the direction of change in response to sexual selection can vary within the same organism. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN C 4

Sexual conflict and sex-biased gene expression throughout development (52134) Fiona Ingleby. University of Sussex. Sexual dimorphism offers a potential resolution to intralocus sexual conflict, by allowing males and females to express their optimum trait phenotype when fitness optima differ between the sexes for a shared trait. As most of the genome is shared between the sexes, sexbiased gene expression is likely to account for most sexual dimorphism. Our research examines how sex-biased gene expression relates to sex-specific fitness throughout development as well as across different genotypes, therefore examining developmental and genetic sources of variation in sexual conflict. Using data from sex-specific fitness assays in Drosophila melanogaster, I show changes in sexual conflict between larval and adult stages, and show genetic variation for sexual conflict. I also use preliminary gene expression data from an RNA-sequencing experiment to begin to relate sex-specific fitness to patterns of sexbiased gene expression at each developmental stage. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN C 4

Evolution of haploid selection in predominantly diploid organisms (52393) Sarah P Otto, Michael F Scott, Simone Immler. University of British Columbia; Uppsala University. Diploid organisms shape the extent to which their haploid gametes and gametophytes experience selection. While animals are thought to experience only mild selection in the haploid stage, plants often experience strong haploid selection. When should parents limit exposure of gametes to haploid selection and when should they strengthen this selection? We develop mathematical models that consider the "selective arena" within which male gametes or gametophytes (sperm or pollen) compete for fertilization, examining how this selective arena evolves when controlled by the mother or by the father. In the presence of deleterious mutations, increased haploid selection purges the gamete pool and leads to higher quality offspring. Thus, mothers should maximize selection in the haploid phase as long as all their eggs/ovules can still be fertilized. Fathers, however, are primarily selected to maximize the proportion of offspring that they sire. Therefore, fathers often evolve to mask haploid expression, creating the potential for parental conflict. Furthermore, we include sex chromosome linkage and the effect of alleles that are not strictly deleterious. That is, alleles can have different fitnesses in males and females (sexually antagonistic selection) or in haploids and diploids (ploidally antagonistic selection), which modifies the optimal intensity of the selective arena. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN C 4

Sexually antagonistic selection in canaries not generated by testosteronerelated intralocussexual conflict (52841) Arne Iserbyt, Marcel Eens, Wendt Müller. University of Antwerp. A current debate exists on the extent to which males and females constrain each other’s evolution.On the one hand intersexual genetic correlations may cause a fundamental evolutionary problemwhen selection favors sex-specific phenotypic optima. On the other hand genetic mechanismsmay evolve that resolve this intralocus sexual conflict by decoupling developmental pathways inmales and females. Circulating testosterone (T) levels received increased research interest in thiscontext, given its important role in mediating suites of physiological, morphological andbehavioural traits and given its marked differential fitness effects in male and females. Here, weapplied a full-sib (brother/sister) comparison in a pedigreed canary population to continue thisdebate. We show that parental fitness is negatively correlated between siblings, indicatingsexually antagonistic selection. Furthermore, plasma T levels of brothers and sisters werepositively correlated, indicating a significant intra-sexual genetic correlation with a heritablecomponent (h²) estimated at 0.41 ± 0.31. However, T levels could not explain the fitness variationbetween siblings, contrasting the hypothesis of intralocus sexual conflict. The mechanism(s)underlying sexually antagonistic selection yet remain to be identified.

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DNA methylation in the clonal raider ant Cerapachys biroi (52304) Romain Libbrecht, Peter Oxley, Laurent Keller, Daniel Kronauer. Rockefeller University; University of Lausanne. Division of labor is at the root of the ecological success of insect societies, yet the mechanisms regulating reproduction and behavior are not fully understood. The clonal raider ant Cerapachys biroi has no distinct queen and worker castes, and is characterized by an alternation between reproductive phases (ants lay eggs inside the nest) and brood care phases (ants do not lay eggs but nurse the brood and forage for food). The opportunity to compare queen-like (reproductive phase) and worker-like (brood care phase) individuals, combined with the possibility to control for age, experience and genetic background (all known to influence reproduction and behavior), makes C. biroi a great model system to study division of labor. In the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the role of epigenetic mechanisms (e.g. DNA methylation) in division of labor. Our aim is to properly investigate the role of DNA methylation in regulating reproduction and behavior in C. biroi, by comparing whole-genome DNA methylation patterns (using bisulfite sequencing) between brains of individuals collected in reproductive and brood care phases. This project also provides important insights into the function and mode of action of DNA methylation in insects. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 410 24

Correlated experimental evolution of behaviour and life history in Drosophila (52373) Katja Hoedjes, Martin Kapun, Bas Zwaan, Thomas Flatt, Laurent Keller. University of Lausanne; Wageningen University. Selection on one trait often results in changes in other, seemingly unrelated traits, due to pleiotropy or linkage. For example, correlated responses between behaviour (learning ability) and life history (longevity) have been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. However, the molecular basis of correlations between behaviour and life history remains poorly understood. To begin to uncover these mechanisms we have employed experimental evolution (EE) in the fruit fly. We used two independent selection regimes: populations adapted to poor larval nutrition and populations that were selected for reproduction at old age. In both selection regimes significant evolutionary responses in life history traits were observed, including in development time and longevity, with little evidence for interactions between the regimes. To examine correlated behavioural responses, we measured learning and locomotory behaviour in adults of the EE populations. We also sequenced pooled genomic DNA samples of 250 individuals per EE population and analyzed these genomes for variation in single nucleotide polymorphism frequencies. This approach allows us to identify candidate

genes or pathways that might underpin correlations between learning and locomotion and the observed differences in life history. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 410 24

The social niche experienced early in life influences the behavioural phenotype (52467) Valentina Balzarini, Michael Taborsky, Joachim G. Frommen. Behavioral Ecology, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Switzerland. According to the social niche theory of animal personality, multidimensional social options select for fine-tuned specialisations due to multi-niche frequency dependence. In addition to negative frequency dependence stabilizing the coexistence of alternative behavioural tactics, the development of different personalities is triggered by positive feedback favouring behavioural consistency due to benefits of specialisation and the avoidance of the costs of switching between strategies. This hypothesis has been rarely tested; a critical test requires a system that is characterized by a combination of high social complexity with experimental accessibility. The cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher combines these requirements. We studied the influence of individual social experience during ontogeny on the development of personality traits in these highly social fish. We experimentally assigned 14 days old fry to one of two alternative roles, either to be subordinate or dominant to a group of 4 unrelated fry. We kept focal fish in their respective roles for 3 months and monitored their social behaviour weekly. Subsequently, we tested their personality traits, including social interaction, exploration and helping propensities. Our data reveal that early life experience in an experimentally assigned social role affects the entire behavioural phenotype of an individual throughout extended periods of their life. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 410 24

Genomic changes associated with behavioural plasticity: selection for improved learning behaviour (52472) Maartje Liefting, Ken Kraaijeveld, Cecile Le Lann, Bregje Wertheim, Jacintha Ellers. VU University Amsterdam; Université Rennes 1; University of Groningen. Learning is considered a form of behavioural plasticity through which an organism can adjust its performance to changes in the environment. Evolution of learning behaviour and memory dynamics of species is highly context dependent, giving rise to inter- and intraspecific variation in learning rates. Despite significant progress in unravelling the neurobiology and memory pathways underlying such variation, our understanding of the genetic support of variation in cognitive abilities and the relevance in an evolutionary ecological context remains incomplete. In addition, little is known on how selection on one aspect of learning may result in correlated evolution of other cognitive skills. We performed an artificial selection

experiment with the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis to improve learning of hostassociated visual cues in females. Selection lines readily evolved improved learning skills, which also extended to other (olfactory) cues, suggesting general learning ability was targeted by selection. These improved cognitive skills of the selection lines even extended to male learning. Subsequently, we used high throughput sequencing to characterize changes in the genome associated with improved learning. SNP analysis identified multiple genomic changes associated with cognitive skills, and we discuss genes within these regions that form putative targets of selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 410 24

Maladaptive reproductive investment and behavioral variation in urban habitat (52607) Virginie Demeyrier, Arnaud Grégoire, Marcel Lambrechts, Anne Charmantier. Cefe UMR 5175 - Cnrs. Increasing urbanisation imposes novel constraints for many organisms. While urbanisation is considered as an extreme situation where humans significantly influence wildlife, it can also provide opportunities to study mechanisms of adaptation. Within the artificial co*cktail present in towns, artificial cavities are clearly potential evolutionary-traps for cavity-nesting birds. In this study, we performed an experiment where urban insectivorous cavity-nesting great tit* (Parus major) were offered three nest-box sizes, covering the natural cavity range, in the city of Montpellier, France. Following a four-year monitoring of breeding phenology and using measures of anthropogenic perturbations and resource abundance, we show that great tit* are more attracted to, lay larger clutches in, and finally produce fewer fledglings in, large rather than smaller artificial cavities. Increasing family size according to cavity size has previously been described. However, our results reveal that this strategy is maladaptive when large artificial cavities are placed in urbanized invertebrate-poor environments. Additionally to this experiment, open-field trials over two years allowed to compare great tit personalities in a deciduous forest near the city of Montpellier and along an urban gradient within the city. The results show contrasted personalities in rural versus urban environments and shed light on behavioural adaptation and maladaptation in an urban context. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 410 24

The role of state-behavior feedbacks in explaining adaptive personality differences (52710) Maria Moiron, Kimberly J. Mathot, Niels J. Dingemanse. Max Planck Institute For Ornithology; Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research; LudwigMaximilians University of Munich.

In recent years it has become widely accepted that individuals within single populations often exhibit consistent differences in behavior across contexts and over time (called ‘animal personality’). However, it is much less evident how behavioral consistency can be explained from an adaptive viewpoint. State-behavior feedback loops have been proposed as an evolutionary explanation for personality-related differences. The feedback mechanism between state and behavior exists because an individual’s state affects its optimal behavior, which in turn affects its state. This feedback dynamics has been theoretically well-developed but never empirically tested. Here we first provide a statistical framework based on repeated measures and multi-level random regression modelling that enables one to capture variation in state-behavior feedbacks. Next, we experimentally explore feedback loops between sampling (information acquisition) and body condition that may explain why individuals differ in sampling behavior using wild passerine birds (great tit*) as a model species. We present data on the occurrence of between- and within- individual variation in sampling; and we provide an empirical test of how positive feedback loops lead to within individual state-behavior covariance and between individual positive intercept-slope correlations of temporal reaction norms, while negative feedback loops lead to the opposite outcome. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 410 24

Behavioural interactions of a planktonic crustacean with pond sediments (52929) Roberto Arbore, Alexandra Mushegian, Jason Andras, Dieter Ebert. University of Basel; Mount Holyoke College. Planktonic species differ in the degree to which they interact with the bottom sediment surfaces. Some species, although primarily pelagic, might display important connections with the benthic habitat. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna can adopt a sediment browsing behaviour, alternative to suspension filter feeding. Such behaviour, while conferring the ability to exploit benthic food sources, also increases the exposure to multiple risks as, for instance, infection from sediment spore banks and benthic predation. We found genetic variation for this behaviour within an experimental population (F2 recombinant panel) and between clones from natural populations of different ecological contexts (e.g. presence/absence of fish predation). A QTL analysis provided evidence for a complex genetic architecture underlying this behavioural trait. In order to get further insights on the nature of the selective pressures possibly acting on the evolution of this behaviour, we performed a series of experiments using clones with high and low browsing activities. Here we examine a scenario involving both costs (e.g. risk of parasite infection) and benefits (e.g. foraging opportunities, microbiota acquisition) associated with sediment browsing and its environmental effects (e.g. conspecific infection risk due to sediment bioturbation). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL A 32

Coevolution of genetic variance and species’ range in a changing environment (52491)

Jitka Polechova, Nick Barton. IST AUSTRIA. As the environment changes in time, species change their range: they adapt, diversify or perhaps go extinct. The standing genetic variation of a species is crucial for its adaptation to changing conditions, and gene flow across a phenotypic gradient can maintain a large genetic variance. Yet, most studies of adaptation to a changing environment either neglect the effect of gene flow, or assume that genetic variance is constant. We model the joint population dynamics and evolution of the trait mean and its variance, via change in allele frequencies. When mutation contributes little to the standing genetic variation, a straightforward extension of the theory for panmictic populations predicts the critical rates of spatial and temporal change that a population can track. Large populations adapted to a steep environmental gradient can also adapt to a faster temporal change, because gene flow across a steep phenotypic gradient generates high local genetic variance. Further, we show that when the number of mutations per generation in the selected loci is high, ‘cline reversals’ (paired such that gradient in trait mean does not change) can increase the genetic variance fast enough to prevent demographic collapse due to maladaptation, and hence allow adaptation to a faster temporal change. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL A 32

The role of sex and recombination in evolutionary rescue (52499) Hildegard Uecker, Joachim Hermisson. IST Austria; University of Vienna. Environmental change, if severe, can drive a population extinct unless the population succeeds in adapting to the new conditions. How do sexual reproduction and recombination affect the survival chances of an endangered population? We consider the probability of evolutionary rescue after a sudden deterioration of the environment when survival of the population is contingent on mutations at multiple (two) loci or the formation of mutant hom*ozygotes. Such situations arise, for example, in combination drug therapy or the application of herbicide mixtures. We compare the rates of rescue in random mating, selfing, and clonal populations under these conditions. Recombination and likewise segregation during sexual reproduction generically have two opposing effects: they generate and they break up favorable gene combinations. We investigate how the population dynamics affect the interplay of these two effects and consequently the rate of adaptation from standing genetic variation and de-novo mutations. We find that, even in the absence of density-dependent fitness, a fast eradication of the wildtype population can enhance rescue in a sexually reproducing population. On the other hand, recombination and segregation can prevent rescue when the wildtype disappears slowly. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL A 32

Environmental marginality and the evolutionary potential of peripheral populations in Arabidopsis lyrata (52568) Julie Lee-Yaw, Yvonne Willi. University of Neuchatel. Theoretical models of species’ geographic range limits are often premised on environmental gradients, with species experiencing increasingly marginal conditions towards the edge of their range. Range limits arise where adaptation to these conditions ultimately fails. However, whether the range limits of most species conform to this scenario remains unclear. Using spatial data and ecological niche models we explore these assumptions in North American Arabidopsis lyrata. Specifically, we ask whether peripheral populations occupy sites of low suitability relative to more central populations and whether range limits coincide with predicted niche limits. We further ask whether genetic diversity and the transition from outcrossing to selfing (restricted to peripheral populations in this system) is associated with particularly poor-quality habitat, thus testing the link between range position, habitat quality and demography. Our results suggest that latitudinal range limits in this system are well explained by the abiotic environment. Peripheral populations occupy regions of low suitability relative to more central populations, with genetically impoverished and selfing populations at the range edge occupying some of the lowest-quality sites. We will discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the evolutionary potential of peripheral populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL A 32

Evolution of seasonal timing in a changing world: how empirical evidence and phenological models can help us to forecast the rate of adaptation (52721) Lucia Salis, Marcel Visser. Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW). In a changing world, species need to adapt to their new environment. In the winter moth, the synchronization between timing of egg hatching and the bud burst of its food plant, the oak, has been disrupted by climate change. Using both long-term (18 years) observational data and experiments we show that timing of egg hatching has changed genetically, resulting in closer synchrony of egg hatching with oak bud burst. We explore using an eco-evo-devo framework what the limitations are of this genetic adaptation. We first developed a novel phenological model that accurately describes how an insect’s developmental rate is affected by the interaction between developmental state and temperature. Accounting for this interaction improved the predictive power of the model and therefore contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying insect development. Next, we use this model to study the genetic variation in the model’s parameters and to test whether there is additive genetic variation in these parameters, and thus whether these parameters can be altered by selection. As temperature are forecasted to continue increasing, eco-evo-devo studies that couple empirical findings with phenological models offer a unique opportunity to unravel the potential of future insect’s adaptive responses to climate change.

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From genes to ecosystems: the molecular mechanisms of eco-evolutionary feedbacks from rapid adaptation of herbivore consumers to nutrient limitation (52843) Spiros Papakostas, Steven Declerck. University of Turku; Netherlands Institute of Ecology. Humans alter biogeochemical cycles of essential elements such as phosphorus (P). Prediction of ecosystem consequences of altered elemental cycles requires integration of ecology, evolutionary biology and the framework of ecological stoichiometry. We studied microevolutionary responses of populations of a herbivorous rotifer species to P-limited food and the potential consequences for its population demography and for ecosystem properties. We subjected field-derived, replicate rotifer populations to P-deficient and P-replete algal food, and studied adaptation in common garden transplant experiments after 103 and 209 days of selection. We quantified about 30000 transcripts using next-generation sequencing and 1000 proteins using high-resolution mass spectrometry. When fed P-limited food, populations with a P limitation selection history suffered 37% lower mortality, reached twice the steady state biomass, and reduced algae by 40% compared to populations with a P-replete selection history. Adaptation involved no change in rotifer elemental composition but reduced investment in sex. Selection history had a profound impact on the expression profile of the rotifers and several transcripts and proteins showed an expression profile specific to each condition pointing towards the molecular basis behind those adaptations. We demonstrate potentially strong eco-evolutionary feedbacks from shifting elemental balances to ecosystem properties and study the underlying functional molecular mechanisms. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL A 32

Estimating evolutionary potential in the wild : role and stability of the G matrix (51978) Céline Teplitsky, Stéphane Chantepie, Anders P. Moller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Florentino de Lope, Lars Gustafsson, James A. Mills, Nathaniel Wheelwright, Anne Charmantier. Département Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversité UMR 7204 CNRS / MNHN / UPMC, Muséum National d’Hi; Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Gr; Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsa; Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand ; Department of Zoology, Biology Building, University of Seville, E-41012 Seville, Spain; Department of Animal Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, SE75236, Sweden; 10527 A Skyline Drive, Corning, New York 14830, USA; Department of Biology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine 04011, USA; Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 CNRS, F-34293 Montpellier, France.

Global environmental change represents a major threat to biodiversity today. The habitats of species are being modified at a fast rate, raising an important question: will populations manage to adapt to the new conditions? One strong constraint on microevolutionary responses is the fact that traits within an organism are not free to evolve independently, but form integrated units. There is growing evidence that the genetic correlations between traits can slow down the rate of adaptation in wild populations. However, the importance of such constraints will depend on their stability, i.e., if genetic correlations are changing rapidly, the G matrix should not represent a strong constraint on evolutionary responses and evolutionary responses would be difficult to predict. We investigated the stability of the G matrix across five bird species, comparing conditional evolvability and autonomy over 5 year time periods. These variables can be estimated using animal models (MCMCglmm software) on long term data sets of wild bird populations for which detailed pedigrees are available. The G matrix for morphological traits is stable in all the populations considered. We compare this to expectations based on estimates of selection within the populations, and assess whether G is aligned with selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL A 32

Adaptation lags in bet-hedging traits during periods of climate change (52047) Tom JM Van Dooren. Institute for Ecology and Environmental Sciences iEES Paris. Bet-hedging occurs as an adaptation to unpredictable environments. It is nature's insurance policy against uncertain events. Our theories assume that such adaptation is to an unpredictably fluctuating but stationary environment. There are little or no predictions on how such traits would evolve during periods where environmental variables are not stationary, but change with trends in means and variances. With such trends, adaptive states are what one would find eventually if evolving populations would adapt to repeated sampling from the instantaneous state of the probability distributions of environmental parameters. Adaptive lags are then the differences between such adaptive states and the actual state of a population. By means of the main textbook example of bet-hedging evolution, namely that of an evolving probability of germination in annual plants with a seed bank, I show that gradual unidirectional change in environmental parameters can lead to an intermittent window where bet-hedging is not adaptive. The adaptive lag in the actual response in germination probability can then reverse in sign: first plants germinate too little. When bet-hedging has become adaptive again, they germinate too much. I extend my example with an evolving plastic germination probability, and scenarios of environmental change with a tipping point. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL B 18

An island model for unraveling adaptive history: Cape Verde Arabidopsis (52468)

Andrea Fulgione, Stéphanie Arnoux, Joachim Hermisson, Angela Hanco*ck. University of Vienna; Gregor Mendel Institute; University of Vienna; University of Vienna. Islands have been central to evolutionary biology since Darwin and Wallace. They represent natural laboratories, where fundamental principles of the evolutionary process can be revealed. We combine a tractable island system and a well-studied model organism to unravel the historical route to local adaptation in an extreme environment. A single Arabidopsis sample was collected 30 years ago in the Cape Verde Islands, a climatic extreme in the Arabidopsis species distribution. Due to its surprising location and phenotypic divergence, the resulting line (Cvi-0) is an enigma to the Arabidopsis community. Over the years, Cvi-0 has been the subject of extensive QTL mapping efforts and functional follow-up analyses, so that we have a wealth of information about the genetic basis of its intriguing phenotypic divergence. This backdrop provides an ideal opportunity to access the specific events that led to local adaptation in this population. To this end, we collected and sequenced population samples from Cape Verde to reveal a striking signature of strong positive selection on pleiotropic functional variants as well as parallel adaptation across islands. Our study design provides a framework for combining knowledge from trait mapping, population genetics, functional variant identification, and field studies of natural populations to characterize the details of adaptive dynamics in nature. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL B 18

The Genetic Architecture of Recombination Rate Variation in Drosophila melanogaster (52479) Nadia Singh, Chad Hunter. North Carolina State University. Meiotic recombination is an essential biological process, necessary for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite this critical function, rates of recombination are highly variable within and between populations and species. The genetic architecture of this variation remains poorly understood, especially in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We sought to identify the genetic basis of recombination rate variation using whole genome association mapping. We leveraged the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel for this purpose and measured rates of meiotic recombination on two chromosomes in 205 fully sequenced inbred lines using a classical genetic approach. We scored over a 500,000 progeny and revealed 2-3 fold variation in crossover frequency among lines. Much of this variation is genetic, and we used genome-wide association mapping to identify genetic factors contributing recombination rate. We used RNAi, mutant analysis, and expression assays to functionally confirm a subset of candidates revealed by this approach. Our results thus provide comprehensive insight into the scale and scope of population-level variation in recombination rate in Drosophila and the first insight into the genetic architecture of population-level variation in recombination rate in this model system.

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Tracking genomic changes during rapid life history evolution (52853) Nina O. Therkildsen, Stephan B. Munch, David O. Conover, Stephen R. Palumbi. Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University; NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center; Stony Brook University; Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University. Multi-generational selection experiments offer a powerful approach for directly observing how the genome responds to known selection pressures over time. We have returned to a seminal experiment that demonstrated substantial evolution in growth rate (resulting in a nearly two-fold difference in adult size) in response to size-selective fishing over just five generations in the Atlantic silverside. Based on 'in silico' capture of genomic sequence, we compared allele frequencies at >800K SNPs distributed across ~80% of the exome in large vs. small selected lines. We identified strong differentiation at 1118 SNPs, including nearly fixed differences in 17 genes. High divergence occurs in bone morphogenic proteins and macrophage stimulating factors, previously linked to growth. However, selected genes maintain high overall levels of diversity, indicating that selection has primarily acted as ‘soft' sweeps on old alleles. Because natural variation in size selection across latitudes has driven strong clinal adaptation in growth rate in the Atlantic silverside, we compare the sweep signatures from the experiment with genome scans of wild populations. This integrated analysis of responses to natural and artificial selection on the same complex trait offers parallel insights into the genomic basis for life history adaptation evolved over various time scales. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL B 18

The genetic basis of parallel evolution in an introduced species (52994) Billie Gould, John Stinchcombe. University of Toronto. The goal of identifying the genes or even nucleotides underlying quantitative and adaptive traits has been characterized as the ‘QTN programme’ and has recently come under severe criticism. Part of the reason for this criticism is that much of the QTN programme has asserted that finding the genes and nucleotides for adaptive and quantitative traits is a fundamental goal, without explaining why it is such a hallowed goal. Here we outline motivations for the QTN programme that offer general insight, regardless of whether QTNs are of large or small effect, and that aid our understanding of the mechanistic dynamics of adaptive evolution, illustrating with examples from research we have done on introduced populations of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We combine outlier scans (XTX), molecular population genetic tests of selection, and the rich list of flowering time candidate genes to test for regions of the genome involved in parallel adaptation. Our results indicate that parallel adaptation in

the introduced range has been achieved through independent genetic mechanisms, suggested little pleiotropic constraint on adaptive evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL B 18

A Clinal Polymorphism in Insulin Signaling Has Major Effects on Drosophila Life History (52690) Esra Durmaz, Subhash Rajpurohit, Nicolas Betancourt, Paul S. Schmidt, Thomas Flatt. Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Several life history traits in Drosophila melanogaster exhibit strong clinal differentiation across latitude, for example along the North American east coast, from Florida to Maine. Similarly, at the genetic level, we have recently identified major genome-wide patterns of clinal differentiation, likely shaped by spatially varying (clinal) selection. Interestingly, we find particularly strong clinal variation in numerous genes involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS), a pathway known from laboratory mutant and transgenic studies to physiologically regulate fitness traits. However, whether natural allelic variants in genes of this pathway affect life history remains poorly understood. Here, we have examined life history effects of a naturally occurring, clinally varying candidate haplotype in dFOXO, a downstream effector of IIS. We used recombinant inbred (DGRP) lines to establish two sets of synthetic recombinant populations either fixed for the northern or southern allelic state. Our results show, for the first time, that a clinally varying, naturally occurring polymorphism in dFOXO has major pleiotropic effects upon starvation resistance and body size, two important fitness traits known to be strongly clinal. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL C 10

Parasitoid adaptation to hosts with symbiont-conferred resistance (51859) Alice Dennis, Christoph Vorburger. ETH Zurich & EAWAG; ETH Zurich & EAWAG. In host-parasitoid systems, variation in host defenses create a set of environments to which parasitoids must adapt in order to reproduce. For the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum this also includes evolving responses to the diverse, heterogeneous, microbiome of their aphid host. To investigate the genomic basis of varied wasp infectivity, we have experimentally evolved wild-caught wasps on three different aphid hosts: two lines possessing different defensive strains of the symbiont Hamiltonella defensa, and one un-infected line. In just 10 generations, this has produced wasp lines with different, and non –reciprocal, infective

abilities, presumably by selection of pre-existing genetic variation from the wild populations. Using RNAseq, we have identified differentially expressed genes associated with each selected wasp infectivity-phenotype. We are now using these to examine the functional genomic basis of the infective abilities of the evolved lines and to screen natural populations of L. fabarum for the relevant molecular variation over time and space. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL C 10

Endosymbiotic bacteria protect aphids against natural enemies in a natural wet meadow habitat (51915) Jan Hrcek, H. Charles J. Godfray. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford. Endosymbiont mediated protection is a widespread phenomenon with potential to allow rapid adaptation by horizontal transfer. Pea aphids harbour endosymbiotic bacteria which protect them against parasitoids and fungal pathogens. We ask whether the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in natural enemy pressure and the specificity of the endosymbiont mediated protection allow the protection previously demonstrated in laboratory experiments to affect aphid mortality rates under natural conditions. We deployed sentinel populations of aphids with and without protective endosymbionts for ten days at five naturally managed meadows in a 15km circle around Oxford, UK, three times during 2014 season. Sentinel aphids were attacked by a rich community of parasitoids and fungal pathogens of up to six species per site. Endosymbionts protected aphids in the field in accordance with predictions from laboratory experiments. However, the complexity of multiple concurrent antagonistic interactions and high specificity of the bacterial protection led to increased aphid survival only in some of the spatio-temporal replicates. This work shows that the phenotypic effects of endosymbionts identified through a decade of laboratory research on aphids are ecologically relevant in a natural habitat and demonstrates the importance of field experiments in revealing the outcome of attack by a community of natural enemies. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL C 10

All aboard! Tracking host-parasite historical associations in the Canary Islands. (51930) Fátima Jorge, Ana Perera, Robert Poulin, Vicente Roca, Miguel A. Carretero. CIBIO Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, InBIO, Universidade do Porto, Vairão, P; Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand;

Departament de Zoologia, Facultat de Ciències Biològiques, Universitat de València, València, Spain. Host parasite associations are the outcome of historical events and current ecological conditions. Several cophylogenetic events can shape such intimate interactions, i.e. cospeciation, host switching and missing the boat. Given their long term isolation and structure, the Canary Islands provide an ideal environment for studying the origin and evolution of host-parasite associations. Did parasites follow the colonisation of islands by their host or did they undergo other events such as host switches? In our study, we reconstructed the origins of the current associations between parasitic nematodes and all their reptile hosts from the Canary Islands. Parasite phylogeny was inferred from molecular data with maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. The most likely evolutionary history of these associations was reconstructed on the basis of our estimated parasite phylogeny and on published host phylogenies. Results suggest at least three different colonisations events in the Canary archipelago and some level of evolutionary congruence with their hosts. One lineage probably originated from a host switch between skinks and lacertids but evolving separately since. Overall, while island colonisations by parasites are initially determined by stochastic events (whether or not they get in the boat), how they evolve subsequently may be mainly dependent on parasite adaptation (specificity). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL C 10

Population size shape reciprocal adaptations in the experimental host-parasite coevolution (51967) Andrei Papkou, Rebecca Schalkowski, Mike-Christoph Barg, Ines Braker, Hinrich Schulenburg. Evolutionary Ecology Genetics, University ofKiel. Genomic regions involved in host-parasite interaction are subjected to intense selection. This may lead to either rapid allele fixations or continuous frequency oscillations. However, the resulting allele dynamics is not solely determined by selection, but additionally depends on genetic variation and random drift. Population size (N) is, therefore, an important characteristic in this respect as it influences genetic diversity and selection-drift interplay. Surprisingly, little is known about the role of N in coevolution, despite the fact that N varies considerably across host and parasite species and changes frequently due to their interaction and external factors. To examine empirically how N influences antagonistic adaptation, we initiated experimental coevolution between the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis in large, small and periodically changing populations. The effect of N was already evident after 23 host generations. In particular, we found that changes in host fecundity and parasite virulence varied depending on population size. Moreover, a time-shift experiment revealed the patterns of negative frequency-dependent selection in the large populations, but not in the small populations. Next, we used population genomics and infection transcriptomics approaches to identify candidate regions, and to assess the contribution of different evolutionary forces to the underlying genetic changes.

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Testing for genetic differentiation along altitudinal gradients in ticks (Ixodes ricinus) (52121) Mélissa Lemoine, Barbara Tschirren. Institute for Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies. Due to its broad host range and its wide distribution, the European sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) has for a long time been considered as a generalist vector. Recent genetic studies suggest however that locally adapted populations exist, specialising on different host species. Since eggs and larvae of Ixodes ticks are highly vulnerable to temperature and humidity, both abiotic and biotic factors may potentially play a role in shaping spatial genetic differentiation of tick populations. Therefore I. ricinus is an excellent study system for examining the contributions of isolation-by-ecology vs isolation-by-distance to spatial genetic divergence. Using larvae collected from voles in 12 sites among altitudinal gradients in Swiss Alps, we estimated the contributions of temperature and humidity as well as geographical and host genetic distances to genetic divergence of tick populations using neutral markers. This study helps to understand whether the current rapid colonisation of new environments by I. ricinus is linked with the colonisation of these environments by its hosts or with its intrinsic evolutionary potential. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL C 10

Eco-evolutionary dynamics in coevolving host-virus systems (52276) Jens Frickel, Lutz Becks. Community Dynamics Group, Dept. Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology. Eco-evolutionary dynamics - the interplay of ecology and evolution on the same time scale have been shown to influence population and community as well as evolutionary dynamics in many complex ways. However, coevolution in the framework of eco-evolutionary theory has not been addressed directly. Using experiments with an algal host and its virus, we show here for the first time eco-evolutionary feedback dynamics in antagonistic coevolving populations. Specifically, we found that the continuous reciprocal adaption of resistance and infectivity in host and virus drove the ecological dynamics of the system leading ultimately to a shift from consumer-resource cycles to stable population sizes. The coevolutionary dynamics were initially driven by arms race dynamics with consecutive selective sweeps, but shifted towards fluctuating selection as a result of an evolutionary constraint in the virus and the evolution of a trade-off between host resistance range and growth rate. Importantly, our results show that the role of selection and demography changes continuously over time as a result of the ecoevolutionary feedback. Consequently, the entanglement of ecology and evolution has

important consequences and might substantially lower the predictability of the mode and tempo of adaptive change. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL C 10

Host age structure as a source of heterogeneity in host-parasite interactions (52545) Frida Ben-Ami. Tel Aviv University. Understanding the interplay between the epidemiology and ecology of host and parasite populations is of utmost importance in light of recent epidemics and growing resistance towards drug treatments. Particularly in microparasites, where ecological dynamics such as within-host competition can strongly influence evolutionary change, they must be studied conjointly to understand disease evolution. While genetic heterogeneity has received considerable attention in both theoretical and experimental studies of host-parasite interactions, there is very little data on how host age, an intrinsic and highly dynamic property of the host population as well as a key epidemiological factor, impacts ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host and parasite populations. Using the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa system, I will present results from several recent experiments that demonstrate the complex interplay between host demography and the ecology of host and parasite populations. In particular, I will show that host age at exposure can affect parasite infectivity, virulence and reproduction as well as within-host competition and parasite diversity. I will also make a case for incorporating age-dependent epidemiological parameters into stage-structured theory and virulence modeling. Ultimately, elucidating the underlying dynamics will improve our understanding of disease ecology and virulence evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL D 9

Testing inclusive fitness theory in a lower termite (51905) Judith Korb, Katharina Hoffmann. University of Freiburg; University of Osnabrueck. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that interactions between relatedness and ecological costs and benefits determine altruism, however empirical studies in social insects commonly concentrate on relatedness. Less studied termites offer a promising test case to study the interaction between relatedness and altruism because different termite castes vary in degree of altruism: Soldiers are always sterile and can only gain indirect fitness. In contrast, workers of wood-dwelling lower termites are immature instars that are less altruistic and have the full capability to become reproductives. By manipulating local resource availability and the opportunity to reproduce in colonies of varying degree of relatedness, we show that the importance of relatedness differed for different castes and that nepotism always was context

dependent. Sterile soldiers adjusted their behaviour more strongly to relatedness than the less altruistic workers which can themselves reproduce. For all castes the adjustment was a phenotypic plastic response and it only occurred when helping increased the chance of relatives to become reproductives. Furthermore, strong local resource competition negated the effect of relatedness. Our study it one of very few social insect studies that demonstrates how ecological factors interact with relatedness in flexibly shaping social interactions and cooperation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL D 9

An evolutionarily significant unicellular strategy in response to starvation in Dictyostelium social amoebae (51912) Clement Nizak, Minus van Baalen, Darja Dubravcic. CNRS - ESPCI ParisTech; CNRS - Ecole Normale Supérieure. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is widely studied for its multicellular development as a response to starvation. Aggregates of up to 10^6 cells form fruiting bodies containing (i) dormant spores (~80%) that can persist for months in the absence of nutrients, and (ii) dead stalk cells (~20%) that promote the dispersion of the spores towards nutrient-rich areas. Using a new quantitative approach based on time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and a low ratio of reporting cells, we have quantified the fraction of non-aggregating cells. In realistic starvation conditions, up to 15% of cells do not aggregate. Non-aggregating cells have an advantage over cells in aggregates since they resume growth earlier upon arrival of new nutrients, but have a shorter lifespan under prolonged starvation. We find that phenotypic heterogeneities linked to cell nutritional state and genetic factors bias the representation of cells in the aggregating vs. non-aggregating fractions. In addition, interactions between clones in mixtures of non-isogenic cells affect the partitioning of each clone into both fractions. We further build a numerical model to test the evolutionary significance of the non-aggregating cell fraction. The partitioning of cells into aggregating and non-aggregating fractions is optimal in fluctuating environments with an unpredictable duration of starvation periods. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL D 9

Cheating on the edge: spatial self-organization promotes cooperation in expanding bacterial colonies (52077) Alexandre Jousset, Anna Hille, Stefan Scheu, Katrin Meyer. Utrecht University; Georg-August University Göttingen. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the evolution and stability of cooperative behaviors in microorganisms is one of the most exciting topics of microbial evolutionary biology. Many unicellular microorganisms engage in complex social behaviors in fighting

against enemies, scavenging for nutrients or forming complex structures in a joint effort. However, social behaviors are predicted to be unstable as defectors can readily live on the costs of their faithful neighbors, potentially disrupting cooperation. Here we show that expanding colonies show self-organization patterns that maintain cooperation. We follow the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens colonies on a solid medium containing albumin as sole carbon source. Prior to uptake, albumin must be broken down by extracellular proteases, which function as public good. Using a combination of individual-based models and microscopy, we show that in expanding communities defectors first accumulate on the border of the colony, but their growth is restricted by low diffusion of public goods. As cooperators expand they engulf defectors thereby confining them to the center of the colony. Therefore, resource exploitation at the edge of expanding microbial colonies stabilizes cooperation in a spatially explicit context. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL D 9

Long Life, Promiscuity and the Origin of Cooperation in Birds (52360) Philip Downing. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford. Long life is a common feature of cooperative societies in taxa as diverse as mammals and ants. However, it is not clear whether it is a cause or a consequence of cooperation. Theory predicts that the likelihood of cooperation evolving is higher in long-lived species because it ensures a long reproductive lifespan and therefore high direct fitness benefits. However, the effect of long life on cooperation also depends on whether individuals gain indirect fitness while helping, which is determined by female promiscuity: high promiscuity lowers indirect fitness benefits making the direct fitness gained from long life vital for cooperation to evolve. We tested these predictions comparatively by reconstructing ancestral states of breeding system and survival across birds and investigating the interaction between promiscuity and life span. As predicted by theory, we found that long life facilitates the evolution cooperation and that species with low indirect fitness are exceptionally long-lived, driving the difference in lifespan between cooperative and non-cooperative breeders. These results clarify the importance of life-history traits in the evolution of cooperative breeding. Furthermore, they suggest that promiscuous species can make the evolutionary transition to cooperation because long life compensates for the reduction in indirect fitness. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL D 9

Diversity in parent-offspring communication in birds: shifting between signals and cues (52636) Shana Caro, Ashleigh Griffin, Camilla Hinde, Stuart West. University of Oxford, United Kingdom; Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

Evolutionary theory has helped us understand communication in the natural world as a cooperative behaviour relying on the alignment of interests of both signaller and receiver. There is, however, a lack of empirical consensus for basic theoretical predictions even in one of the best studied systems: offspring begging their parents for food. Existing theory predicts both that offspring should display honest signals of need and that offspring should display honest signals of quality; these contrasting predictions have both received empirical support. We present the results of a meta-analysis, which resolve the current lack of synthesis by showing that parents integrate signals of need or quality differently depending on brood reduction strategy and environmental conditions. As food availability increases, parents in brood-reducing species allocate food more by begging intensity, but less by signals of quality like gape coloration and size cues. Offspring signalling strategies also shift with parental response strategies: the smallest offspring beg the most intensely only when partial brood starvation is unlikely. A separate, within-species, in-depth analysis on great tit* found the same flexible response within a population. These empirical results demonstrate the need to account for ecology and dynamic strategy sets in signalling models. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL D 9

Developing social evolution theory into a set of tools for analyzing microbial data (52960) jeff smith. Washington University in St Louis. Social evolution theory is a valuable guide for empirical research, but in many studies of microbial cooperation it is often only used as a verbal heuristic. Here I test the usefulness of different theoretical approaches in social evolution as tools for analyzing experimental data. I re-analyze published microbial data sets that share a common experimental design and identify the pros and cons of different approaches in terms of data visualization, ease of application, statistical power, theoretical interpretation, and generalization across systems. The regression-based approach of the Price equation that underlies many kin selection and multilevel selection models is often a poor choice for the large, nonlinear fitness effect common in microbial systems. Some measures of fitness are better than others. The functional form of frequency dependence is potentially very informative, but at present there is almost no theory with which to interpret it. These findings show that there is still a substantial need to formulate social evolution mathematics in a way that makes theory a useful guide for data collection and analysis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU POL D 9

Fitness costs in spatially structured environments (51856) Florence Débarre. wissenschaftskolleg zu berlin.

The clustering of individuals that results from limited dispersal is a double-edged sword: while it allows for local interactions to be mostly among related individuals, it also results in increased local competition. In this talk, I will show that, because they mitigate local competition, fitness costs such as reduced fecundity or reduced survival are less costly in spatially structured environments than in non spatial settings. I will first present a simple demographic example to illustrate how spatial structure weakens selection against fitness costs. Then, I will illustrate the importance of disentangling the evolution of a trait from the evolution of potential associated costs. I will use an example taken from a recent study investigating the effect of spatial structure on the evolution of host defense -- a social trait, since fighting against parasites indirectly protects your neighbors. In this example indeed, the differences between spatial and non-spatial selection gradients are entirely due to differences in the fitness costs, thereby undermining interpretations of the results made in terms of the trait only. This illustrates the need to consider fitness costs as proper traits in both theoretical and empirical studies, and of not neglecting the effect of ecological feedbacks on evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 415 25

Functional trade-offs and phenotypic diversity in cellular migration (53350) Thierry Emonet. Yale University. Bacteria perform chemotaxis in a wide variety of environmental tasks, from scavenging nutrients to infecting host tissues. As such, it would seem unlikely that one type of chemotactic behavior would be equally suited to all tasks. Indeed, some species have many chemotaxis systems and switch between them. Others have one, but behavioral diversity is still observed in clonal wildtype cells. What are the trade-offs that bacteria face in performing chemotaxis in different environments? Can population diversity be tailored to resolve these trade-offs? I will discuss our recent theoretical and experimental efforts to uncover the functional role of phenotypic heterogeneity in cellular migration and understand how biological systems may resolve functional trade-offs. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 415 25

Bacterial Genomic Diversity in Light of Environmental Selection (53365) Martin Polz. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Many bacterial and archaeal lineages have a history of extensive gene acquisition and loss, evident as large genome content differences even among otherwise closely related isolates. Explaining the co-existence of the resultant vast genotypic diversity in light of selection remains one of the biggest challenges in microbial biology. Using marine vibrios as a model, we show that in spite of such high gene turnover, genotypic clusters representing ecologically

cohesive populations can be identified. These populations display many hallmarks of animal and plant populations, including speciation, social interactions and ecological tradeoffs. Population genomics shows that interactions among genotypes, e.g., via public good production and cheating, and with predators, e.g., via variation of surface antigens, lead to gene content variation among closely related genotypes. This provides a functional explanation how biological interactions may select for coexisting high genomic diversity. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 415 25

Is HIV short-sighted? Insights from a multistrain nested model (51615) Katrina Lythgoe, Lorenzo Pellis, Christophe Fraser. Imperial College London; University of Warwick. An important component of pathogen evolution at the population level is evolution within hosts. Unless evolution within hosts is very slow compared to the duration of infection, the composition of pathogen genotypes within a host is likely to change during the course of an infection, thus altering the composition of genotypes available for transmission as infection progresses. We develop a nested modelling approach that allows us to follow the evolution of pathogens at the epidemiological level by explicitly considering within-host evolutionary dynamics of multiple competing strains and the timing of transmission. We use the framework to investigate the impact of short-sighted within-host evolution on the evolution of virulence of HIV, and find that the topology of within-host adaptive landscape determines how virulence evolves at the epidemiological level. If viral replication rates increase significantly during the course of infection, the viral population will evolve a high level of virulence even though this will reduce the transmission potential of the virus. However, if replication rates increase more modestly, as data suggests, our model predicts that HIV virulence will be only marginally higher than the level which maximizes the transmission potential of the virus. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 415 25

Spatial constrains on public good production during biofilm development (51658) Theresa Hölscher, Benjamin Bartels, Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Akos T Kovacs. Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Terrestrial Biofilms Group. Biofilms are structurally complex bacterial communities, where the cells are enclosed in an extracellular matrix that mediates the attachment of cells to each other or to surfaces. While the biofilm matrix benefits the population, i.e. protection, attachment to a substratum or surface spreading, its production is costly for the individuals. Mutant strains of the Grampositive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis lacking matrix production have a higher fitness under well mixed planktonic conditions. However, matrix producers have an advantage when

cultivated in spatially structured environment. Two laboratory biofilm models of B. subtilis, surface colony biofilm and air liquid interface pellicle, are examined to understand how matrix producer cooperators gain advantage in a community. Strains lacking matrix production are excluded from a newly built pellicle, a developmental mechanism that selects for matrix producer cooperators. During colony development, spatial pattern formation facilitates cooperation in B. subtilis biofilms. The density of cells at the onset of biofilm growth affects pattern formation during biofilm growth. At low initial cell densities co-cultured strains strongly segregates in space, while at high initial cell densities they do not. EPS-producing cells have a competitive advantage over noncooperative mutants at high assortment, while EPS-deficient cells have an advantage in mixed populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 415 25

Migrating together: how Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to colonize surfaces. (52089) Jordi van Gestel, Hera Vlamakis, Roberto Kolter. University of Groningen; Harvard University. Multicellular organization results from the interactions between cells. From cell-cell interactions collective properties can emerge that enable cells to face challenges that they separately cannot. One particularly important challenge for micro-organisms is migration. In this study, we show how migration depends on the division of labor between two cell types, which appear during Bacillus subtilis colony expansion. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. These loops exert a novel mechanism of migration by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of filamentous bundles depended critically on the synergistic interaction of two distinct cell types: surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, which allows matrix-producing cells to form bundles and migrate towards uncolonized regions of the plate where nutrients have yet to be depleted. Our study illustrates how simple organization of cells can yield a strong ecological advantage. This and similar types of ecological advantages are key for the numerous evolutionary transitions towards primitive and complex multicellular life. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU MAX 415 25

Experimental evolution of increased efficiency through serial propagation in emulsion (52948) Iraes Rabbers, Frank Bruggeman, Herwig Bachmann, Bas Teusink. VU University Amsterdam, dept. Systems Bioinformatics.

From an evolutionary perspective it is advantageous for single cells to grow fast -to outcompete competitors- and for microbial populations to use substrate efficiently -to make the most offspring-. Microbial cells are thought to be metabolically efficient when growing slow and inefficient when growing fast, giving rise to the concept “Tragedy of the commons”. There is experimental evidence for this yield/rate tradeoff in i.a. yeast, however these experiments employed culturing methods where the selection pressure is on growth rate (batch) or substrate affinity (chemostat) due to resource competition. A novel method has recently been introduced that compartmentalizes individual cells in a water-in-oil emulsion, thereby privatizing the resources and allowing for yield selection upon serial propagation. In this project we applied this method to E. coli wildtype for ~450 generations, leading to selection of mutants with increased cell number, exhibiting increased final optical density, total protein content and biomass. This yield increase appears to result from more efficient substrate usage, mainly the full depletion of pyruvate in contrast with the ancestral strain. Characterization of these strains is ongoing, and should reveal the genetic basis for the high yield phenotype and in addition allow more insight into the existence of a yield/rate tradeoff in E. coli. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN B 35

Inference of past historical events using ABC and MCMC methods on population genetics data sets (52127) Frederic Austerlitz. Laboratoire EcoAnthropologie et Ethnobiologie. New computer-intensive estimation techniques such as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) and Monte Carlo Markov chains (MCMC) allows inferring unknown parts of the history of species from contemporary population genetics data. I will illustrate these possibilities with several examples. First, I will talk about a set of human populations from Western Central Africa. Using ABC, we could infer the history of splitting and admixture between these different groups. We could also identify sex-specific demographic processes. The second example that I will mention is the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) population from the Black Sea. Using again ABC techniques, we showed that this population underwent a strong expansion around 5000 years ago, probably as a result of the reconnection of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Sea, but that it underwent also a drastic decline around 50 years ago. Finally I will talk about a study on worldwide human populations, in which by applying MCMC methods on a large set of populations with different lifestyles (farmers, herder and hunter-gatherers), we were able to show that these lifestyles strongly impacted the expansion patterns of these populations. These examples illustrate well how ABC and MCMC methods allow inferring precious information on the history of populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN B 35

Unravelling the evolutionary history of the mosquito disease vector Aedes aegypti; lineage diversification and successful worldwide colonisation (52150)

Kelly Bennett. University of Manchester. The natural boundaries of populations are limited by their ability to disperse and competitively utilise novel habitats. What governs the success of colonising populations? The dengue disease vector Aedes aegypti has been particularly successful in expanding its geographic range from ancestral Africa. The dengue mosquito is also one of few mosquitoes which have acquired the ability to breed in domestic habitats and associate with man. Studying the colonisation process of this mosquito could provide insight into the evolution of domesticity and factors contributing to the successful spread of disease vectors. Previous studies based on microsatellite and SNP data suggest that domesticated populations outside of Africa represent a distinct genetic group different from populations found within Africa. On the other hand, mitochondrial studies find two genetic groups outside of Africa which may correspond to subspecies (associated with domestic and non-domestic habitats) or African geography (East and West Africa). Findings from the present study suggest that divergent lineages within A.aegypti may have arisen through allopatric speciation during the Plio-Pleistocene. Divergent genetic lineages have undergone admixture associated with historical habitat change or human movement. I provide evidence that genetically heterogeneous populations of A.aegypti within Africa have contributed to the colonisation of new geographic areas outside of Africa. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN B 35

Running faster or jumping further? Analysis of adaptive walks in various classes of fitness landscapes. (52502) Barbora Trubenova, Tiago Paixao. IST Austria. In evolutionary biology it is often assumed that mutations are sufficiently rare and selection sufficiently strong to consider a population to be monomorphic at most of the time, 'jumping' between different genotypes. Analysis of adaptive walks in this regime have frequently resorted to simplifying assumptions about the fitness landscapes. In particular, they typically assume that selection coefficients are drawn from extreme-value distributions and that mutational neighbourhoods are not correlated. This Strong Selection Weak Mutation (SSWM) model is closely analogous to (1+1) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA), used in computer science. The analysis of the performance of this algorithm have lead to tools that allow its analysis in classes of fitness functions, without disregarding their correlation structure. Making use of tools from computer science, we analyse several properties of adaptive walks in various classes of fitness landscapes, including average jump size, speed of adaptation and time until they reach the optimum. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN B 35

The molecular mechanisms and reversibility of fisheries-induced evolution (52542) Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, Tiina Sävilammi, Spiros Papakostas, Robert Arlinghaus, Craig Primmer. University of Turku; Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries. Large shifts in phenotypic traits have been observed in exploited fish populations, which have not always fully recovered despite fishing has been ceased. Fisheries-induced evolution (FIE) can explain these potentially slowly reversible changes. However, detecting signals of FIE and its reversibility has proven difficult. We study the molecular mechanisms of FIE by sequencing the transcriptome of experimental fish (wild-origin zebrafish, Danio rerio) that have been harvested size selectively for five generations and then maintained under noselection for six generations. We studied 1) what are the molecular mechanisms underlying FIE, 2) does intensive size-selective harvesting affect gene expression variation, and 3) whether the genetic changes caused by size-selective harvesting are reversible. Our results show that five generations of size selection induced substantial changes in gene expression. In addition to expression evolution, we found signals of sequence evolution: a large number of SNPs were candidates for being subject to selection. We further show that size-selective harvesting generally reduced gene expression variation. Harvest-induced changes in gene expression were eroded after cessation of size-selective harvesting but there was no clear sign of recovery at the sequence level. Similarly, gene expression variation did not rebound back to the initial levels. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN B 35

Density dependence determines the role of extrinsic mortality in shaping life history traits (52318) Maciej J. Dańko, Oskar Burger, Jan Kozłowski. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research; University of Kent School of Anthropology and Conservation (Canterbury, UK) ; Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University (Kraków, PL). There is still debate about the role of extrinsic mortality in shaping life histories, especially the evolution of ageing. We show that the effect of extrinsic mortality depends on ecological conditions, particularly the effect of density dependence on population growth rate. We propose a novel method that combines the idea of the Evolutionary Unbeatable Strategy (EUS) with a projection matrix and resource allocation model. We consider three general classes of density dependence: acting on (i) mortality, (ii) fecundity or (iii) on resource acquisition rate. We extend previous research by allowing density effects in each of these cases to be constant or to vary with age or body mass. For each case we demonstrate the effects of density-independent extrinsic mortality on resource allocation strategies. We find that the effect of extrinsic mortality depends not only on the model of density dependence, but also on the strength of change in density dependent effects with age or size. For each scenario we compare EUS strategies with strategies resulting from maximization of more standard

measures of fitness (like r or R), and identify cases where neither of the standard measures provide correct predictions about the optimal allocation strategy. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN B 35

Sex-specific evolution of learning performance, locomotion, reproduction and lifespan in an outcrossing nematode (51828) Martyna Zwoinska, Martin Lind, Maria Cortazar, Mark Ramsden, Alexei Maklakov. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University. Evolution of learning performance is constrained by trade-offs with life-history traits. Since male and female life-histories often diverge the costs and benefits of learning can differ between the sexes but intersexual genetic correlation will constrain the sexes from reaching their optimal trait values. We selected Caenorhabditis remanei nematode females for increased and decreased olfactory learning and measured learning performance, locomotory activity, reproductive performance and lifespan in virgin and mated males and females. While both sexes responded to selection, males performed better than females in two different learning assays. Downward-selected males showed higher locomotory activity and longer virgin lifespan yet sired fewer progeny than upward-selected males supporting the trade-off between learning and lifespan, and showing that increased reproduction and learning performance do not depend on increased activity. Strikingly, while we observed no effect of selection on female reproduction, virgin downward-selected females lived shorter than upward-selected females. Opposing effects of olfactory learning selection on lifespan evolution in the two sexes led to the reversal of sexual dimorphism in virgin lifespan in downward-selected lines, where virgin males outlived virgin females. Our results show that sex-specific genetic architecture results in the evolution of sexually dimorphic life-histories despite intersexual genetic correlation for learning performance. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Session 2 THU GEN B 35

A comprehensive phylogenetic study of mammalian embryology and skeletogenesis reveals the altricial life history of the placental ancestor, modularity and a brain-bone development link (51627) Marcelo Sánchez-Villagra, Ingmar Werneburg, Michel Laurin, Daisuke Koyabu. University of Zurich; University of Zurich; Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris; University Museum, University of Tokyo. We present the first comprehensive and phylogenetic study of mammalian organogenesis and skeletogenesis in all major clades. Our study is based on Museum specimens and noninvasive imaging and synthesis of embryological data. We coded the relative timing of discrete events, e.g. onset of ossification of all bones of the skeleton and major events in organogenesis and life history. Using heterochrony analyses, we reconstructed the ancestral

chronology of organogenesis and life-history modes. Placental altriciality is inherited from the last common ancestor of amniotes and the precocial lifestyle of many placentals was secondarily acquired. The last common ancestor of marsupials and placentals was intermediate in the altriciality-precocity gradient, but the newborn was anatomically more placental-like. Brain size evolution is related to the length of fetal development, the latter linked to the evolution of viviparity. The mode of ossification (dermal or endochondral) unites bones into integrated evolutionary modules visible through heterochrony and imposes evolutionary constraints. Ossification of the neurocranium occurred considerably earlier than other skull regions during mammalian origins and developmental timing of the skull roof bones and appear to be associated with brain size. We argue that cranial heterochrony in mammals occurred in concert with encephalization within a conserved modular organization. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolutionary pattern of the phosphoproteome in 18 yeast species (53721) Romain Studer, Judit Villen, Pedro Beltrao. EMBL-EBI; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington. Posttranslational modifications (PTM) have the ability to fine- tune the regulation of proteins. Phosphorylation, which consists in the addition of a phosphate group to a polar residues (serine, threonine or tyrosine), is one of the most common and studied PTMs. The advance of high--­‐throughput mass spectrometry (MS) technology allows the rapid identification of phosphosites in a single proteome. Recent studies of the human phosphoproteome have identified approximately 200,000 phosphosites. However, only 10% of these sites have a described function. Phosphosite information has been used to investigate the turnover rate of phosphosites by comparing the phosphoproteomes of different organisms, such as human, mouse, claw frog, fly, yeast, plant or bacteria. However, these studies generally focused on only two or three phosphoproteomes at the same time, or using a very small subset of sites. This lack of resolution can impair the significance of the results. Two phosphosites might be conserved between two species, but might also be fast evolving and disappear in other close species. Here we report the phosphoproteomes of 18 yeast species. We identified a rapid turnover of phosphosites, as seen by the increase numbers in recent branches and species only. We also estimated that a shift in binding motif preference occurred in species that predates the whole--­‐genome duplication in yeast. Finally, we observed that old phosphosites are more important than young phosphosites, in term of structural and phenotypic effects. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Eusociality influence on the effective population size (52985) Bruno Vieira, Yannick Wurm. Queen Mary, University of London.

Social insects are the most successful animals on earth, with a combined biomass rivaling that of humans. Most of the research done has focused on their ecology, behavior, and morphology, while we still know relatively little about the effect that social evolution has on the genome evolution. In specific, how social evolution affects the contributions of selection and drift. Indeed, while each social insect colony includes up to hundreds of thousands of individuals, only a small percentage of those individuals (male and female) reproduces. Furthermore, social insects have a longer generation time than solitary insects. These two characteristics should result in a lower effective population size (Ne), which is an important measure of diversity that helps us understand the relative strength of selection and genetic drift. However, due to the difficulty of measuring Ne, a comparison between solitary and social insects has never been tested. Here we use an innovative approach, the Pairwise Sequentially Markov Coalescent (PSMC) method, to obtain the Ne history based on the distance of heterozygous regions in a single diploid genome sequence. To understand if the evolution of eusociality is associated with a reduction in Ne, we compared several social and solitary insect species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Diversity in the genus Begonia (52984) Katie Emelianova. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh. Begonia is one of the most speciose plant genera, comprising over 1,500 species. The genera’s large size and diversification has been attributed to poor dispersal leading to low levels of drift, high endemism and extensive population differentiation . However, indications that the genus underwent a genome duplication early in its history has prompted investigation into the impact of this duplication on Begonia diversity. The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is a preliminary focus of the project, based on the hypothesis that duplication of either regulators or biosynthetic enzymes facilitated the wide variation of anthocyanin pigmentation in Begonia. Genomic resources developed for the genus include RNA-seq datasets from 6 tissues of two South American species, B. conchifolia and B. plebeja, and a draft genome of B. conchifolia. These resources will be used for expression, selection and copy number analysis in anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Patterns showing differential duplication and expression and positive selection may support a hypothesis implying genome duplication as a key player in the diversification of Begonia. Additionally, a bioinformatics pipeline designed for large-scale identification and analysis of gene families will be outlined. Further development of the pipeline will enable genome wide identification of candidate genes involved in diversification of Begonia. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Improving contact prediction with direct coupling analysis using secondary structural information and amino acid properties (52973)

Guido Uguzzoni, Francesco Oteri, Marco Punta, Martin Weigt. Laboratoire de Biologie Computationelle et Quantitative; Laboratoire de Biologie Computationelle et Quantitative; Laboratoire de Biologie Computationelle et Quantitative; Laboratoire de Biologie Computationelle et Quantitative. Direct coupling analysis (DCA) is a global inference method based on the maximum entropy principle, which aims at predicting residue-residue contacts using the co of residues in multiple-sequence alignments of hom*ologous proteins. DCA permits to disentangle direct and undirect correlation. Previous works on a restricted number of bacterial PFAM families showed as DCA outperforms Mutual Information in terms of contact prediction, leading to accurate modelling of the 3D structures as well as detection of protein-protein interactions. In this work, the performance of DCA has been evaluated over the whole PFAM 27 dataset. The behaviour has been characterised taking into account the physico-chemical properties of the residues as well as secondary structure elements of the proteins. The data shed light on different properties of the protein structure underling the correlation signals. Exploiting this information we are able to improve the true positive rate of contract prediction. Complementing DCA with methods predicting different properties Secondary Structure, Solvent Accessible Surface) is discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Reconstructing past demography from population specific FSTs. (52959) Jerome Goudet, Bruce Weir. Dept Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne; Dept of Biostatics, University of Washington. Evolutionary biologists have a long standing interest in reconstructing the past demography of species using genetic data. The availability of large data sets and increased computer power have allowed very detailed inferences in several species, particularly in hom*o sapiens. One key issue is which summary statistics to use in order to draw these inferences. Here, using simulated data sets as well as phase 3 of the 1000 human genomes project, we show that moment estimators of population specific FSTs are particularly well suited, in particular when used in conjunction with the Site Frequency Spectrum. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

A genomic perspective on locally adapted coastal cod populations (52958) Julia M. I. Barth, Paul R. Berg, Bastiaan Star, Sara Bonanomi, Jakob Hemmer Hansen, Halvor Knutsen, Carl André, Nils Christian Stenseth, Sissel Jentoft.

Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Section for Marine Living Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Silkeborg, Denmark; Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Arendal, Norway; Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden. Structured populations represent confined locally adapted interbreeding species units, which have long been assumed to be non-existent in open marine environments due to the lack of geographical barriers. However, this is increasingly disproved and populations with high levels of genetic differentiation important for adaptation to local environments are being documented at fine scales. Since the 1970’s, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations have been declining in the North Sea, leading to a near extinction of cod in the Norwegian and Swedish fjords. Whether cod in this area represents a large panmictic population where recruitment from offshore areas can substitute for local losses, of whether coastal areas and fjords are home to locally adapted populations is still an open question. We used a large-scale genomic approach to genotype 500 individuals from 14 different locations at 10.000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to answer the questions whether locally adapted coastal cod populations exist, which genes are ecologically relevant for adaptation, and to investigate connectivity and past demography of these populations in the light of climate change. Our results will be highly relevant to provide a management strategy for the protection of locally adapted cod populations and the ecosystems they live in. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Stability-activity tradeoffs constrain the adaptive evolution of RubisCO (52946) Romain Studer, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Mark Williams, Christine Orengo. EMBL-EBI; University of Sheffield; Birkbeck College; University College London. The importance of the stability effect of mutations in protein evolution has been theorised and established in some single-case studies. When a change of function occurs, some mutations shift the stability outside the neutral range, thus they need other mutations after to compensate this difference. Ribulos-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) is the enzyme responsible for fixation of CO2 during photosynthesis. In flowering plants, two forms exist, the C3 and the C4, the latter being faster in terms of catalytic activity. The C4 form emerged by convergent evolution in multiple clades and was the result of a few amino acid substitutions under positive selection. We explored the impact of structural constraints on RubisCO evolution. We reconstructed in silico the ancestral sequences and their associated 3D structures. We were able to follow precisely the evolutionary path, by identifying each mutation on each branch. We found that there are more destabilising mutations at the base of C4 clades, and that these mutations are then followed by other stabilising mutations. These results are consistent with a “stability-activity trade-off” model. These results demonstrated that the evolution of an enzyme can be under strong structural constraints and that adaptive mutations are balanced between stabilising and destabilising effects.

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Demography and local adaptation of Rana temporaria across an environmental gradient (52945) Alexandra Jansen van Rensburg, Josh Van Buskirk. University of Zurich. Understanding the genomics of local adaptation in natural populations currently suffers from confounding effects of demographic history, exacerbated by small sample sizes and sampling scheme limitations. These problems can be overcome by assessing signatures of adaptation across replicate environmental transects, where potential adaptive loci should be verified in parallel scenarios. Widespread species present an ideal opportunity to study local adaptation as they often occur across a range of environmental conditions, thus replicate transects can be sampled. Here we assess the use of reduced representation libraries to study the genomics of local adaptation in the common frog (Rana temporaria) across its range in Switzerland. Using a large and geographically extensive sampling scheme (1050 samples from 81 populations) across multiple parallel environmental gradients, we can infer fine-scale demographic history, as well as identify genomic regions important for local adaptation. Further, we use a modelling approach to assess the amount of gene flow and selection needed to maintain local adaptation at the range edge, given genomic architecture of the adaptively important trait. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Geographic variation in resistance of white spruce against spruce budworm (52939) Genevieve J. Parent, Isabelle Giguère, John J. MacKay. Centre d'Étude de la Forêt, Département des Sciences du Bois et de la Forêt, Université Laval; Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes, Université Laval; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford. Variable in selective regimes within a distribution may cause local adaptation. Evidences for local adaptation in perennial species such as trees are sparse, which might be a consequence of variation in selective regimes through their life cycle. In white spruce (Picea glauca), a heritable mechanism of resistance against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana, SBW), the most damaging forest insect in eastern North America, was discovered for the first time. The PgβGLU-1 enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of acetophenone sugar conjugates to release the aglycons that are toxic for SBW. We investigated if patterns of geographic variations in resistance were present in the population. Levels of Pgβglu-1 transcripts and acetophenones varied widely in natural white spruce population, however putatively resistant trees were less frequent in the southern range of the distribution. Different factors such as temperature and insect feeding pressure are being tested to explain variable frequencies of resistant trees. These abiotic and biotic factors may help to explain the selective regimes exerted on white

spruce population. Furthermore, a genome wide association test is currently underway to identify genetic variants linked to resistance. These results may serve to predict the effects of future outbreaks of SBW in both managed and spruce natural population. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genetic diversity of European Pinus sylvestris populations studied with exome sequencing (52917) Jaakko Tyrmi, Juan José Acosta, Zhen Li, Tanja Pyhäjärvi, Outi Savolainen. Genetics & Physiology Unit, University of Oulu; Forest Genomics Labs, University of Florida; VIB Department of Plant Systems Biology, Ghent University. Pine trees are key species in many ecosystems in Europe and North America also with significant economic value. Pines are also excellent species for studying molecular basis of local adaptation on natural populations because of their large native distribution ranges covering a diversity of environments and high levels of genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic diversity of Pines have been studied in the past using a small number of candidate genes. The large and complex highly repetitive genomes still prevents whole genome resequencing, but here we have used targeted sequence capture. In several European populations, we have targeted some 10 000 genes. A first study was conducted using exome sequences of the related Pinus taeda to design the probes, a second set using Pinus sylvestris transcriptome derived sequences. We also have tried different options of mapping the captured sequences. Due to the repetitive genome, paralogous sequences need to be dealt with carefully. We examine genome-wide diversity, differentiation of populations, and the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. We then contrast our candidate locus variation for adaptive traits (cold tolerance, timing of budset) to the genome wide averages and examine them against predictions of selection models. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Sifting through tangled trees: A particle-filtering method for Bayesian reconstruction of cophylogenies (52890) Arman Bilge, Tim Vaughan, Alexei J Drummond. The University of Auckland; Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution. Systems of interdependent evolutionary histories, often represented by cophylogenies, are important models for genome evolution (i.e., gene trees versus species trees) and the coevolution between a symbiont and its host organism. A cophylogeny consists of a "host" phylogeny, a "guest" phylogeny, and a reconciliation, the mapping of ancestral guests to their hosts, and is determined by a series of events, including cospeciation, duplication, loss, and host-switching/horizontal transfer. Existing methods for reconstructing cophylogenies generally assume that the host phylogeny is known and that its population dynamics are

deterministic and cannot consider uncertainties in dating and geographic location. We developed an approach that uses Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo to perform joint inference on the host and guest phylogenies, reconciliation, divergence dates, and event rates. Because the model complexity makes it impossible to compute analytically the likelihood of a cophylogeny, we employ a particle filtering method that uses piecewise simulation and resampling to approximate the likelihood. We implemented the sampler as a plugin for BEAST, an existing MCMC framework for Bayesian evolutionary analysis, and evaluated its performance on both simulated and real datasets. Furthermore, the use of simulation makes it straightforward to extend our code to consider more complex models. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Phylogeography, population structure and phenotypic variation in the wing dimorphic grasshopper Dichroplus vittatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae). (52863) Maria Remis. Depto. Ecologia, Genetica y Evolucion,Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad Buenos Aires. Dichroplus vittatus is a South American grasshopper that in field can display fully-winged (macropterous) or small-winged (brachypterous) morphs. In order to analyse the genetic and phenotypic differentiation, a fragment of 543bp of the mitochondrial COI gene and 5 body size related traits were studied in 7 populations from La Pampa and San Luis Provinces. We demonstrated a variable frequency in the percentage of brachypterous individuals, ranging from 100% to 25%. The MANOVA showed significant differences in body size among populations, between sexes with female-biased size and between wing morphs being the brachypterous morph the larger. Molecular studies detected 10 haplotypes from 5 polymorphic sites. Diversity indices were low, particularly in La Pampa populations with higher frequency of macropterous. The AMOVAs using FST showed significant heterogeneity among provinces, between populations and within populations. Haplotype network indicated a moderate component of geographical variation. Demographic indices and mismatch distribution revealed that one San Luis population fits a recent expansion model. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of populations studied here would indicate a relatively short evolutionary history. Consistent with a trade-off between flight capability and reproduction hypothesis our results suggest that La Pampa Province may be an unstable or less favourable environment for this specie. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Reptilian Transcriptomes v2.0: an extensive resource for Sauropsida genomics and transcriptomics (52856) Athanasia C. Tzika, Asier Ullate-Agote, Djordje Grbic, Michel C. Milinkovitch. University of Geneva.

Despite the availability of deep-sequencing techniques, genomic and transcriptomic data remain unevenly distributed across phylogenetic groups. For example, reptiles are poorly represented in sequence databases, hindering functional evolutionary and developmental studies in these lineages substantially more diverse than mammals. Here, we present the ‘Reptilian Transcriptomes Database 2.0’ which provides extensive annotation of transcriptomes and genomes from species covering the major reptilian lineages. To this end, we sequenced normalized cDNA libraries of the leopard gecko and the corn snake and gathered published reptilian sequence datasets from representatives of the four extant orders of reptiles: Squamata, the tuatara, crocodiles, and turtles. LANE runner 2.0 was implemented to annotate all assemblies within a single integrated pipeline. We show that this approach increases the annotation completeness of the assembled transcriptomes/genomes. We then built large concatenated protein alignments of single-copy genes and inferred phylogenetic trees that support the positions of turtles and the tuatara as sister groups of Archosauria and Squamata, respectively. The ‘Reptilian Transcriptomes Database 2.0’ resource will be updated to include selected new datasets as they become available, thus making it a reference for differential expression studies, comparative genomics and transcriptomics, linkage mapping, molecular ecology and phylogenomic analyses involving reptiles. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Morphological adaptation in a marine-freshwater habitat transition of Northern Neotropical Catfishes (52854) Madlen Stange, Gabriel Aguirre, Walter Salzburger, Marcelo Sánchez. University of Zürich, Palaeontological Institute; University of Basel, Zoological Institute. The present study aims to disentangle the patterns of adaptation associated with a marinefreshwater habitat transition in the evolution of siluriform Ariidae (sea catfishes), and how those patterns are related to diversification. Successful habitat transitions require adaptation of populations with subsequent speciation. Such evolutionary habitat transitions are accompanied by morphological changes that in turn should leave signatures of adaptation. Ariidae contain mainly marine species, with some species inhabiting freshwater secondarily. All sister taxa but one inhabit fresh- or brackish water. That makes them the ideal study system to investigate the habitat transition from freshwater to marine and back to freshwater on morphological level. This study aims to asses and compare morphological disparity using 2D geometric morphometrics on opercula between and among freshwater and marine catfish species (Ariidae) and freshwater sister taxa. Opercula have been shown to be suitable structures to examine ecological adaptation as they have been shown to change when changing habitat from marine to freshwater habitat. Observed differences are determined whether they are the result of adaptation to marine or freshwater habitat, and/or phylogenetic signal. Opercula shape change among taxa and patterns of variation are visualised using CVA and PCA, respectively. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Measuring constraints to cichlid diversification in small lakes (52852) Florian N. Moser, Jacco C. Van Rijssel, Catherine E. Wagner, Ole Seehausen. Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland; EAWAG Center for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, 6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland. Small lakes provide unique opportunities to study speciation in sympatry, as opportunity for geographical isolation within these environments is negligible. Cichlid fishes are famed examples of sympatric speciation due to instances of speciation in small lakes. However, cichlids occur in many other small lakes where they have not diversified. Although comparative studies reveal lake depth as an important predictor of cichlid diversification, and case studies show that natural and sexual selection operating along depth gradients can readily lead to speciation, the underlying microevolutionary processes which promote or constrain speciation along such depth gradients remain unclear. To investigate the constraints to diversification and differentiation, we studied haplochromines of two small lakes that differ greatly in depth, Lake Chala (90m) and Lake Babati (5m). Both lakes host only one known haplochromine species, Astatotilapia sp., which shows higher phenotypic variation in Lake Chala. We quantify phenotypic diversity and divergence in the two cichlid communities, and relate it to variation in fitness landscapes estimated from a fitness proxy, growth rate. We then investigate genetic differentiation using genome-wide SNP data. We discuss the environmental conditions under which phenotypic differentiation can evolve, and the cases in which it is associated with genetic divergence and speciation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Statistical physics of transcription-factor evolution: speciation with pleiotropic constraint (52846) Alexander Tulchinsky, Normal Johnson, Adam Porter. University of Massachusetts - Amherst. Speciation can result from gene misregulation in hybrids when transcription factors (TF’s) and their cis-regulatory targets differentially coevolve in separate populations. Pleiotropy should constrain the evolution of misregulation because multifunctional TF's should be less likely to diverge. How profound is this constraint? We used a statistical physics model wherein fractional occupancy of a TF on its cis-regulated target determines gene expression, thus phenotype. TF concentration and free energy of association (-deltaG) determined occupancy. Mutable bit strings represented alleles, and deltaG depended on their match. Misregulation occurs when a phenotype differs from its environmentally determined optimum. The model can extend to any genetically determined, interacting molecules. We simulated a pleiotropic regulatory pathway involving a conserved and a positively selected trait, sharing a TF, with two populations evolving in parallel to new optima. Pleiotropy shifted more of the response to the cis-site of the directionally selected trait, and compensatory evolution occurred at the cis-site of the conserved trait. Both traits contributed to misregulation of hybrids.

TF concentration and -deltaG determined much of the evolutionary dynamics of speciation. Pleiotropy inhibited speciation when a mismatched bit changed occupancy too much; misregulation was negligible when a mismatch changed occupancy too little. Between, speciation occurred frequently. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomics of adaptive life history variation in Atlantic salmon (52842) Nicola J Barson, Tutku Aykanat, Kjetil Hindar, Matthew Baranski, Celeste Jacq, Sten Karlsson, Geir Bolstad, Matthew P Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Craig R Primmer. Norwegian Unversity of Life Sciences; University of Turku; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA); NOFIMA. Local adaptation often involves complex quantitative traits. However, when selection for local adaptation occurs with ongoing gene flow, control by a few loci of large effect is expected. This necessity can lead to constraints on the identity of loci and their position in regulatory networks and raises the possibility of a conserved genomic basis of adaptation across taxa. Atlantic salmon exhibit extreme variation in age and size at maturity. Replicated divergence among populations in these key fitness related traits and ongoing gene flow make salmon an ideal organism in which to study the genomics of local adaptation. We present results of dense SNP genotyping (220k loci) of 1734 individuals from 57 wild populations, covering the coast of Norway, plus a Baltic outgroup. Populations are dominated by either large, late maturing (2-3 sea years), or small, early maturing (1 sea year) salmon. This sampling allowed analysis of genotype-phenotype associations (GWAS) and spatial variation in the genomics of adaptive responses. Our results suggest several major genes contribute to local adaptation, consistent with predictions under migration-selection balance, and a role for “master regulators”. Targeted re-sequencing enabled identification of locally adapted candidate gene variants, which will be discussed in a functional context. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Chronology of fitness traits evolution to climate change over 100 years in the water flea Daphnia magna (52839) Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Hollie Marshall, Hanna Tilley, Luisa Orsini. Environmental Genomics Group, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham . The decline of water quality due to climate change and land use determined by the use of pesticides and leading to eutrophication is a recognized threat to ecosystem services and to the economy. However, the causes and effects of climate and land use changes occur over many decades, and are therefore difficult to measure. Critical for gauging the long term consequences of climatic change is the reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics over

extended time axes. Here, we reconstruct the evolution of fitness traits (mortality, fecundity and growth rate) to climatic change in Daphnia magna populations using animals resurrected from sediment biological archives with known history of eutrophication and temperature changes. Experimental evolution trials are used to measure fitness response of populations sampled across 80 years (1960-present) to the forecasted temperature increase for the upcoming century. In addition, we measure the evolution of fitness traits in response to the combined effect of temperature increase with pesticides and food quality changes. This study will identify fitness traits targets of natural selection and the long-term consequences of environmental stress in metazoan populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolution of an endosymbiont genome associated with host dependency (52818) Dré (A.A.) Kampfraath, Ken Kraaijeveld, Jacintha Ellers. VU university . Mutualistic relationships often result in the loss of traits that are being compensated for by the partner. Trait loss in endosymbionts is expected to be an ongoing process, but the rate and sequence in which traits are lost during the early stages of the interaction are poorly understood. Wolbachia is one of the most widespread endosymbionts infecting an estimated 40% of all terrestrial arthropod species. Wolbachia is known for manipulating the reproductive system of its hosts, but can also provide the host with benefits including defense against parasites. In some cases, the intimate relation between endosymbiont and host has resulted in host dependency. In the springtail Folsomia candida, eggs cleared from Wolbachia by heat or antibiotics don’t hatch, showing that the host has become reliant on its Wolbachia endosymbiont for reproduction. Therefore, we sequenced and assembled the wFol genome. This is the first sequenced Wolbachia genome that is obligatory for its host. By comparing the wFol genome to 12 available Wolbachia genomes we test whether wFol strain (1) has a smaller genome size than other Wolbachia, and (2) has lost some otherwise essential genes that are compensated for by the host. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genetic architecture of morphological traits in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (52816) Dorotea Polović, Stuart Dennis, Anamaria Štambuk, Maja Šrut, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Vid Baković, Goran Klobučar, Patrik Nosil. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb; Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield; Department of Biology, Utah State University.

The genetic architecture of phenotypic traits, including their heritability, numbers of loci involved, and effect sizes, are not well understood in bivalves. Anthropogenic pollution may create environmental differences that can alter mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) morphology through either genotypic or induced environmental effects. To assess the genetic architecture of morphology we measured 17 morphometric traits in over 1400 mussels from two populations inhabiting sites differing in pollution pressure. We used a genotype by sequencing approach to generate genomic data that allowed us to then describe the genetic architecture of these traits in a genome wide association study. Additionally, we estimated the genetic architecture of the same traits as well as proxies for fitness in an additional sample of 15 populations distributed across a pollution gradient using 20 mussels per population. The results thus characterise variation within and among populations in mussel morphology and assess the association between genotype, phenotype and environment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

A case of rapid postglacial speciation in the songbird genus Junco: genomewide divergence in SNP data suggests the role of multifarious selection (52810) Guillermo Friis, Borja Milá. National Museum of Natural Sciences (CSIC). During early stages of ecological speciation, divergence may be driven by strong selection on a few loci, or alternatively through weaker multifarious selection acting on numerous loci across the genome. Cases of recent and rapid diversification provide the opportunity to examine the relative importance of these types of selection and their effect on genomic landscapes. The rapid postglacial radiation of the genus Junco in North America has given rise to a number of closely related yet phenotypically distinct forms within the last 10,000 years, as documented with mtDNA sequence data. A subset of several thousand high-FST SNPs obtained through Genotyping-by-Sequencing, reveals marked divergence between and even within junco morphs. This pattern is congruent with geographical and phenotypic structure and suggests restricted gene flow even among parapatric sister forms. Divergent SNP loci are spread across the entire genome despite the recent origin of the morphs, suggesting the role of selection acting on numerous loci across the genome from the early stages of the speciation process. This is consistent with preliminary data on the role of sexual selection and ecological niche divergence, suggesting that the diversification of junco forms is driven by a wide range of selective factors. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Characterizing the architecture of gene expression regulation in the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. (52801) Victoria Pritchard, Juha Merilä, Mikko Nikinmaa, Craig Primmer, Heidi Viitaniemi, Erica Leder.

University of Turku, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland. It is increasingly clear that changes in the expression of genes play an important role in local adaptation. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of gene expression regulation is an important step to understanding how populations evolve in response to changing environments, and thus how adaptive divergence occurs. Here, we used an expression microarray, in combination with RAD-tag sequencing and a controlled cross, to characterize expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) underlying variation in gene expression in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) - an important model in the study of adaptive radiation. We identified several thousand eQTL, of which >60% were cis acting. Trans acting eQTLs clustered into several putative ‘eQTL’ hotspots. We further discuss our results with respect to genes exhibiting expression variation between the sexes, and between different thermal treatments. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Deciphering the molecular basis of a boreal adaptation: the transcriptional landscape of seasonal coat color change in two species of hares (52799) Mafalda Sousa Ferreira, Paulo Célio Alves, Colin Callahan, L. Scott Mills, Jeffrey M. Good, José Melo-Ferreira. CIBIO-InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto; Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Wildlife Biology, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA; Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA ; Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC USA. The effects of climate change in biodiversity are both a conservation problem and an opportunity to study the evolution of adaptive traits in response to the new environmental conditions. Seasonal coat color change, a remarkable adaptation of artic and boreal species to their seasonally snow covered environment, is one of such traits. Global warming and the consequent decrease of the number of days with snow on the ground lead to increased periods of mismatch in crypsis, making these species highly conspicuous to predators. How will this phenotype respond to the new environmental conditions is now a pressing question. A crucial step to tackle this is to determine the molecular bases of seasonal coat color change to better understand how environmental cues act to time the production of two color phenotypes. In this work, we track the gene expression changes in the skin in the molting cycle of two distantly related species of hares, the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus, and the mountain hare, Lepus timidus, using an RNA-sequencing approach. This will provide an unprecedented understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying seasonal coat color molting and of the possibly independent evolutionary pathways of this phenotype in two distinct species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic variation in the virilis group of Drosophila (52796) Venera Tyukmaeva, Konrad Lohse, Ritchie Michael. University of St Andrews; University of Edinburgh. The Drosophila virilis group species show unique behaviours and adaptations and are an ideal model system to study speciation. The group has a long history of research on the evolution of mating behaviour, chromosome arrangements, adaptations and molecular evolution, however, the species phylogeny has many uncertainties and controversial points. We obtained 18 genome sequences for the species from the group (one fly individual per line, mostly two lines per species from different geographic locations) and adopted the likelihood framework developed by Lohse & Frantz (2014) to co-estimate species divergence times, ancestral population sizes and introgression parameters between closely related species using blockwise alignments sampled from the whole genome. Many species of the group occur both in allopatry and sympatry with their closest relative in North America which makes it possible to explicitly test for the effect of geography on species divergence and historical or on-going gene flow. At the same time the detailed sequence information from closely related species allows a detailed examination of the regions under positive selection between different species and help identifying the key genes involved in speciation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolution of tissue specificity of protein coding genes in vertebrates (52781) Nadja Kryuchkova, Marc Robinson-Rechavi. University of Lausanne; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. One of the major properties of genes is their expression pattern. While there have been recent studies of the correlation of expression between species for a few tissues, little is known about the evolution of tissue-specificity itself. There are several methods to measure this tissuespecificity. In this study we compare available methods and use them to study evolution. More specifically, we inquire: • Do tissue-specific genes evolve faster? • Are there major differences between the evolution of tissue-specificity after duplication (paralogs) or without duplication (orthologs)? • Could previous studies be biased, due to the bias in detecting low expressed genes? Eight methods for tissue-specificity were analyzed on their robustness for choice and number of tissues and for data normalization. For RNA-seq, the results of most methods, established for ESTs and Microarrays, depend on the data pre-processing. Also tissue-specificity is better detected with RNA-seq than with Microarrays. We show that new genes and genes with more paralogs tend to have more specific expression. Previous findings, that more broadly expressed genes evolve under stronger purifying selection, could be confirmed. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic signature of local adaptation in Populus tremula (52780) Jing Wang, Pär K. Ingvarsson. Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University; Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University. Identifying the signatures and targets of local adaptation is an increasingly important goal in ecology and evolutionary biology. With the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, it has become feasible to perform genomics studies on ecologically and economically important non-model species. Populus tremula, European aspen, is a deciduous forest tree with a geographic distribution ranging throughout Eurasia, and thus, has normally adapted to a wide variety of environmental conditions. Using whole genome re-sequencing data from 85 P. tremula trees collected from twelve sites spanning latitudinal and longitudinal gradients throughout Sweden, we tested for evidence of local adaptation by using three different kinds of methods: (1) searching for elevated population differentiation using FSTbased outlier analyses; (2) testing for significant associations between allele frequencies and environmental variables; (3) genome-wide association studies of two ecologically important traits (bud set and bud flush) associated with common garden experiments. In the end, we identified a set of candidate loci that have been subject to local adaptation. Our findings also provide insights into the relative contribution of new mutations and standing genetic variation to the evolution of local adaptation, as well as the genetic architecture of adaptive traits in P. tremula. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolution of convergent floral phenotypes during pollination shifts in Gesneriaceae: transcriptomic evidence (52775) Martha Liliana Serrano-Serrano, Anna Marcionetti, Mathieu Perret, Alain Chautems, Nicolas Salamin. University of Lausanne; Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. Morphological changes have impacted the evolution of many groups in the tree of life, among those Angiosperms is an excellent case where evolutionary forces have shaped a great compendium of floral forms. Pollinator variation in the Gesneriaceae family has led to strong convergent floral phenotypes for different functional groups (insects, hummingbirds and bats). Further, Gesneriaceae has a labile pattern of plant-pollinator associations, with multiple changes within a single lineage. These pollinator shifts involve mainly changes in corolla shape and color, as well as, in the timing of anther dehiscence, nectar production, and sexual organ elongation. Here, we present the results from the transcriptomic data of six non-model plant species to investigate the differentiated loci during pollination shifts and their signatures of selection. We also profile the gene expression and regulation differences between the convergent floral phenotypes.

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Local-scale genetics — genetic structure in natural Pinus pinaster populations at short spatial scales (52774) Katharina B. Budde, Myriam Heuertz, Ana Hernández-Serrano, Felix Gugerli, Miguel Verdú, Juli G. Pausas, Santiago C. González-Martínez. University of Copenhagen; CIFOR-INIA Forest Reseach Center, Madrid; INRA BIOGECO, Bordeaux; CIDE-CSIC/UV/GV Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación, Valencia; WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute, Zürich. Landscape genetics aims to disentangle which environmental factors shape the genetic structure of species or populations in the light of gene flow. Recent studies have determined environmental factors affecting neutral and adaptive genetic variation in plant species on regional to continental scale. However, selection is expected to be harder to detect over short distance, where extensive gene flow can exceed the migration–selection equilibrium. Here we tested the effect of topography, water availability and biotic indicators on the local genetic structure of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and adaptive phenotypes in eastern Spain. In one site, a 300 m altitudinal gradient significantly affected maritime pine local genetic structure and tree growth, while no environmental factor seemed strong enough to affect the genetic structure in other sites. Several environmental factors vary along (even short) altitudinal gradients, which could have led to divergent selection between upper and lower parts of slopes. Alternatively, adaptive and/or plastic responses in flowering phenology could have led to assortative mating and shaped the observed genetic structure. We conclude that neutral and adaptive processes at short spatial scales should be considered in landscape genetics studies aiming at understanding genetic structure within natural plant populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Selection pressures and recent adaptation in the genomes of invasive fire ants (52761) Eyal Privman, Amir Cohanim, Yu-Ching Huang, John Wang, DeWayne Shoemaker, Laurent Keller. University of Haifa; Academia Sinica; USDA; University of Lausanne. Solenopsis fire ants evolved high invasiveness. A sub-clade of Solenopsis species have recently evolved a social polymorphism: a colony can either have one or many reproductive queens. This has been suggested to allow more efficient cooperation and faster population growth, which facilitate invasiveness. Therefore, we hypothesize that this transition was accompanied by positive selection on related adaptive traits. The social form is determined by the "social chromosome", a supergene containing over 600 genes. We set out to identify additional genes that contributed to this evolutionary innovation. We applied a population

genomic approach to infer selection pressures from RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing and whole genome sequencing to achieve either high accuracy in allele frequency estimation or high resolution of SNPs, respectively. These data allow for high inference power in different types of tests for positive selection. We identified specific gene families and molecular functions under selection that could be implicated in social evolution. Furthermore, we identified loci with exceptionally high allelic variation, the hallmark of balancing selection. An extreme case is the recently discovered sex determination locus in S. invicta. These analyses provide for the first time a genomic view of selection pressures in an invasive social insect. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic consequences of hybridization and the loss of meiotic recombination in Root-knot nematodes (52760) Laura Salazar-Jaramillo, Amir Stitzenberg, Dave Lunt, Mark Blaxter. University of Edinburgh; University of Hull. Root-knot nematodes (genus Meloidogyne) have undergone repeated transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction (besides obligatory sexual, they also exhibit both mitotic and meiotic parthenogenetic species). Transition from sexual reproduction to mitotic parthenogenesis involves the loss of meiotic recombination, which has been shown to result from interspecific hybridization events in some Meloidogyne species. Hybridization is expected to involve large genomic changes such as differences in the copy number of genes and chromosomes, which could result in major changes in biological function. At the same time, hybridization can potentially generate transgressive variation through the mixing of several parental genomes, while the resulting asexual reproduction is expected to limit genomic variation on the long run relative to sexual reproduction. Thus, by comparing the genomes of different root-knot nematode species, we investigate the genomic consequences of hybridization and the loss of meiotic recombination. Whole genome sequencing suggests that at least one of the most damaging asexual root-knot nematode species (M. javanica) is a triploid and shows a surprisingly high level of genomic variation. Such variation could help explain the great expansion of some Meloidogyne species in a wide range of agriculturally important crops. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

You are what you eat – Can selective advantages explain the AT-bias of endosymbiotic genomes? (52757) Anne-Kathrin Dietel, Martin Kaltenpoth, Christian Kost. Research Group Experimental Ecology and Evolution, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Ecology; Research Group Insect Symbiosis, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Ecology.

Endosymbionts are expected to evolve a reduced metabolic burden they impose on their host. Strikingly, both plasmids and intracellular bacterial symbionts generally exhibit a reduced GC-content relative to the host’s chromosome. We hypothesize that competition among cytoplasmic elements for the hosts’ nucleotides may explain this observation: Since dATP and dTTP are the most abundant nucleoside triphosphates in a cell, intracellular symbionts with lower GC-contents should be selectively favoured. Here, we test this hypothesis by experimentally manipulating the GC-content of plasmids and analysing the fitness consequences for the bacterial host. Specifically, we introduced eight 1 kb sequences of eukaryotic DNA that were particularly AT- and GC-rich into two minimal plasmid backbones. Growth experiments with Escherichia coli revealed a significant fitness decrease of cells that harboured GC-rich plasmids as well as a reduced copy number of GCrich plasmids, thus supporting the above hypothesis. Furthermore, externally supplying GCnucleotides to plasmid-harbouring cells caused a growth increase of cells containing GC-rich plasmids, while feeding of AT- nucleotides did not cause a similar effect. Our results demonstrate that by altering their base composition, plasmids can reduce the metabolic burden they impose on their bacterial host, which may explain the commonly observed GC-bias of endosymbionts. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Spatial pattern of MHC diversity in barn owl (Tyto alba) (52741) Arnaud Gaigher, Reto Burri, Walid Gharib, Pierre Taberlet, Alexandre Roulin, Luca Fumagalli. Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Biophore, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; Laboratory for Conservation Biology, University of Lausanne, Biophore, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden; Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, CNRS UMR 5553, Université Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble, France. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play an essential role in the adaptive immune response and thus constitute a good model to study adaptive genetic variability. The extraordinary diversity exhibited by MHC genes is thought to be maintained by pathogendriven selection. Because of the major role of MHC in pathogen defense, MHC genotypes can be expected to be locally adapted to pathogens, resulting in a more pronounced genetic structure in these genes compared to neutral expectations. Alternatively, balancing selection at the geographic scale can lead to a weaker genetic structure than compared to the neutral population structure, if for instance prevailing pathogens are the same over the whole study area. To distinguish between these two scenarios, we sequenced MHCIIβ and MHCIα loci with high-throughput sequencing technology in a large number of barn owls (Tyto alba) sampled throughout Europe (N=400). All samples were also genotyped with 22 neutral microsatellites markers used as a baseline to contrast with MHC diversity and genetic structure. Preliminary results suggest that MHC variation in Europe is a complex process, involving neutral and probably selective forces. Therefore, this study provides interesting perspectives for the understanding of MHC evolutionary ecology. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - POL 300

Assessing local adaptation in Aleppo pine by comparing molecular and phenotypic variation (52739) Ruth Martín-Sanz, Stephen Cavers, Luis Santos-del-Blanco, Delphine Grivet, José Climent. Forest Research Centre-INIA; Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute (UVaINIA); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Edinburgh; Department of Ecology and Evolution. University of Lausanne. The study of the existence of adaptive genetic variation has received substantial attention in short-lived species, but the knowledge in forest trees is still scarce. Mediterranean pines in particular show high adaptive variation demonstrated in different common garden experiments. The fact that some species have a strong geographic structure, deriving from different evolutionary processes makes these species a good model to compare selective and non-selective effects shaping the extant phenotypic variation in key life history traits like threshold size for reproduction, reproductive allocation and fire resilience traits. Our objective was to confirm that the clinal patterns found in such traits are due to selection in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). We measured all traits in a common garden comprising 17 populations covering the species range. Patterns of genetic variation, assessed through quantitative traits and molecular markers (cSSRs and SNPs), were compared by two ways. Firstly by comparing QST and FST estimations and, secondly by extracting molecular variation from the ecotypic variation. Our analyses confirmed that selection has played a significant role in the current population differentiation in key fitness traits as female reproductive intensity and precocity in this species. These findings are relevant for the sustainable management and conservation of the genetic resources of Aleppo pine. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Dynamics of copy number variation in eight host races of the pea aphid species complex (52694) Ludovic Duvaux, Quentin Geissmann, Karim Gharbi, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Julia Ferrari, Carole M. Smadja, Roger K. Butlin. University of Sheffield; Imperial College, London; Edinburgh Genomics, University of Edinburgh; Rothamsted Research; University of York; ISEM, Université de Montpellier 2; University of Gothenburg. Thanks to multiple divergent host races and a genome made of 35,000 genes, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum is a powerful system for studying the genome dynamics of copy number variation (CNV) and its role in host plant adaptation. Chemosensory multigene families, like gustatory and olfactory receptors (Grs and Ors, respectively), are well known to display large variation in gene content between species and recent studies have highlighted their importance in host race formation and speciation. Here, using targeted re-sequencing allowing a very high depth of sequencing, we contrasted the CNV dynamics of three multigene families with genes randomly sampled from the genome of the pea aphid (for a

total of 381 genes investigated in 104 individuals distributed across eight host races). We found that CNV was widespread, with higher occurrence in multigene families, especially in Ors. The probability of complete gene duplication or deletion (CDD) was shown to decrease with increasing coding sequence length. Genes with CDD variants were more polymorphic for copy number, especially in the P450 gene family where toxin resistance may be related to gene dosage. Finally, we found that Grs were over-represented among genes discriminating host races, as were CDD genes and pseudogenes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

In search for selection signatures and footprints of local adaption in a rock ptarmigan population in Iceland (52691) Kristinn P Magnusson, Máney Sveinsdóttir, Kristen Marie Westfall, Zophonías O Jónsson, Páll Melsted, Ólafur K Nielsen. Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Akureyri, Iceland; Faculty of Natural Resource Sciences, University of Akureyri, Iceland; Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland; Department of Computer Sciences, University of Iceland ; Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Garðabær, Iceland. The latest NGS technology and efficient bioinformatics has enabled scientists to characterize genomes of non-model organisms. We have subjected two ptarmigan species, rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) to whole genome sequencing (WGS). The study material was obtained from an ongoing longitudinal rock ptarmigan monitoring project in North-east Iceland. The Icelandic rock ptarmigan population cycles multi-annually, with peak numbers approximately 10 years apart where the difference in abundance between low and high numbers is 3−10 fold. The relationships among health, body condition and related parameters with respect to population cycling of the rock ptarmigan has been studied in detail. Understanding the functional role of genetic variation in natural populations is crucial for applying genomic tools to investigate evolutionary processes and conservation issues, which are valuable for curbing the accelerating worldwide loss of biodiversity. Here we investigate the relationships among functional genomic variation, ecological, and physiological parameters associated with population cycling as part of this long-term study. We will present reduced genomic representation data generated with the ddRAD method, that has been shown to be capable of detecting selection signatures and footprints of local adaption. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The evolution of untranslated regions of mRNAs in primates (52680) Iris Finci, Anamaria Necsulea, Henrik Kaesmann.

University of Lausanne; École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL); Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Untranslated regions (UTRs) of protein-coding mRNAs are important in many aspects of post-transcriptional regulation, such as translational control, mRNAs stability and mRNA subcellular localisation. However, functional roles and evolutionary dynamics of UTRs remain poorly understood, mainly due to incomplete UTR annotations in non-model organisms. We use extensive RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data from 8 tissues across 6 primates (human, chimpanzee/bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, macaque and marmoset) to annotate UTRs and assess their functional evolution. We generated refined annotations for each species using RNA-seq data, adding thousands of new exons and extending known exon boundaries. We then classified exonic sequences as UTR or coding based on their evolutionary signatures, open reading frames and similarity to known proteins. Using this comprehensive UTR dataset, we screened for differential UTR usage across tissues. Interestingly, we observed higher differential exon usage in UTRs compared to internal (coding) exons in primates, identifying many cases of tissue-specific and lineagespecific UTRs. Currently, we are trying to understand the functional relevance of these lineage-specific UTRs by analysing changes in miRNA binding potential and their nonsensemediated decay susceptibility. Besides providing novel insights into the functional evolution of UTRs, we believe our annotations and results will create a unique resource for future studies. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genome evolution during the radiation of Timema stick insects (52674) Victor Soria-Carrasco, Moritz Muschick, Stuart R Dennis, Zachariah Gompert, Jeffrey L Feder, Aaron Comeault, Patrik Nosil. University of Sheffield; Utah State University; University of Notre Dame. Comparative genomics has grown to become a well-established and active field of research. Fueled by the continuous reduction in the cost of sequencing, the comparison of genomics features of a wide range of diverse organisms has greatly contributed to understand the mechanisms of evolution at the molecular level. However, the genomic changes taking place during the adaptive radiation of a group of closely related organisms from beginning to end are poorly understood. In this study, we have sequenced hundreds of genomes of individuals from multiple populations of several species of Timema, a 30-million-year-old genus of stick insects endemic to California adapted to a range of host plants. This data has allowed us to identify genomic regions of divergence across populations and species and to quantify the degree of genomic parallel evolution at different phylogenetic depths. In addition, using the annotations of the genome of one of the species, T. cristinae, we have tested whether such regions of divergence are preferentially located in coding regions and enriched in certain

functions. Our results contribute to the understanding of the evolution of genomes during adaptive radiations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Exploring the genome of Sparidae: linkage mapping in common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (52667) Tereza Manousaki, Alexandros Tsakogiannis, John B. Taggart, Christos Palaiokostas, Dimitris Tsaparis, Dimitris Chatziplis, Nikos Papandroulakis, Constantinos C. Mylonas, Costas S. Tsigenopoulos. Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research; Department of Biology, University of Crete; Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling; Department of Agricultural Technology, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. The teleost fishes of the family Sparidae are rising model species in the field of reproductive biology, mainly due to their diverse patterns of sex modes, ranging from hermaphroditism to gonochorism. Their economical importance for the aquaculture industry urges even more to explore the genome evolution of the group, as genomic information (e.g. genetic markers, linkage maps and QTL analyses) is increasingly being used to select for desirable production traits. Common pandora is a recently introduced species in Mediterranean aquaculture. We applied the ddRAD methodology on a full-sib family to identify polymorphic markers widely distributed in the unexplored genome of common pandora. Employing the Illumina technology, we sequenced a large genomic fraction in 99 individuals, which resulted in the discovery of nearly 1000 polymorphic loci. Downstream linkage mapping analysis led to the construction of 24 linkage groups representing the 24 chromosomes of the species. Common pandora linkage map showed a high degree of conserved synteny compared to other teleost genomes, suggesting a rather conserved genome structure. In conclusion, our work exploits the possibilities of RAD sequencing to gain insights regarding genome structure and evolution of the valuable but unexplored Sparidae species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Temporal and spatial variation in assortative mating: an example in Blue Tit Mediterranean populations (52661) Amélie Fargevieille, Arnaud Grégoire, Anne Charmantier, Claire Doutrelant. Centre d'Ecologie Evolutive et Fonctionnelle, CNRS UMR 5175 Montpellier; Université de Montpellier. Assortative mating is a consequence of mate choice, particularly mutual mate choice, in which partners choose each other over the same criteria. Several studies in Blue tit* (Cyanistes caeruleus) suggest the importance of two color patches in female and male

preferences, the blue crown and the yellow breast, but a recent meta-analysis challenges these results. The aim of our study is to test the existence of a pattern of assortative mating for those patches. We also cross variables of the color patches to see if preference is based on different criteria in males and females. The strength of our study lies in our database; which includes information on feather colorations for these patches and individual life-history traits for more than 1500 pairs over three populations and ten years. Therefore, additionally to testing for a potential pattern of assortative mating or mutual mate choice, we test the variation in space and time for this pattern. Our results confirm that the patterns of color assortative mating in the blue tit can vary substantially, over years and through populations, shedding a new light on the processes of sexual selection and evolution of ornaments in a metapopulation context. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

GENOME EVOLUTION OF BURKHOLDERIA LEAF NODULE SYMBIONTS (52659) Marta Pinto-Carbó, Leo Eberl, Aurélien Carlier. Department of Microbiology, Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zurich. Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia establish an intimate association with plant species of the Rubiaceae family. This symbiosis is unique among other plant-microbe interactions. The bacteria are housed within the leaves, and the symbiosis is obligate for both partners. Little is known about the molecular nature and genome evolution of the leaf nodule symbionts. We sequenced the genomes of eight leaf nodule symbionts and found that they exhibit features consistent with recently evolved symbionts. They also shared some commonalities with more ancient symbionts such as a reduction in their genome. However the decay in the genome size is heterogeneous among the different leaf nodule symbionts and is not as dramatic as in longterm symbiosis. Strict phylogenetic congruence between partners was not observed, indicating possible events of host switching. We also identified genes possibly acquired through horizontal gene transfer events that could potentially play a role in the establishment of the symbiosis. These genes, conserved only in leaf nodule symbionts, may be involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The genomic analysis of leaf nodule symbionts gives, for the first time, new insights in the genome evolution of obligate symbionts in their early stages of the association with plants. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Convergent evolution story of β-lactamase enzyme (52657) VIVEK KESHRI, Pierre Pontarotti, Jean-Marc Rolain, Didier Raoult. Aix-Marseille Université, I2M UMR-CNRS 7373, Evolution Biologique et Modélisation; Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE) UM63 CNRS 7278; URMITE CNRS IRD UMR 6236, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie.

Extensive and irresponsible use of β-lactam antibiotics has contributed to the widespread dissemination of antibiotic-resistance bacteria. These bacteria have evolved three strategies (alteration of target, reduction of drug permeation in membrane and production of βlactamase enzyme) to escape the activity of β-lactam antibiotics. The β-lactamase enzymes inactivate β-lactam antibiotics by hydrolyzing the four-membered β-lactam ring. Currently, more than 1300 naturally β-lactamase enzyme have been reported which have classified into four different molecular classes (Class A, B, C and D) and functional group. The aim of this study is to explore the evolutionary history of β-lactamase enzyme followed by investigate the correlation with hydrolyzing properties (function). MIC is generally regarded as the most basic laboratory measurement of the activity of an antimicrobial agent. Therefore, we have started this study with extraction of MIC value of 1161 β-lactamase enzyme. After collection of MIC’s, followed by filtration of unwanted data only 220 enzymes were shortlisted for evolutionary analysis. The phylogenetic analysis were carried out followed by tree were annotated based on hydrolytic properties (MIC) with respect to different β-lactam antibiotic. The detailed phylogenetic analysis of this study reveals the story of functional convergent evolution of β-lactamase enzymes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Linkage disequilibrium network analysis (LDna) – an unsupervised approach to study genomic signatures of local adaptation (52655) Petri Kemppainen, Catherine Walton, Christopher Knight. Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology; Computational and Evolutionary Biology, University of Manchester. Loci similarly affected by selection are expected to be non-randomly associated with each other i.e. in linkage disequilibrium (LD). LD can therefore be highly informative about processes involved in local adaptation. To access such information, we developed LD network analysis (LDna), an unsupervised approach to detect clusters of loci connected by high LD. Each cluster represents a sub-set of loci that bear a distinct evolutionary genetic signal. In data from three-spined sticklebacks we successfully identified LD clusters associated with local adaptation, inversions and geographic structure. Downstream analysis of these loci identified that most differentiation between freshwater and marine ecotypes was found within the Pacific Ocean rather than between the ecotypes from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans pooled. This represents a more nuanced view of local adaptation in this species compared to previous supervised approaches (where groups between which differences are sought need to be defined a priori). Our network analytical approach to studying LD enables a novel global view of all evolutionary processes that result in high LD among multiple loci in a data set. It does not require a linkage map or reference genome, so is applicable to any population-genomic dataset, making it especially valuable for non-model species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genome-wide patterns of selection in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus (52647) Christian Rödelsperger, Angela McGaughran, Eduardo Moreno, Katy Morgan, Jan Meyer, Dominik Grimm, Karsten Borgwardt, Mark Leaver, Ralf Sommer. Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Dept. for Evolutionary Biology; Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus has been established as a satellite model to Caenorhabditis elegans for comparative studies in developmental biology, ecology, and population genetics. Based on whole-genome sequencing of hundred globally sampled isolates, we have previously identified background selection as a major factor shaping genetic diversity. In this study, we investigate selective processes that act on top of background selection. To this end, we sequenced genomes of 218 isolates from the island la Reunion, which was previously identified as a hotspot of P. pacificus diversity. On this geographically diverse island, we identified several distinct P. pacificus populations (defined by location) that group into four evolutionary lineages. Despite the fact, that strains of distinct evolutionary lineages can be successfully crossed in the lab, there is almost no evidence for outcrossing across lineage borders in the wild. Focusing on population comparisons within lineages, we identified numerous genomic loci with almost complete differentiation between populations. These candidate loci for adaptation harbor several genes that were previously described as playing a role in chemosensation and pathogen resistance. In addition, we identified highly polymorphic variants near immune response related genes, that suggest the action of frequency dependent selection.

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Exchange of Genetic Material between Non-Recombining Sequences on a Genomic Scale (52644) Claus Vogl. Inst Animal Breeding and Genetics. Only the pseudo-autosomal regions of the mammalian sex-chromosomes recombine. But obviously Y-chromosomal genes outside this region also exchange genetic information with the hom*ologous X-chromosomal genes. Similarly, in many allopolyploid species inheritance is disomic, i.e., the hom*oiologous chromosomes do not recombine. Nevertheless, genetic exchange among hom*oiologous genes has been observed. Technically, it is difficult to discover such, especially on the genomic scale. The specific molecular and computational methods are presented and discussed. Exchange of genetic materials between non-

recombining regions may thus go undetected and may have a much higher impact on genome evolution than generally believed, which will also be discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Selectome, a database of positive selection (52640) Sébastien Moretti, Marc Robinson-Rechavi. UNIL DEE / SIB Swiss Institute of bioinformatics. Selectome (http://selectome.unil.ch/) is a database of positive selection, based on a branch-site likelihood test. This model estimates the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and synonymous substitutions (dS) to evaluate the variation in selective pressure (dN/dS ratio) over branches and over sites. Special care is taken to minimize false positives, with a thorough quality control procedure on multiple sequence alignments. The Web interface presents results mapped both onto phylogenetic trees and onto protein alignments. It allows rapid access to results by keyword, gene name, gene ontology term, or taxonomy based queries. Selectome covers most gene trees from vertebrates and Drosophila. Proux et al 2009 Nucl. Acids Res. 37: D404-D407 Moretti et al 2014 Nucl. Acids Res. 42: D917-D921 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Bgee, a database for the study of gene expression evolution (52639) Frederic B Bastian, Anne Niknejad, Julien Roux, Marta Rosikiewicz, Sebastien Moretti, Marc Robinson-Rechavi. University of Lausanne; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Gene expression patterns (where and when genes are expressed) are a key feature in understanding gene function and evolution. To apply compare results between different model organisms and human, or to study gene expression evolution, a comparative approach must be used, but no tools allow to easily compare gene expression across species. We have thus developed Bgee (Base for Gene Expression Evolution), a database designed to automatically compare expression patterns between animals. This is achieved by i) the aggregation and curation of expression data from different types and sources, to map them to formal representations of anatomies and developments of different species; Bgee release 13 contains curated and quality controlled data for RNA-seq libraries, Affymetrix chips, EST libraries and in situ hybridizations. ii) The analysis of these data by dedicated statistical tests to define high confidence gene expression patterns. iii) The definition of comparison criteria between anatomies of different species; Bgee curators have designed hom*ology relationships between across all Bilateria, which are integrated into the multi-species anatomical ontology Uberon. Bgee 13 includes 17 species, with a focus on vertebrates, but also D. melanogaster

and C. elegans. Bgee is available at: http://bgee.org/ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

An experiment in the wild to test if stickleback males adapt their colour to the ambient light environment (52624) Thor Veen, Chad Brock, Diana Rennison, Dan Bolnick. University of Texas at Austin; University of British Columbia. Many organism show spatial variation in phenotypic traits correlated with environmental characteristics, some on very small scales. For example colouration of nesting male threespined stickleback consistently varies with the ambient light along a two-meter depth gradient in multiple populations. An earlier experiment showed that male colour changed predictably after nesting males were transplanted to either deep or shallow enclosures. We set out to test the hypothesis that change in male colour is driven by changes in the ambient light environment. This change is predicted because different colours are required at different depths to maximize contrast (and hence visibility to females). 40 cages were constructed in shallow parts of a freshwater lake in British Columbia and divided into light treatment pairs. Two natural light environments were mimicked by wrapping sheets of light filter around and over each cage, this changed the sunlight to represent the sidewelling irradiance at a depth of 0.5 m and 1.8 m, respectively. To assess the magnitude of the colour adaptation we measured the change of male colouration between the start of the experiment (which depends on natural nesting depth) and the end, and the colour differences between males of the two treatment groups. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

THREE-DIMENSIONAL POST-GLACIAL EXPANSION AND DIVERSIFICATION OF AN EXPLOITED OCEANIC FISH (52603) Peter Shum, Christophe Pampoulie, Ronald Douglas, Rachel Brenchley, Kristján Kristinsson, Stefano Mariani. School of Environment & Life Sciences, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, UK; Marine Research Institute, Skúlagata 4, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland; Department of Optometry and Visual Science, The City University, London EClV 7DD, U.K.. Despite the striking physical and environmental gradients associated with depth variation in the oceans, relatively little is known about their impact on population diversification, adaptation and speciation. The pelagic redfish, Sebastes mentella, exhibits depth-associated patterns of substructure in the central North Atlantic, with a widely distributed shallowpelagic population inhabiting waters between 250 and 550m depth and a deep-pelagic population dwelling between 550 and 800m.

By sequencing and genotyping S. mentella samples caught between 2006 and 2013, at different depths, across the North Atlantic, we show the existence of two strongly divergent evolutionary lineages, with significantly different distribution patterns and dwelling at different depth layers. We then carried out de novo RNA-seq of retina transcriptome from a subset of “shallow” and “deep” individuals, in order to characterise differential expression and polymorphisms of candidate genes involved in sensory reception in organisms adapted to different depths. Overall, we cast new light on the role of depth in generating biodiversity in the oceans, and consider the practical implications of such findings. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

From positive selection in songbird MHC genes to binding properties of songbird MHC proteins. (52591) Helena Westerdahl, Elna Follin, Michael Rasmusson, Soren Buus, Maria Strandh, Morten Nielsen, Kajsa Paulsson. Biology, Lund; Experimental Medical Science, Lund; Experimental Immunology, Denmark; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Denmark. Hosts cannot predict which pathogens they may encounter in the future but vertebrates have evolved an adaptive immune system that can handle an enormous variety of pathogens. This pathogen recognition is created by random by somatic recombination in B- and T-cell receptors, uniquely so in every individual. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules then enable immunological tolerance so that only ‘non-self’ cells are attacked. MHC genes are highly polymorphic and a classical example of genes subjected to balancing selection. However, to understand the standing genetic variation in host MHC genes the functional aspect, binding properties of MHC molecules, must be considered. Most songbirds have a larger number of MHC genes than other animals: What is the functional relevance of all these gene copies? Does it give songbirds an advantage in handling pathogens? We have taken a functional approach to determine binding properties of songbird MHC molecules and compared them with human MHC molecules. Using two recombinant songbird MHC proteins we were able to generate unique peptide-binding motifs. The preferred peptide length was similar to human MHC molecules though the binding repertoires of songbird MHC molecules were quite different, suggesting that we cannot extrapolate binding repertoires across very distantly related species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Ecologically driven divergence between multiple populations of the marine snail Littorina fabalis (52583) Rui Faria, João Carvalho, Juan Galindo, Graciela Sotelo, Diana Costa. CIBIO/InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Univ. Porto, Portugal ; Depart. de Bioquímica, Xenética e Inmunoloxia, Facultade de Bioloxía,

Universidade de Vigo, Spain; IBE, Institute of Evolutionary Biology (UPF-CSIC), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Barcelona, Spain. Speciation is often a continuous process, with different mechanisms interacting during the buildup of barriers to gene flow. It is well established that ecology can play a critical role in population divergence and ultimately in speciation. Nonetheless, our understanding of how it occurs is still scarce. Characterized by abrupt changes in the environmental conditions over a narrow spatial scale, the marine intertidal is an ideal system to provide valuable insights into ecological speciation. We focus on ecotypes of the flat periwinkle Littorina fabalis from the NE Atlantic to explore to what extent adaptation and genetic divergence are promoted by contrasting wave exposure intensities and other associated factors. We analysed phenotypic differentiation (shell morphology) using geometric-morphometrics, and performed a genomic scan based on AFLPs to estimate divergence between sheltered and exposed populations at different geographic scales (1000 Km) and to identify putative loci under disruptive selection among ecotypes in a repetitive manner along the species range. Some overlap between outliers was observed at both scales, even among populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Scandinavia.Various hypotheses to explain this pattern will be discussed to shed light on how repeatable (parallel) is divergent evolution in L. fabalis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

An unexpected oviposition preference of the common bush brown (Bicyclus safitza) may help to explain butterfly-host plant coevolution (52556) Ossi Nokelainen, Brad Ripley, Colin Osborne, Erik van Bergen, Paul Brakefield. University of Cambridge; Rhodes University; University of Sheffield. Butterfly oviposition behaviour is a crucial determinant of offspring success. Thus, the decision about choice of substrate on which a female lays an egg will strongly determine the hatching larva’s chance of establishment on a food plant. The oviposition decision often follows female scouting in suitable habitat and localisation of a host plant. Individual data on variation in female preference and its consequences for hatchlings, however, remain scarce. We examined oviposition behaviour of the common bush brown (Bicyclus safitza) on ecologically relevant host plants in South Africa. Specifically, we studied whether individual female butterflies preferred species of local grasses with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathway and that grow in open or shaded habitats. We predicted that C3 grasses would be preferred over C4 grasses due to a generally higher palatability, and shade grasses over open grasses, as the butterfly is typically associated with shaded-habitats. We found a strong interaction between habitat and photosynthetic pathway of the plants. Unexpectedly, females preferred C4 shade grasses, followed by C3 shade over C3 open grasses; they particularly tended to avoid C4 grasses from open habitats. We discuss this pattern of oviposition behaviour in relation to how it relates to co-evolutionary relationships in plant-herbivore interactions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Reconstructing metal specificity-evolution in ribonucleotide reductases (52526) Daniel Lundin, Gustav Berggren, Britt-Marie Sjöberg. Stockholm University. The radical generating subunit (NrdB) of class I ribonucleotide reductases typically harbours a diiron site that is able to initiate a radical on a neighbouring tyrosine residue. In the subclass Ic, the tyrosine is replaced by a phenylalanine and the the relevant metal centre is a heterodinuclear iron/manganese centre. Metal specificity in subclass Ic is high, with manganese occupying site 1 and iron occupying site 2 almost exclusively. How the specificity is achieved remains an enigma since the metal-binding site is very similar between diiron and iron/manganese enzymes. Mutagenesis of metal ligands and residues in their vicinity aiming to turn an iron/manganese enzyme to a diiron has not been able to resurrect diiron specificity, suggesting that substitutions in other parts of the protein play a role in selectivity. We have phylogenetically identified a group of diiron NrdBs closely related to the iron/manganese enzymes. This provides us with the opportunity to complement earlier mutagenesis experiments with experiments going in the other direction, trying to convert a diiron enzyme to an iron/manganese one, and to reconstruct ancestral enzymes. Here, we report preliminary data on resurrected proteins as well as a structural analysis of important substitutions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in great tit* (52520) Antica Culina, Ben Sheldon, Camilla Hinde, Reinder Radersma. Oxfrod University; Wageningen University; Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK. Suboptimal partnerships can appear when the initial mate choice was constrained by the social environment. To correct for such suboptimal partnerships, individuals of socially monogamous species may adopt secondary mating strategies (infidelity and divorce). In this study we aim to better understand the influence of the social environment in which a pair has formed on later divorce. Using detailed data on social networks of tagged Great tit* over four winters we found that males with a higher proportion of female associates, and males whose partner ranked lower amongst these, were more likely to divorce after breeding. We found no evidence that a female’s social environment influenced divorce probability. Our study demonstrates that divorce in monogamous species might not only be affected by the social environment to which existing pairs are exposed, but also by the social environment in which pairs have formed (and which is likely to constrain the initial choice). Second, our results indicate that this might be more driven by the male’s social environment and preference for a partner. Further exploration of these carry-over effects of the social environment, and how they differ between sexes, may give new valuable insights into processes of mate choice, population dynamics, and sexual selection.

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The consequences of mating system and population dynamics on genome evolution: a comparative study of inbreeding and outcrossing sister species of the spider genus Stegodyphus (52483) Virginia Settepani, Jesper Bechsgaard, Mads F. Schou, Michelle Greve, Lena Grinsted, Trine Bilde. Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University; Department of Plant Science, University of Pretoria; School of Life Sciences, University of sussex. Regular inbreeding results in reduced effective population size, which reinforces genetic drift and accelerates loss of genetic diversity. These processes act to decrease the efficacy of selection causing a build-up of the genetic load, ultimately impairing the potential of populations to respond to environmental change. Social spiders live in communal nests where they cooperate in prey capture and brood care. Phylogenetic analyses show multiple independent origins of sociality from solitary ancestors, and the transition to permanent group living is associated with a strictly inbreeding mating system. Furthermore, strong metapopulation dynamics of social spiders and frequent extinction events acts to hom*ogenise genetic structure. We performed RAD-sequencing in a comparative population genomic approach to examine the effects of inbreeding and outcrossing mating systems on genetic diversity, population structure, and genome evolution. We included independent sister species pairs of social inbreeding and solitary outcrossing spiders of the genus Stegodyphus that were extensively sampled over a large geographical range. This approach provides extraordinary high power to gain insights into the consequences of mating system and population dynamics on genome evolution in non-model wild species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Can fluctuating selection explain levels of variation in natural populations? (52478) Sebastian Novak, Srdjan Sarikas, Nick Barton. IST Austria. Natural environments are never constant but vary in time and space. Furthermore, from the point of view of a single locus, there is background selection on multiple other loci, possibly for a plethora of traits that are influenced pleiotropically. To what extent can this combination of external and internal factors be described by a scheme of randomly fluctuating selection? What pattern of fluctuations can we expect to be experienced by a single locus? Continuing from there, we can venture forth trying to explain the observed levels of variation in natural populations that could so far not be reproduced convincingly by quantitative trait models of constant selection. Can fluctuating selection models unveil the missing variability?

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Speciation history of Atlantic eels and its genomic footprints (52477) Magnus W. Jacobsen, José Martin Pujolar, Shenglin Liu, Kasper Munch, Louis Bernatchez, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, José Victor Moreno-Mayar, Thomas D. Als, Michael M. Hansen. Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University ; Bioinformatics Research Centre (BiRC), Aarhus University; Département de Biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Laval University ; Centre of Geogenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen; Department of Biomedicine - Human Genetics, Aarhus University. Speciation-with-gene flow scenarios are increasingly appreciated. Yet, the specific processes and the resulting genomic footprints of selection are subject to much discussion. To elucidate the genomic mechanisms underlying speciation-with-gene flow, accurate knowledge is needed, not only of the genomic patterns of selection but also the demographic history of the species. Here we present the results of several studies on the European and American eel (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata), two panmictic and sympatrically spawning sister-species. Hybrids are known to occur and low but biologically significant gene flow takes place. We employed mitogenome sequencing of 106 individuals in order to test hypotheses about the demographic processes linked to their speciation, including divergence time and the possibility of allopatric periods during the speciation process. Furthermore, RAD sequencing of 60 individuals and alignment of reads to the European eel draft genome was used for analyzing genome-wide linkage disequilibrium, genomic footprints of diversifying selection, divergence time and demographic history. Our results demonstrate that demography has a major effect on genomic footprints. Very high effective population sizes of the two species lead to minimal background genetic differentiation, interrupted by numerous smaller regions of strong differentiation that mark interspecific diversifying selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Landscape genomics of oaks (Quercus spp.): Adaptive genetic variation in candidate genes in respect to present and future climatic conditions (52457) Christian Rellstab, Lorenz Walthert, Christoph Sperisen, Catherine Bodénès, Isabelle Lésur, Andrea R. Pluess, Antoine Kremer, Felix Gugerli. WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute, Birmensdorf, Switzerland; INRA Pierroton, Cestas, France; University of Bordeaux, Pessac, France; HelixVenture, Mérignac, France; ETH, Zürich, Switzerland. Testing whether and how populations are adapted to their local environment, and predicting their response to future habitat alterations is of key importance in the face of climate change. A powerful approach to investigate such processes is landscape genomics, which identifies genes and environmental factors involved in local adaptation. We investigated whether the three common oak species in Switzerland (Quercus petraea, Q. pubescens, Q. robur) are

adapted to their present and future environmental conditions. In a pooled amplicon sequencing approach of 95 genes in 71 oak populations, we identified over 3'500 SNPs, many being private to populations and species. We tested if these SNPs show an association to abiotic factors related to local topography, climate and soil. We found genes that are putatively involved in adaptation to the present environment and tested whether these loci were congruent among all species and defined seed zones. We then used allele frequency distributions of candidate SNPs along environmental gradients to test the adaptedness of populations and species for simulated future climatic conditions. Our results help assessing the classification scheme of the seed zones in an evolutionary perspective, since afforestations that intend matching future environmental conditions are likely to increase in the future. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic response to rapid convergent evolution in wild crickets (52456) Sonia Pascoal, Timothee Cezard, Xuan Liu, Karim Gharbi, Urmi Trivedi, Sam Haldenby, Marlene Zuk, Michael G. Ritchie, Nathan W. Bailey. University of St Andrews; University of Edinburgh; University of Liverpool; University of Minnesota. The initial stages of convergence provide insight into the genomic dynamics of adaptive evolution in the wild. A rapidly-evolving mutation, flatwing, silences male crickets in Hawaii by altering their wings, but it persists because of natural selection arising from an acoustically-orienting parasitoid fly. Despite appearing only a decade ago, silent males now occur on two islands and have distinct forms on each. Mutants on Kauai have wings that are almost completely feminized, whereas Oahu flatwings retain a larger portion of the secondary wing venation typical of normal males. Nevertheless, both are silent and share the same mode of inheritance, i.e. the phenotype segregates as a sex-linked, sex-limited Mendelian trait in both populations. I will present results from a combination of complementation crosses and Bulk Segregant Analysis using RAD-markers to provide evidence that the male-silencing wing morph has arisen twice, independently, on different islands, but spread under similar selection. Furthermore, I will illustrate how gene expression profiling using RNA-seq along with RAD-mapping and QTL analysis elucidates the early genome response to this dramatic recent wing adaptation and associated effects of its spread. The results provide unprecedented insights into the adaptive evolution of convergent phenotypes, in real time, in the wild. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The Evolution and Divergence of the Special Homeobox Genes in Pararge aegeria (52454) Luca Livraghi, Peter W. Holland, Leonardo Dapporto, Roger Vila, Melanie Gibbs, Casper J. Breuker.

Oxford Brookes University; Zoology Department, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford UK; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37, Barcelona Spain; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Benson Ln, Wallingford UK. Paralogs arise through gene duplications and their subsequent divergence provides the raw material for functional innovation. Although this has been inferred from studies on interspecific sequence variation in paralogs, not much is known about standing intraspecific paralog variation and associated phenotypic variability. Paralogs in the Hox cluster are rare, but the so called paralogy group 3 (PG3) has undergone independent tandem duplications in several insect clades. Within the ditrysia, a derived clade of the Lepidoptera, duplications in the ancestral PG3 gene zerknüllt (zen) resulted in 4 so-called special homeobox genes (Shx). It has recently been shown that there is significant interspecific variation in these Shx paralogous genes. Sequencing of the Shx genes within my model species, the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria, has revealed that although intraspecific variation is lower than interspecific variation, it is very high for a Hox (-derived) gene. To investigate this in more depth, I sequenced the four Shx genes, zen, wingless and the cytochrome oxidase I subunit in 25 populations of P. aegeria spanning from N. Africa to Scandinavia. Preliminary results show the presence of population specific variants, even within the highly conserved homeobox region of one of the Shx paralogs. This suggests possible local adaptation events in response to different selection pressures. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Local adaptation of reproductive traits (52433) Charlotta Kvarnemo, Erica Leder, Jonathan Havenhand, Kai Lindström, Topi Lehtonen, Ola Svensson. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Finland. The distribution of animals is not only determined by which environment adults can tolerate, but in which environment they can reproduce. Based on experiments on the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus aimed at understanding local adaptation of reproductive traits, we found that males have difficulties to reproduce outside their native salinity. This is likely to be caused by local adaptation of their gametes, as our study using sperm from males that originate from high vs. low salinity areas, shows that sperm perform poorly in non-native salinity. The two salinities also differ regarding risk of fungus infection of eggs, affecting both paternal care and mate choice behaviours. We also investigated protein and mRNA expression in testes, and found differences in both, when comparing pairs of males of high and low salinity origin. We argue that reproductive traits per se are under divergent selection and that non-random mating and reduced gene flow arise as a bi-product. This is important because local adaptation – and in its extension speciation – can only evolve if the strength of selection overrides the effect of gene flow. Our studies provide new insights into the evolutionary processes and the mechanisms behind geographic distributions of species. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - POL 300

Adaptive genetic diversity of Apis mellifera populations using whole-genome sequence data (52425) Melanie Parejo, Peter Neumann, Laurent Gauthier, Markus Neuditschko. Institute of Bee Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern; Swiss Bee Research Center, Agroscope. The original distribution of the honey bee Apis mellifera ranges from Europe, Africa and the Middle East, encompassing a large native range with diverse environmental conditions. There are >29 Apis mellifera subspecies differing in phenotypic traits such as morphology, behavior and resistance to disease and which cluster into four major geographically and genetically different lineages. This evolutionary history offers a great model system to study molecular diversity of local adaptions in geographic range expansions. The native honey bee of Northern Europe A. m. mellifera is adapted to short foraging seasons and comparatively long winters through, for instance, the ability to form winter clusters. Global trade of this important pollinator for commercial operations in combination with the particular polyandrous mating system pose a risk on the genetic integrity of locally adapted ecotypes through introgression, potentially resulting in the loss of valuable local adaptations shaped by natural selection. We will present insights into the adaptive genetic diversity of Swiss A. mellifera populations from different lineages by comparing neutral vs. adaptive molecular markers inferred from whole-genome next-generation sequencing data. A special focus will be given on the diversity and conservation of the native European subspecies A. m. mellifera. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

How to estimate selection from evolve and resequence experiments (52418) Katarina Bodova, Srdjan Sarikas, Nick Barton. IST Austria. With more data available from evolution experiments on sexual populations in the laboratory, it is now plausible to detect candidates for selected regions in the genome. This, however, brings several challenges. First, it is difficult to distinguish effects of random drift from selection: many candidates may be false positives. Second, various patterns of selection may act, and it is useful to know which properties of selection can be inferred in general. Third, recombination and epistasis influence evolution, and further distort effects of selection. We address the above challenges and provide insight into how to efficiently design an evolutionary experiment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genetic basis of eye and face shape differences in Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila simulans (52353) Michaela Holzem, Kentaro M. Tanaka, David L. Stern, Maria D. S. Nunes, Alistair P. McGregor. University of Konstanz; Oxford Brookes University; Princeton University. Differences in head shape between closely related Drosophila subgroups were often described. Still underlying genetic differences in evolution of organ size and shape involved in head development remain unclear. Head shape is mostly maintained by the negative correlated shape and size of compound eyes and face width. The occurrence of heritable variation suggests it might be possible to map underlying genes. We selected extreme backcross individuals of “eye-face trade-off” distribution and performed multiplexed shotgun genotyping. QTL analysis of this data suggested a QTL for shape difference between D. simulans and D. mauritiana at 11.5 Mb on chromosome 3L. To validate the QTL position and narrow down the mapped region we performed independent introgressions of this region from D. mauritiana into D. simulans and further analysed those using geometric morphometrics. We found two regions for face and one for eye shape, this one detected directly at 11.5 Mb. Thus, it was possible to narrow the QTL down and proof that the position at 11.5 Mb is responsible for shape differences between the strains. These regions will be analysed for interesting genes involved in development of eye and face. Overall, this will lead to better understanding of evolutionary and developmental differences in head shape formation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genome-wide genetic variation in populations of Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis across their distributional ranges (52351) Irina Smolina, Marvin Choquet, Martina Kopp, Ann Bucklin, Janne Søreide, Galice Hoarau . University of Nordland; University of Connecticut; The University Centre in Svalbard. Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis are the keystone zooplankton species in subarctic and arctic marine food webs respectively. However, as a response to ocean warming, C. finmarchicus is showing a consistent northward shift increasing the competition with C. glacialis that may influence the arctic ecosystems. To understand the ecological and evolutionary potential and functioning of the two species, an ocean-basin-scale analysis of C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis is required. Genome-wide genetic variation was accessed from 10 locations per species encompassing their whole distributional range. Forty females of genetically identified C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis per location were pooled equally and sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD)sequencing. SNPs were used to assess genetic differentiation between species populations and possible adaptive polymorphisms across environmental conditions of species distribution. We compared both species in terms of population genetic structure and genetic diversity. The whole transcriptome profiling of both species under thermal stresses was also used to investigate their acclimatory potential to ocean warming.

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Parallel or convergent evolution in human population genomic data revealed by genotype networks (52346) Ali R. Vahdati, Andreas Wagner. University of Zurich. A genotype network is a graph whose nodes are genotypes (DNA sequences) with the same broadly defined phenotype. Two nodes are connected if they differ in some minimal way, e.g., in a single nucleotide. Here we analyze human genome variation data from the 1000 genomes project, and construct haploid genotype (haplotype) networks for 12235 protein coding genes. The structure of these networks varies widely among genes, indicating different patterns of variation despite their shared evolutionary history. We focus on those genes whose genotype networks show many cycles, which can indicate hom*oplasy, i.e., parallel or convergent evolution, on the sequence level. We show that in 47 genes the observed number of cycles is so large that it cannot be explained by either chance hom*oplasy or recombination. In some of these 47 genes, positive or balancing selection may be responsible for the great abundance of cycles. Genotype networks are representations of genetic variation data that facilitate analyzing unusual patterns of inheritance or variation not easily captured in phylogenetic trees. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Long-term fitness consequences of a prenatal maternal effect and their impacts on evolutionary dynamics (52328) Joel Luke Pick, Barbara Tschirren. Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies. The prenatal environment can have important and long-lasting consequences on offspring morphology, physiology, behaviour, and ultimately fitness. Mothers are in a unique place to alter this environment and so the future phenotype of their offspring, through a process known as maternal effects. Although theoretical work has shown that maternal effects may play an important role in influencing evolutionary dynamics, by affecting how traits respond to selection, there is a lack of empirical work supporting these models. In birds, many of these prenatal maternal effects are mediated through differential allocation of resources into the egg. Despite a considerable amount of data showing investment into the egg has large consequences on early life traits, there is only equivocal evidence of long term effects, and in particular on reproductive performance. Through the use of repeated divergent selection lines for prenatal maternal investment, we investigate how egg size influences both body size and reproductive investment of the offspring. We show that egg size has pronounced effects on

offspring phenotype throughout it's life, most notably on egg size itself. This has important consequences for the strength and predictability with which egg size can respond to selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolution of dominance in trait under balancing selection: polymorphic mimicry as a case-study (52323) Violaine Llaurens, Yann Le Poul, Monica Arias, Mathieu Chouteau, Sylvain Billiard, Mathieu Joron. CNRS - National Museum of Natural History; University of Lille 1. Spatial heterogeneity promote fixation of locally adaptive alleles but can lead to the persistence of polymorphism within population depending on migration. Such balancing selection might shape the genetic architecture of adaptive trait. Since heterozygotes are frequent in such polymorphic loci, dominance among adaptive alleles can evolve in response to natural selection. Here we used the evolutionary convergence of warning signal in toxic species, i.e. Müllerian mimicry, as an example of local selection. Most species involved in Müllerian mimicry display a single warning signal within population because of selection exerted by predators, fixing the most common signal. However, in the toxic butterfly Heliconius numata, several warning patterns are maintained within localities, and each display high resemblance with distasteful species from different communities. These variations in warning pattern are controlled by a supergene in which each allele encodes for a different mimetic pattern. Heterozygotes might display an intermediate, non-mimetic phenotype, depending on the dominance among alleles. Using experiment in natural populations, we showed a significant selection acting on dominance. We then performed theoretical simulations describing the condition of invasion of dominance modifiers. Finally, we investigated variations of dominance in natural populations to understand the molecular mechanisms shaping dominance in polymorphic adaptive loci. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Heterozygote deficit through time in a gene (MC1R) encoding melanin-based color morphs involved in predator-prey relationships (52291) Valérie Ducret, Jérôme Goudet, Alexandre Roulin. Department of ecology and evolution, university of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Despite numerous theoretical and empirical studies on geographic phenotypic variation, the relative contribution of selection and gene flow in shaping clines remains largely unknown. In this context, the barn owl (Tyto alba) is a promising study system because its coloration varies clinally with owls being white in southern Europe and darker reddish towards north-eastern Europe, a cline maintained by natural selection. Pheomelanin-based reddish coloration is explained by a mutation of the MC1R gene and its frequency increases from 0.9% in southern

Europe to 60.3% in north-eastern Europe. We studied a Swiss population located in the centre of the pronounced color cline and hence should undergo gene flow from southern and northern owls. Using 10 microsatellite markers we tested for non-random departure from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) of the MC1R gene during a period of 15 years. We found a deficit of MC1R heterozygotes through time for cohorts but no deviation in neutral genetic markers. In-depth analyses show that temporal variation in assortative mating and transmission ratio distortion are responsible for this deficit. This study highlights the importance of considering populations along phenotypic clines to understand the evolution of phenotypic diversity and its role in reproduction isolation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Environment-dependent patterns of phenotypic integration in Aleppo pine. (52267) José Climent, Jordi Voltas, Rafael Zas, Ruth Martín-Sanz, Pitter Ferrio, Eduardo Notivol, Luis Sampedro. Forest Research Centre-INIA; Univ. of Lleida; UMG-CSIC; CITA. Global Change imposes new challenges to many ecosystems, and among these Mediterranean forests are particularly sensitive due to combined drought, wildfires and biotic stressors. Mediterranean forest populations are expected to harbour high adaptive genetic diversity, but we know too little on their ability to respond to multiple challenges. Precisely, life history theory postulates that adaptive evolution implies optimizing resource investment to growth and maintenance, reproduction and defence to maximize fitness under a given environment. Our objectives were first, to determine the genetic differentiation among populations in key adaptive traits considering their correlations and second, to confirm differences in key tradeoffs among a high-stress and a low- stress environment. We measured a wide set of traits in a replicated common garden of Pinus halepensis at two sites. Traits related to growth and maintenance, reproduction, constitutive and induced defences and water and carbon acquisition and storage. While population differentiation was significant for most traits, differences were environment-specific. As expected, key trade-offs were neatly different among the two sites indicating differently plastic strategies of resource usage. These findings may improve our understanding of the real adaptive value of a single trait and how resource shortening can modify it in long-lived woody plants. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Environment-dependent sexual selection: Bateman’s parameters under varying levels of food availability (52265) Elodie Chapuis, Patrice David, Tim Janicke. IRD; CNRS.

Sexual selection is considered as a potent evolutionary force that has been shown to vary in strength and direction depending on demographic factors such as density and sex ratio. However, the effect of other environmental factors on the mode of sexual selection remains largely unexplored. Here we tested experimentally how food restriction affects the potential for sexual selection in the male and female sex function of the simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail Physa acuta. We manipulated food availability and compared Bateman’s metrics of sexual selection between groups of five well-fed and five food-restricted snails. Our results indicate that food-restricted snails had a reduced female reproductive output suggesting that we successfully manipulated the reproductive resources. Importantly, food restriction reduced the male opportunity for sexual selection (in terms of a lowered variance in male mating success) and lead to diminishing returns of mating in both sexes (in terms of non-significant Bateman gradients). Furthermore, we observed significant changes in the relative contribution of different fitness components suggesting stronger post-copulatory selection in the male and stronger fecundity selection in the female sex role under restricted food conditions. This study highlights the need to incorporate ecological factors to better understand how sexual selection operates in the wild. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Searching for signatures of selection in Iberian honey bee (Apis mellifera iberiensis) using whole genome sequences (52236) Dora Sofia Martins Henriques, Andreas Wallberg, Chavéz-Galarza Julio, Costa F., Rufino José, Webster Mathew, Pinto M.Alice. Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança; Centro de Biologia Molecular e Ambiental (CBMA), Universidade do Minho; Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University; Instituto Politécnico de Bragança; Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas, Campus de Gualtar. The Iberian Peninsula comprises a diverse set of habitats. It was an important glacial refugium during the Pleistocene and has served as a bridge for populations migrating between Africa and Europe, resulting in a complex mix of ancestry and diversity. The Iberian honey bee (A. m. iberiensis) is no exception and has been the subject of numerous incongruent population genetic surveys. Recent mtDNA and SNP analyses indicate a steep northeastern-southwestern cline of African ancestry along the peninsula, which has been explained by selection. Advances in DNA sequencing technology and computational tools provide unprecedented opportunities to study demography, search for signatures of selection across the genome and illuminate its role in shaping genomic diversity. We used Illumina technology to sequence the whole genomes of 86 Iberian honeybees, collected across three longitudinal transects in the Iberian Peninsula and spanning semi-arid climates in the southeastern peninsula to oceanic in the North-West. The dataset was first analyzed for FST-outliers, CLR (composite-likelihood ratio) and EHH (Extended Haplotype hom*ozygosity) methods were further deployed to evaluate polymorphisms implicated in local adaptation and possibly in the response to humanmediated environmental changes, including known and novel variants in genes related to behavior, vision, xenobiotic detoxification and immune response.

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The evolutionary challenge of climate change : adaptive processes in the Mediterranean red coral (52229) Marine Pratlong, Anne Haguenauer, Olivier Chabrol, Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Aurelle. Aix Marseille Université, CNRS IMBE UMR 7263, IRD UMR 237 Station Marine d'Endoume; Aix Marseille Université, CNRS UMR 7373, I2M Équipe Evolution Biologique et Modélisation. The on-going climate change should have major impacts on the different components of biodiversity, from genes to ecosystems. Mediterranean marine species are already suffering from climate change, as shown by mortality events linked with thermal anomalies. These events hightlighted a diversity of thermotolerance levels in the temperate red coral (Corallium rubrum). The main objective of this work was to understand the origin of these differences and to search for local adaptation of the red coral to thermal conditions. This species is present in very contrasted ecological conditions which correspond to genetically differentiated populations. Moreover, colonies from different regions, depths but also from the same site present thermotolerance differences. These differences might be linked to the individual history through acclimatization or to population level through genetic adaptation. Two complementary approaches were developed to study these mechanisms: i. Transcriptomic (gene expression and polymorphism) basis of thermotolerance differences. ii. Genomic study of local adaptation. We looked for genetic-environment associations through the identification of outlier loci with particular patterns of genetic differentiation using RAD-sequencing (Restriction site Associated DNA sequencing). For this purpose we chose to compare populations from above the thermocline which deal with high thermal variations to population from a more thermal stable zone below the thermocline. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Harvest induced phenotypic selection in an island moose Alces alces population (52227) Thomas Kvalnes, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Hallvard Haanes, Steinar Engen, Erling J. Solberg. Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics (CBD), Dep. of Biology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås, Norway; Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics (CBD), Dep. of Mathematical Sciences, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim, Norway. Human exploitation has frequently led to evolutionary changes in wild populations. These changes are generally rapid and observable within ecological time scales, often within a few generations. Here we demonstrate selection for later birth dates in males and reduced yearling body mass in females induced by phenotype-based selective harvest in an moose population. We apply a recently developed framework combining population dynamics and quantitative

genetics theory to data from a 20-year study of a wild population, where genetic pedigrees has been established tracing back to founders. During the study birth date has advanced by 0.75 days per year for both sexes, while no significant changes has occurred in body mass. Both traits harboured significant additive genetic variance, with heritabilities of 11 % for body mass and 22 % for birth date, though the evolvability for body mass was only 0.16 %. Following standard quantitative genetics theory propagating uncertainty in estimates parameters we predicted a response to selection corresponding to the direction of observed changes for birth date. While body mass did not respond to selection during the study period the predicted phenotypic changes will generally not be fully transferred until lifetime reproduction is achieved. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Detection of locus under selection from temporal samples of partial-selfing populations (52220) Arnaud Becheler, Renaud Vitalis, Miguel Navascués. INRA, UMR CBGP Montpellier; IRD, UMR LEGS Gif-sut-Yvette. In a single isolated populations, allele frequencies will change through time subject to the processes of selection (acting on specific loci) and genetic drift (acting on the whole genome). Genetic data collected at different times can be used to make inferences on the effective population size (i.e. strength of drift) and to detect outlier loci, whose changes in allele frequencies are unlikely to be only the product of the inferred demography. However, the presence of self-fertilization may pose a problem for the detection of loci under selection. Selfing reduces the effective size of populations and the effective recombination among loci (promoting hitch-hiking). We investigated the effect of the presence of partial selfing reproduction in the power and false discovery rate for the detection of selected loci. In addition, we characterized the footprint of selection along the chromosome containing the selected site. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic changes during adaptation to a common environment in initially differentiated Drosophila subobscura populations (52205) Sofia G. Seabra, Inês Fragata, Pedro Simões, Gonçalo S. Faria, Marta A. Santos, Miguel Lopes-Cunha, Margarida Matos. CE3C - Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa. Real-time evolution studies of laboratory populations of Drosophila subobscura founded from wild collections in contrasting European latitudes have previously revealed fast convergence at phenotypic traits. In contrast, though there were also significant temporal changes in chromosomal inversion frequencies, populations remained differentiated across generations.

We are now performing genome-wide analysis in two foundations derived from the extremes of the European cline, characterizing both the initial genomic differentiation, as well as the temporal changes during laboratory adaptation. We also aim at characterizing genomic content within and outside inversions in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of inversions. Three different approaches for genome-wide analysis are taken: 1) Genome resequencing of pools of individuals (three replicates from each population) from four different generations; 2) Restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of individual larvae with known karyotype from two different generations; 3) Genome resequencing of pools of individuals of hom*okaryotypic lines for two chromosomal inversions in the O chromosome (OST and O3+4) to characterize SNP variation within and outside these inversions. The combination of these approaches will allow us to address the impact of history, chance and selection in genomic variation and evolution, and further the knowledge of the genomic impact of chromosomal inversions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Weak conservation of pathways in mouse and human aging tissues (52196) Andrea Komljenovic, Marc Robinson-Rechavi. Department of Ecology and Evolution; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland. Despite different experimental designs and different data available to study aging, the mechanisms of aging are still poorly understood. To tackle this, we are interested in evolutionarily conserved marks associated with aging that are different from those eventually specific to long lived species, such as human. We retrieved publicly available aging datasets diverse in species and tissues to analyze the gene expression differences during aging. Using modularization algorithm, we characterized co-modules showing the level of gene expression conservation between mouse and human tissues. Meta-analysis across different tissues in mouse and human shows overall down-regulation of age-related gene expression profiles. Since physiological changes that occur during aging in skeletal muscle and brain are striking, we identified the biological processes using gene set enrichment analysis and found that changes associated with age-related gene expression in skeletal muscle and brain are involved in the mitochondrion pathways and inflammatory response, respectively. However, there is a weak positive correlation between aging effects in the human and mouse brain, and in human and mouse skeletal muscle. The co-module identification showed connection to immune response process in brain tissue between human and mouse. Our study provides a statistical framework for comparative analysis in aging across different species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Phenotypic population divergence of the common frog across an elevational gradient in the Swiss Alps (52184) Judith C. Bachmann, Josh Van Buskirk.

Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zürich. Species are distributed across varying environments which leads to variation in fitness and (genetic and phenotypic) divergence between populations, but all species ranges occur within limits. As populations along a species distribution encounter different habitats, natural selection should favor phenotypic traits beneficial in the local environment. Local adaptation is counteracted by gene flow reducing divergence among populations. Species distributions along an elevational gradient encounter environmental changes that happen on a small spatial scale compared to dispersal distances of many species. We study the elevational range of the common frog (Rana temporaria) in the Swiss Alps (200 m – 2775 m a.s.l.). Tadpoles from twelve populations from the elevational distribution were raised until metamorphosis in common conditions manipulating temperature and exposure to predation. Countergradient variation in development time and body mass was found. Populations diverge in larval lifehistory traits but not as strong as on the latitudinal gradient, suggesting that (potentially) high gene flow reduces phenotypic differentiation between populations. Future work will focus on limits to adaptation at the edge of the elevational distribution by genetic correlations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Analysis of mtDNA heteroplasmy in hermaphroditic mussels. First case of doubly uniparental inheritance without dioecy? (52163) Aleksandra Przyłucka, Beata Śmietanka, Marek Lubośny, Artur Burzyński. IO PAN. In bivalves having doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) males are heteroplasmic because they transmit one of their mtDNAs (M-type) to sons. Females have only one mtDNA (Ftype), inherited in a regular way. Evolution and mechanism of DUI, despite years of investigations, still remains unclear but it is believed, that it does not occur in hermaphrodites. Furthermore, it has been shown, that sex determination and mitochondrial inheritance are quite closely linked in some bivalves (Unionidae). The very taxonomic distribution of DUI across bivalves remains obscured, largely due to technical difficulties. To overcome these we applied a novel gonadal transcriptome screening approach in hope to easily identify candidate DUI species. The approach was rather successful and here we report, for the first time, a case of a hermaphroditic bivalve with two divergent mitochondrial genomes, indicative of a working DUI. The sequencing of gonadal transcriptomes revealed the presence of two sets of mitochondrial transcripts. Observed high sequence divergence as well as a distinct pattern of amplification from generative tissues tentatively confirm this as a DUI case. We believe that this discovery will require deep revision of our understanding of the relationship between DUI, sex determination and evolution of reproductive strategies, at least in bivalves. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Mussels from the Chilean Pacific coast: preliminary transcriptomic data (52155)

Marek Lubośny, Beata Śmietanka, Aleksandra Przyłucka, Artur Burzyński. Institute of oceanology PAN. Over the last 20 years, since sequencing of the first bacterial genome in 1995 through the sequencing of the first eukaryote in 1996, and human genome in 2001 till present day, sequencing research and technologies have made a great leap forward. It takes much less time, money and effort to obtain more, longer genomic sequences of higher quality. Organisms with sequenced genomes stand for only a very small percentage of all living beings on Earth. Most of currently available genome sequences (Ensembl database) comes from model organisms. However, much less data is available for marine organisms. In particular, there are only two genomes from phylum mollusca currently available in the database. In contrast to the costly genomic projects, RNA sequencing constitutes a viable alternative of obtaining large amounts of representative sequence data for a reasonable price. Here we present the results of a small transcriptomic survey performed on mussels from Chilean Pacific coast. Total RNA was isolated from generative tissues of several bivalves, subject to library construction and Miseq (Ilumina) sequencing. After assembly, the obtained contigs were analyzed using a set of bioinformatic tools. This gave us a first glimpse at the bivalvian transcriptome, illustrating the productivity of this approach. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

How much can History constrain adaptive evolution? The two sides of a story. (52153) Inês Fragata, Pedro Simões, Margarida Bárbaro, Bárbara Kellen, Josiane Santos, Marta A. Santos, Gonçalo S. Faria, Mauro Santos, Margarida Matos. CE3C - Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa; Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The ability to adapt to environmental changes is of utmost importance for species survival. Insights on the mechanisms and forces underlying this ability can be obtained from studying species that present a wide geographical distribution. However, few studies have examined how history affects the adaptive dynamics of such species, at several levels of organization. In order to test the impact of historical differentiation during adaptation, we followed the realtime evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic traits and chromosomal inversion frequencies in replicated Drosophila subobscura populations. These populations were derived from the 3 locations along the European latitudinal cline and introduced in a new (laboratorial) common environment. Initially populations were highly differentiated for all traits. However, pervasive phenotypic convergence was achieved after only few generations in the laboratory. A different story was told at the karyotypic level, with selection shaping the evolutionary dynamics of inversion frequencies, but doing so within the constraints imposed by previous history. The signature of history and its impact on the evolutionary dynamics may thus have different outcomes depending on the level of observation. Given that similar phenotypic optima were reached through different genetic routes, this suggests that history plays an important role but does not constrain adaptive evolution.

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MICROGEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN TROPICAL TREES: SELECTION SHAPES INTRA-POPULATIONAL DIVERGENCE AT HUNDREDS OF LOCI (52143) Louise Brousseau, Ivan Scotti. INRA - URFM; CNR - IBBR; INRA - ECOFOG. Tree species harbour high levels of within-population genetic diversity, generally explained away based on purely neutral processes. Nevertheless, within-population environmental gradients and mosaics and variable selective pressure suggest that part of the variation may be maintained by Darwinian processes. To test this hypothesis, we have analysed genome-wide patterns of polymorphism in two adult stands of the tropical tree, Eperua falcata Aubl. (Fabaceae), occupying areas where starkly contrasted habitats can coexist at very short distances. We have assembled a draft containing roughly one fourth of the total genome. After filtering for quality, approximately seventy-thousand SNP loci were retained for further analyses. One of us (LB) has developed a Bayesian framework to analyse population-specific and locus-specific divergence in nested sampling schemes and we have also applied Nielsen's (2009) G2D test to detect sequences under directional selection. Approximately 1% of the loci is subject to either stabilising or directional/divergent selection, which is probably an underestimate, because we partitioned our samples based on only one gradient. It is likely that the inclusion of other environmental axes will lead to the detection of further adaptive loci. These results are consistent with a substantial role of Darwinian selection in the shaping of within-population genetic diversity. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genome-wide screen for adaptive divergence between freshwater and brackish-water ecotypes of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) (52141) Stefan Dennenmoser, Arne W Nolte, Steven M Vamosi, Sean M Rogers. Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology; University of Calgary. Understanding the genomic basis of adaptive divergence in the presence of gene flow remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), high genetic connectivity exists among estuarine habitats of coastal rivers and nearby tributaries, but apparently does not preclude the emergence of genetically differentiated life history ecotypes. It is unclear whether this is driven by adaptive evolution. We predicted that adaptation to brackish-water and freshwater habitats manifests as increased genetic differentiation at candidate genes underlying salinity tolerance and osmoregulation in teleosts. The high similarity to the genome of the stickleback allowed us to approximate the position of Cottus genomic sequences along the stickleback chromosomes and to explore their gene content.

This permitted sequencing of genomic DNA pools representing two estuarine and two freshwater habitats in the lower Fraser River system (southwestern British Columbia, Canada) to explore genetic differentiation across the genome. Among 36 predicted candidate genes, sodium/potassium ATPase and Na+Cl- co-transporter showed strong signals of differentiation among habitats, indicating their potential role in local adaptation to different osmotic niches. Overall, the presence of both parallel and non-parallel signatures of differentiation across many loci scattered throughout the genome suggests polygenic adaptation that varies among local populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

How much is adaptive evolution contingent on space and time? A metaanalysis in Drosophila subobscura (52135) Pedro Simões, Inês Fragata, Sofia G. Seabra, Gonçalo S. Faria, Marta A. Santos, Margarida Matos. CE3C-FCUL. Environmental changes across space and time as well as stochastic events can shape genetic backgrounds and thus affect evolutionary responses and potential. Here we address experimentally these effects on the initial performance of populations and their evolutionary changes in fecundity, physiological traits and inversion polymorphisms during short-term adaptation to a new environment. We use two sets of two laboratory foundations of Drosophila subobscura, sampled 3 years apart, from the same contrasting European locations (Portugal vs. Netherlands). We found initial differentiation between foundations from different locations, consistent in both years, for most traits. Early differences between years were found only for age of first reproduction and male starvation resistance. Concerning the evolutionary rate, starvation resistance showed significant variation across locations and years. As for chromosomal inversion frequencies, these differed initially across locations but not years. Differences between locations remained significant after 6/8 generations. Inversion frequency changes during that period were minor. Altogether, our findings indicate that spatial rather than temporal variation in source natural populations is more likely to produce disparate starting points for evolution. Also, it seems that the evolution of traits more loosely related to fitness (e.g. starvation resistance) is more contingent on location and time of natural collections. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Latitudinal variation in temperature-stress resistance and tolerance in Arabidopsis lyrata (52133) Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi. University of Neuchâtel.

Numerous species tend to have distribution boundaries that coincide with thermal isoclines. What limits thermal adaptation? We hypothesized that resistance and tolerance to extreme temperatures cannot be maximized because of genetic trade-offs. We conducted an experiment on eight populations of Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal temperature gradient in North America and repeatedly exposed plants to either frost or heat stress. We measured resistance and tolerance to frost and heat using electrolyte leakage and growth data, respectively, and tested whether they (a) co-vary with latitude, (b) are genetically negatively correlated and (c) are costly. Plants from high latitude populations grew to a larger size and were more frost resistant, while those from low latitudes were more heat resistant and heat tolerant. Surprisingly, populations from the north were less frost tolerant, probably because frost tolerance was genetically correlated with small size. We found no indication that trade-offs between resistance and tolerance to the same or different thermal stresses limit adaptation to frost and heat. However, the results suggest that the cost of frost tolerance could be an important constraint to adaptation at the northern distribution boundary. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The role of sexual selection on a threshold trait in the black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica (52126) Juan Pablo Busso, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn. IEU- University of Zürich. Sexual selection is an important force shaping phenotypic diversity within a species and can ultimately contribute to the evolution of reproductive isolation and sympatric speciation. To analyze the divergent role of sexual selection we focused on Sepsis thoracica (Diptera: Sepsidae), a black scavenger fly that presents a sigmoid relationship between body size and coloration resulting in two condition dependent male morphs: a smaller black and a larger yellow morph. Competitive matings between the two morphs showed that copulation success was greater for larger black males and smaller yellow males. This special type of stabilizing sexual selection should result in a narrower distribution peaking at intermediate male sizes. However, S. thoracica presents a bimodal male size distribution with little overlap between morphs. Since there was no assortative mating within either morph, but there was assortative mating across morphs, this antagonistic selection could not only strengthen the sigmoid relationship between body size and coloration, but also lead to divergence between the morphs. Further experiments varying the strength of sexual selection (different sex ratios) should confirm its role on shaping the particular body size-coloration relationship in this species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Effects of temperature dependent survival during early development on adult fitness traits (52119) Martin A. Schäfer.

University of Zurich. Differential survival during early development may play an important, but neglected, role in shaping allelic variation encoding for traits exposed to natural or sexual selection at later life stages. Using a fine-grained temperature gradient at the upper margin of the thermal tolerance curve, I explored sex-specific selection during development in the dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria by comparing the size of non-hatched and hatched pupae. In female pupae and adult flies I further quantified the development of an additional, fourth spermatheca, which is rarely expressed in the field and entails fitness costs at the adult stage. Males had lower temperature-survival thresholds, but survival was not related to body size within both sexes, indicating no physiological costs of growing large in a species with male-biased size dimorphism. In females high temperatures induced the expression of the additional spermatheca as a correlated side effect of fast extrinsic (environmental) and/or intrinsic (genetic) growth. Interestingly, females that survived the pupal stage expressed the naturally rare phenotype more frequently, implying that antagonistic pleiotropy across developmental stages can contribute to the evolutionary diversification of female sperm storage morphology. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolution of canalization in gene regulatory networks (52110) Estelle Rünneburger. Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes, Comportement, Ecologie. The genetic architecture of complex traits involves numerous interacting genes as well as environmental effects. To study the influence of genetic architectures on the evolution of phenotypes and gene networks themselves, we surveyed through in-silico individual-based simulations how quantitative measurements of evolvability and robustness change in time under natural selection. Our main model features gene regulatory networks, in which the evolution of complex phenotypes (gene expression patterns) depends on the evolution of a regulation matrix. We also considered simpler alternative settings, such as the epistatic multilinear model. It is generally acknowledged that stabilizing selection tends to promote genetic canalization in epistatic architectures. We investigated the influence of various properties of gene networks on this evolution towards low evolvability, focusing on parameters related with the network topology (number of genes, connectivity, ...). Simulation results show that robustness to mutations tends to evolve faster in networks of intermediate complexity, suggesting that evolution of evolvability could be constrained by the size of the underlying gene networks. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology (52101) Tamar Friedlander, Avraham E. Mayo, Tsvi Tlusty, Uri Alon.

IST Austria; Weizmann Institute of Science; Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. The maximal compression possible determines the size of the narrowest part of the network - that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Geographically limited selection at the blood group-related gene B4galnt2 in house mice is associated with gastrointestinal pathogens (52095) Marie Vallier, Miriam Linnenbrink, Philip Rausch, Guntram Grassl, John Baines. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Ploen, Germany; Christian-AlbrechtsUniversity of Kiel, Germany. B4galnt2 is a blood group-related glycosyltransferase whose two murine alleles (driving gastrointestinal- and vascular expression) are maintained by balancing selection in house mice and their relatives. The vascular allele induces a defect in coagulation and subsequent bleeding phenotype, suggesting that this fitness cost may be offset by other unknown benefits. Interestingly, despite its overall long-term maintenance, the vascular allele is absent in wild mouse populations from Germany and Northeast France, but recently increased in Southwest France as evidenced by a partial selective sweep. This suggests that geographic-dependent selective forces may be operating. Given other examples of blood group-related glycosyltransferase variation in humans, we hypothesize that resistance to pathogen(s) may mediate selection operating on B4galnt2 over space and time. Indeed, experiments in lab mice show that the presence/absence of B4galnt2 expression in the gastrointestinal tract influences the response to Salmonella infection. By applying metagenomic approaches in a wild mouse population displaying evidence of recent selection (i.e. a partial selective sweep), we found that B4galnt2 genotype correlates with differences in intestinal inflammation and the presence of candidate pathogens that could drive selection at B4galnt2. We thus suggest the limited dispersal of pathogens to be a potentially potent source of variation in selection. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - POL 300

Opposite forces of selection modify local life history adaptations in insects (52084) Panu Välimäki, Netta Keret, Sami M. Kivelä, Markku Orell, Toomas Tammaru. University of Oulu; Stockholm University; University of Tartu. Increasing body size is favored by fecundity selection among income breeders. In seasonal environments, larval development time is a key life history trait because individuals have to reach a diapause stage before winter. Theory assumes that large size can be achieved only by a prolonged development time. This may hold true at the phenotypic level, but the evolutionary consequences lies in the genetic level. Genetic correlation of the traits may vary spatially depending on variance in growth rate. We studied quantitative genetics of development time and body size in a laboratory experiment in four latitudinal populations of Chiasmia clathrata (Geometridae). Development time and body size expressed high additive variance at national scale but not at local scale. In univoltines, development time was highly heritable, whereas body size appeared almost a fixed trait, the two being negatively correlated at the genetic level. In bivoltines, opposite pattern emerged but the traits were uncorrelated at the genetic level. This implies that fecundity selection is strong in less time-constrained univoltine populations. In the strongly time-constrained populations short development time is selected for instead. Either compensating (bivoltines) or over-compensating (univoltines) growth rate may break down development time vs. body size trade-off in an adaptive manner. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Spatial Variation in Natural Selection Determines Patterns of Divergence in an Adaptive Radiation (52057) Greg M Walter, Melanie Wilkinson, David Aquirre, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos. University of Queensland; Massey University. A group of organisms that colonise a heterogeneous landscape are exposed to spatial variation in natural selection, facilitating adaptation and diversification possibly leading to adaptive radiation. Divergence during adaptive radiation is potentially driven by adaptation and divergence at a local scale. Although studies of local adaptation are common, particularly in plants, few of them have addressed the role of natural selection in driving population and ecotypic divergence across multiple environments. Here, we use reciprocal transplant experiments of ecotypes and select hybrids to investigate how selection is currently shaping population and ecotype divergence in a widely distributed wildflower. Local populations performed better in their local environment and better than foreign ecotypes. Additionally, populations of the same ecotype exhibited some level of local adaptation themselves. The similarity of the environmental conditions between their native environment and the transplant environment determined the fitness of a population in any given locality. However, despite a strong signature of local adaptation F1 hybrids displayed heterosis while backcrosses and F2’s exhibited hybrid breakdown. We provide experimental evidence for

environmentally driven diversification that has resulted in local adaptation on a wide spatial and historical scale across contrasting environments. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Looking for Ecologically dependent reproductive barriers and intrinsic genetic incompatibility between ecotypes of Senecio lautus (52055) Tom Richards, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos, Katrina McGuigan. University of Queensland. Ecologically dependent reproductive isolation is a process fundamental to the model of ecological speciation, although evidence of it is relatively limited. A fundamental test is whether barriers to gene flow between divergent wild populations are due to intrinsic genetic incompatibilities or ecologically dependent fitness reductions in hybrids. Senecio lautus is a species complex where these predictions can be tested; there are several ecologically divergent ecotypes however they retain the ability to produce viable crosses when grown in a common environment. In this work, we use a field based reciprocal transplant experiment using parental and hybrid (F1, F2 & Backcross) genotypes from three coastal ecotypes of Senecio lautus to ascertain the relative importance of ecologically-dependent and intrinsicgenetic barriers to gene flow. We find that there is evidence for local adaptation, with reduced fitness seen in some hybrid genotypes and immigrant parentals, and that there is some ecological dependence, as fitness decreases proportionately with the presence of immigrant genes present in the cross. We find some evidence for ecologically dependent isolation, however, support is not as clear as theory would predict, suggesting the existence of other factors. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Divergent ecology causes within generation polygenic selection and ecotypic differences in American Eel (Anguilla rostrata). (52039) Louis Bernatchez, Scott Pavey, Jérémy Gaudin, Céline Audet. Université Laval; ISMER. The two primary ways that species cope with heterogeneous environments is through local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. American Eel presents a paradox; despite inhabiting drastically different environments, the species is panmictic and long-term local adaptation is impossible. All spawning takes place in the southern Sargasso Sea. Then, the planktonic larvae disperse to rearing locations from Cuba to Greenland and juveniles colonize either freshwater or brackish/saltwater habitats, where they spend 3-25 years before returning to the Sargasso Sea to spawn as a panmictic species. Depending onrearing habitat, individuals exhibit drastically different phenotypes. The hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity alone can account for the differences has been disproven. In this study, we present a genome-wide

association study that demonstrates a genetic basis for the drastic phenotypic differences that is the likely result of within-generation selection. We found that 331 loci out of 42,424 initially considered were most associated with the divergent ecotypes. These 331 loci are within 101 genes that represent vascular and morphological development, calcium ion regulation, growth and transcription factors, and olfactory receptors. Our results demonstrate that divergent natural selection of phenotypes can have a subtle polygenic genomic signal, occur within a single generation, and manifest in divergent ecotypes, despite panmixia. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The genomic basis of colour dimorphism and cold adaptations in a seabird. (52036) Anna Tigano, Tone Reiertsen, Kjell Einer Erikstad, Vicki Friesen. Queen's University; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research - NINA. In the North Atlantic, common guillemots (Uri aalge) are located from arctic to temperate waters and include two morphs: unbridled birds have a completely black or dark brown head, and bridled birds are characterized by a white eye-ring and auricular groove. Mating between the two morphs is random and the dimorphism is based on simple Mendelian inheritance of an autosomal gene, where bridling is recessive. Several lines of evidence suggest that bridled guillemots are more adapted to colder temperatures than are unbridled ones and the frequencies of the two morphs across their range may be the result of fluctuating selection. To designate a trait as ‘adaptive’ connections between genotype, phenotype and fitness must be made. The correlation between phenotype and fitness has been documented, but genetic characterization of phenotypic variation and genomic signature of selection are needed to close the circle. We are using whole genome resequencing data from bridled and unbridled common guillemots to investigate the genomic basis of bridling and associated cold adaptations. This system allows us not only to characterize the basis of the phenotypic traits of interest, but also to investigate the genomic architecture of adaptation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Empirical insights of the effects of pollen flow on the adaptive potential of fa*gus sylvatica populations (52030) Julie GAUZERE, Etienne KLEIN, Sylvie ODDOU-MURATORIO. CEFE CNRS; BioSP INRA; URFM INRA. In temporally variable environments, gene flow is expected to facilitate the adaptive response of populations by spreading pre-adapted genes in the landscape and increasing the genetic variance available for the response to selection. However we still lack empirical evidence of these beneficial effects of gene flow.

Here, we investigate the effects of gene flow on the adaptive potential of three populations of fa*gus sylvatica along an altitudinal gradient using direct gene flow estimate based on paternity analyses. We measured eleven ecophysiological traits on 60 maternal families. Genetic data were used to assign the offspring to two categories, “migrant” or “local”, according to the origin of their fathers. We first show that pollen immigration rates were high (56% on average) and that 6 traits genetically diverged along the gradient. Our results overall fail to demonstrate significant effect of pollen flow on trait mean or variation within population. Only for the population at the intermediate altitudinal level, we found that immigrant pollen increase the genetic variances of two traits (timing of budburst and diameter growth). This may be due to a weak power to detect gene flow effect in weakly differentiated populations. A better characterization of the pollen origin may help to reveal the effects of pollen flow on adaptive potential. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The genome sequence of the corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus), a valuable resource for EvoDevo studies in squamates (52025) Asier Ullate Agote, Michel C. Milinkovitch, Athanasia C. Tzika. Laboratory of Artificial & Natural Evolution (LANE); SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics; Institute of Genetics and Genomics of Geneva (iGE3). Squamates exhibit a striking variety of phenotypes, with little known on their generative mechanisms. Studies aiming to understand the genetic basis of this diversity in morphology, physiology and ecology will greatly benefit from whole genome sequencing initiatives, as they provide the foundation for comparative analyses and improve our understanding on the evolution, development and diversification of traits. Here, we present the first draft genome of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus, an oviparous snake that we promote as an appropriate model species for evolutionary developmental studies in squamates. We sequenced 100-bases paired-end reads from multiple individuals of a single family that produced a genome assembly of 1.53 Gb, roughly covering 75% of the expected genome size, and 297,768 scaffolds >1Kb. We were able to retrieve 192 of the 248 CEGMA core genes, indicating that high genome completeness was achieved. Using MAKER2, we annotated 10,917 genes with high confidence. Numerous colour and colour pattern morphs exist in P. guttatus, making it an ideal model to study the genetic determinism, development, and evolution of adaptive colour traits in reptiles. Using our draft genome and a SNP calling approach, we located the interval with the causative mutation for the amelanistic phenotype. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic footprint of local climate adaptation (52021) Ann-Marie Oppold, Markus Pfenninger, Simit Patel.

Senckenberg - Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre Frankfurt; Goethe University Frankfurt am Main. Local adaptation is a common observation in species with a wide distribution range. However, little is known about its underlying genomic basis and therefore the molecular mechanisms driving this adaptation. Especially for ectothermic organisms, as is our non-model organism Chironomus riparius, the ambient temperature is a crucial environmental factor. We analysed C. riparius populations along a climatic gradient across Europe by the integration of genomescans and common garden experiments. Common garden experiments at three different temperatures (14, 20, and 26 °C) revealed local climate adaptation in six natural populations. Differences in the population growth rate showed temperature-dependent effects on fitness of the populations. We applied the Pool-Seq method to scan the population genomes and found more than 2.5 million SNPs among six natural populations. Based on FST-analyses more than 2000 highly differentiated SNPs were identified and annotated. We further associated the identified SNPs to environmental variables and found significant correlations. To also account for patterns of polygenic adaptation and not merely focus on outlier loci, we further aimed to perform gene-set enrichment analyses. Our results give insight in the complexity of the genome-wide distribution of adaptive genetic variation in natural populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

An approximate Bayesian estimator of allele age and selection strength (52020) Louise ORMOND, Gregory Ewing, Matthieu Foll, Jeffrey D Jensen. EPFL; WHO. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data can be used to infer both the age of a beneficial allele and the strength of selection acting upon it. These estimates can outline variation in selection over time and space, offering important implications regarding the mode and tempo of adaptation. Although new time-sampled methods have been developed, there remains significant scope for improvement in the single time point inference of selection parameters. Here, we first apply forward and backward simulations investigating a range of parameters, including effective population size (Ne), mutation rate (µ), recombination rate (r), the strength of selection (s) and allele age (Ts) to generate summary statistics. We then use an approximate Bayesian (ABC) approach to generate the posterior distribution of s and Ts. Second, we replicate previous results for the Bayesian inference of Ts (Przeworski 2002) and develop an improved single-time point Bayesian estimator for the joint inference of these parameters. We then incorporate demographic scenarios and explore the relative gains in performance from using single- versus multiple-time points. This approach improves on existing methodology through the incorporation of several informative summaries, including data from linked neutral sites, and through the computational efficiency and speed afforded by ABC–based approaches. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - POL 300

EVOLUTION IN SPATIOTEMPORAL VARIABLE METAPOPULATIONS FACILITATES PERFORMANCE IN NOVEL CHALLENGING CONDITIONS (52006) Dries Bonte. Ghent University. Human-induced changes of the landscape often lead to the fragmentation or reduction of quality of habitat and forces many organisms to live in a heterogeneous landscape. The landscape structure affects local and metapopulation dynamics which are in turn expected to impact life history evolution. By means of experimental evolution using the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as a model we demonstrate that spatiotemporal variation in habitat availability affects metapopulation dynamics and that these changes induce evolutionary divergence in life history, physiological endpoints and gene expression. The induced metapopulation-level selection pre-adapts the mites towards an enhanced performance on novel challenging hosts. Our integrated approach highlights the linkage between spatial structure, local demography and trait evolution. The multivariate responses point towards general adaptations in stress resistance pathways and are suggested to be driven by metapopulation-level variation in competition and patch extinction rates. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Detecting signals of strain-specific selection in genomic sequences of Staphylococcus aureus (52001) Chieh-Hsi Wu, Daniel Wilson. University of Oxford. There are myriad examples of bacterial populations rapidly adapting in response to selection pressure imposed by antibiotics, often within individual patients. Selection is therefore pervasive in bacterial evolution. Many species such as the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus exhibit strong strain structuring – such that the level of diversity among strains is much higher than within – but low geographic structuring, with local sampling capturing global diversity. These observations indicate that strain structuring is maintained by selection, and that patterns of variation cannot be well explained by classical selective sweeps. Strain structure may hinder attempts to discover genomic signatures of selection based on models of selective sweeps. To address this, we extended a recently proposed Bayesian statistical method based on the chromosome painting technique to detect partial selective sweeps. The extension adapts the original method to suit prokaryotic mechanisms of hom*ologous recombination, which differ to those in eukaryotes. Our extension also accommodates recombination rate variation along the genomic sequences. We have applied our method to a

dataset of 100 S. aureus genomes sampled from Oxfordshire, England, to search for strainspecific adaptation that may explain the long-term coexistence of diverse strains. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolutionary analysis linked to epigenetic modifications in the largest transcription factor family of humans. (51985) Adamandia KAPOPOULOU, Lisha MATHEW, Didier TRONO, Jeffrey D. JENSEN. EPFL; SIB. The KRAB-containing zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) genes represent the biggest family of transcription factors in humans, yet for the great majority, their function and specific genomic target remains unknown. However, it has been shown that a large fraction of these genes arose from segmental duplications, and that they have expanded in gene and zinc finger number throughout vertebrate evolution. To determine whether this expansion is linked to selective pressures acting on different domains, we have manually annotated all KRAB-ZNF genes present in the human genome and assessed the evolutionary forces acting at the sequence level as well as on the epigenome. When compared across primates and across tissues, KRAB-ZNFs demonstrate species-specific expression rather than tissue-specific expression. Interestingly, those carrying a nonsynonymous SNP in their DNA-contacting amino acids exhibit significantly reduced expression in all tissues accompanied by repressive histone marks; these KRAB-ZNF genes also seem to be less strongly constrained than those without such polymorphism. This work represents the first large-scale effort to characterize selective effects on KRAB-ZNFs and to correlate those effects with epigenetic modifications and population genetic data. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The ADiv Project (Analyzing Diversification in the Agaricales, 2013-2017): Analyzing patterns of diversification in the largest group of mushroomforming basidiomycetous fungi (51981) János Gergő Szarkándi, Bálint Dima, Sándor Kocsubé, Csilla Szebenyi, Nikolett Rácz, Tamás Papp, Csaba Vágvölgyi, László G Nagy. Department of Microbiology,University of Szeged; Fungal Genomics and Evolution Lab, Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences . The ADiv project aims to investigate patterns in the rates of evolution in the Agaricales. The Agaricales is the largest group of mushroom-forming fungi with ca. 14,000 described species. The driving forces underlying taxonomic diversification in these mushrooms are poorly known and are among the most important challenges in mycology. To address these questions, we will use phylogenetic comparative analyses on a new twogene dataset (the diversity dataset) for ca. 3,000 species. We selected the nLSU and RPB2

loci, which are known to provide sufficient phylogenetic information for relationships at the infrageneric level. We have already sequenced the nLSU gene in 1,500 species from 2,200 specimens. In addition, a phylogenomic dataset is also being produced from publicly accessible genomes of Agaricales, meaning about 60 to 100 species. These two datasets will be used to examine general patterns of speciation and extinction and to identify shifts in diversification rates. Sampling efforts have been concentrated on regions with poor phylogenetic coverage, e.g. the southern hemisphere (Australia, New Zealand). Currently we are experimenting with different primer sets for the amplification of the RPB2 gene and further sequencing of the LSU gene is in progress. This study was supported by the grant OTKA NN106394. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The role of habitat dynamics in driving diversification (51968) Thijs Janzen. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology. It is commonly accepted that geographical isolation can play an important role in speciation. Geographic isolation is often assumed to slowly increase over time, for instance through the formation of rivers or mountains. Cyclic changes in connectivity between areas might occur however when water levels fluctuate in a large lake, or when changes in sea level changes the connectivity between islands. These habitat dynamics may act as a driver of allopatric speciation and propel local diversity. Here we present a basic model of this interaction between changes in the environment and speciation. We model fluctuations in water level and compare results of our model with a published phylogeny of cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika where such cyclic changes have occurred. When confronting our model to the phylogeny of cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, we do not find evidence for water level changes and associated allopatric speciation. This suggests that large-scale water level fluctuations have had little impact on the current diversity of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika. However, we argue that the Yule tree model prior used to reconstruct the phylogeny may have biased our results, and therefore advocate the incorporation of more complex tree model priors that take into account habitat dynamics. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Detecting selection with haplotype-based methods: benchmarking and application to tropical butterflies (51966) Angeles de Cara, Annabel Whibley, Marianne Elias, Mathieu Joron, Frederic Austerlitz. Lab d'Ecoanthropologie et Ethnobiologie, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France); John Innes Centre, Norwich (UK); Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France).

The vast amount of genome-wide polymorphism data available has led to considerable efforts to develop methods to detect natural selection at the molecular level. Finding regions under selection is one of the first steps towards understanding the processes of adaptation and speciation. Our ability to detect selection depends critically on the data available and on the robustness of the methods to the underlying assumptions. Several commonly used methods look for FST outlier loci. However, these methods sometimes fail to identify loci under weak selection. Conversely, some neutral markers can be inferred to be under selection. Alternatively, we can use haplotype-based methods to infer selection within populations. These methods rely on the idea that positive selection on a position in the genome will create a region of extended hom*ozygosity. We study here the efficiency of three such methods (iHS, nSL and H12) in simulated data obtained by performing artificial selection on a polygenic trait. We show that these methods work mainly when selection is strong and the traits are only mildly polygenic. Furthermore, we analyse sets of individuals of the tropical butterflies Heliconius and Ithomiini of different species and morphs, to test the power of these methods on known regions under selection and to infer new candidates of selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic insights into the transition from oviparity to viviparity: the case of the reproductively bimodal lizard Zootoca vivipara (51962) Luca Cornetti, Alex Panziera, Andrea Benazzo, Mike W. Bruford, Cristiano Vernesi, Giorgio Bertorelle. Department of Biodiversity and Moleular Ecology, Research and Innovation Center, Fondazione Edmund M; Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e Biotecnologie, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Wales, UK. Squamate reptiles provide a unique model for gaining crucial information about the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity in vertebrates. The lizard Zootoca vivipara is one of the few species with distinct reproductive modalities in different subspecies; in detail Z. v. carniolica (European Alps) and Z. v. louislantzi (Pyrenees) are egg-laying lizards, while Z. v. vivipara (Central Western Europe) is a live-bearing one, with carniolica and vivipara that overlap their distributional ranges in the Alps. This provides an interesting natural setting for studying the evolutionary consequences of the shift from oviparity to viviparity and investigating possible evidence of hybridization between individuals with different reproductive modes. We used a genomic approach (RAD sequencing), for isolating and analysing about 85 thousand of SNPs that allowed to explore both neutral and adaptive variation. Population genomics analyses indicated that hybridization between egg-laying and live-bearing lizards is unlikely to happen and that oviparous and viviparous populations experienced different demographic dynamics. Additionally, mapping of coding sequences containing polymorphisms with high and significant differences in allele frequencies between oviparous and viviparous populations on Anolis carolinensis genome allowed to highlight genes related to physiological pathways involved in the mode of reproduction. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - POL 300

Ecological genomics of Betula nana and Fraxinus excelsior in Europe (51961) James Borrell, Elizabeth Sollars, Bernardo Clavijo, Laura Kelly, William Bodles, Steve Lee, Richard Nichols, Sarah Ayling, Richard Buggs. Queen Mary University of London; Qiagen, Aarhus; The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich; Highland Birchwoods, Munlochy; Forest Research, Roslin. We present genome-wide polymorphism data for two tree species in Europe, analysed in an ecological and evolutionary contexts. Betula nana is common in boreal environments, and rare in the UK. We present RAD-seq and microsatellite data for 28 populations in the UK and 10 populations in Finland, showing contrasting patterns of genetic structure and allele distribution. Fraxinus excelsior is widespread in Europe and of ecological and economical importance, but threatened by ash dieback and the emerald ash borer. We present a reference genome sequence for F. excelsior and whole genome re-sequence data for 39 populations throughout Europe. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Recombination hotspots and genomic patterns of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria (51960) Sarah Earle, Martin Maiden, Derrick Crook, Daniel Wilson. University of Oxford. Bacteria reproduce clonally, but recombination is critical to accelerating adaptive response, both in the core and accessory genome. This research investigates signatures of core genome recombination using ClonalFrameML in the species Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Neisseria meningitidis, which range from genetically monomorphic to highly transformable. One hundred whole genome sequences of each species were analysed, either from mapped or core-genome MLST data, taken to represent species-level diversity. Recombination was estimated both by using a model with a single set of recombination parameters estimated for all branches, and by estimating different parameters per branch. ClonalFrameML estimates the relative probabilities that a nucleotide is changed as the result of recombination relative to point mutation (r/m), which is a direct measure of the relative impact of recombination on evolutionary change, giving a general indication of hom*ologous recombination rates which can be directly compared across the species. We examine the frequency, distribution and local genomic context of recombination in the core genome, discovering various hotspots and coldspots, and find that HGT of very large regions is common to many species, indicating that this is an important process in bacterial evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Inference and misinference under models of Background Selection. (51952) Gregory Ewing, Jeffrey Jensen. EPFL . Background selection (BGS), the process where unavoidable deleterious mutations are constantly removed from the population, is widely accepted to have a significant effect on patterns of genetic diversity and the efficiency of selection via linkage. Despite this, it is rarely taken into account in current studies due to the practical difficulties of doing so. This includes availability of adequate simulation software, their performance, tractability of current models and the the difficulty of applying theory to real data. We have developed an efficient coalescent based simulation method, that permits BGS models with arbitrary Distributions of Fitness Effects (DFE) in nonequilibrium populations, to address these issues. Due to the high performance Approximate Bayesian Computation for direct inference from suitable data is practical. We explore estimation of parameters under non trivial demographic models with and without BGS. We find that when BGS is present but not accounted for positively misleading inference are possible. Further we present results of directly inferring the DFE from data. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic signatures of adaptation in sticklebacks: convergent or not? (51950) Philine Feulner. Eawag. After the last glaciation, marine three-spined sticklebacks colonized various newly available freshwater habitats. Comparing populations across a salinity gradient, genome scans have identified convergent genomic regions showing signatures of adaptation. However, when comparing sticklebacks from distinct freshwater habitats such as lakes and rivers hardly any convergent genomic regions have been identified. Here, I will argue that this not due to different approaches, sampling strategies, or genomic data. Utilizing whole genome resequencing data from 66 individuals from 11 populations, I will demonstrate that known candidate regions for the adaptation to freshwater can be readily identified while the same data and approach does not detect convergent adaptation between lake and river sticklebacks. I will discuss potential reasons for these differences and provide further evidence utilizing alternative approaches such as hierarchical models and exploration of polygenic signatures of local adaptation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The genome of Gonium pectorale reveals early genetic co-option during the evolution of multicellularity (51924)

Erik Hanschen, Bradley Olson. University of Arizona; Kansas State University. The evolution of multicellularity is a major evolutionary transition which has occurred numerous times throughout all domains of life, yet the evolutionary history of the basis of this transition is unknown. The volvocine green algae, including Chlamydomonas and Gonium, and Volvox, are a common model for evolution of multicellularity. Previous genomics revealed few differences attributed to Volvox morphology and development. Using the undifferentiated multicellular Gonium pectorale, we investigated when the genetic changes associated with the evolution of multicellularity evolved. Expanded or modified pathways shared in Gonium and Volvox include a retinoblastoma cell cycle regulator, cyclinD cell cycle regulators, transcription factors, and predicted gene families. Cell differentiation transcription factors are not expanded, and we demonstrate these genes evolved shortly after the speciation of Gonium. These data suggest that genes important for multicellularity were co-opted early during the evolution of multicellularity. Using multiple lines of evidence, we find the genetic changes associated with multicellularity evolved early during the evolution of multicellularity, which is consistent with other multicellular evolutions, including plants and animals. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genomic signatures of contrasting adaptation in cork oak populations across the species´ range (51917) Octávio Paulo, Pina-Martins Francisco, Modesto Inês, Ribeiro Carla, Costa Joana, Miguel Célia, Batista Dora. CE3C – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes. Universidade Lisboa. Portugal ; Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB), Universidade Nova de Lisboa,Portugal; RAIZ – Instituto de Investigação da Floresta e Papel. Herdade de Espirra, 2985-270 Pegões, Portugal; Instituto de Biologia Experimental (IBET), Oeiras, Portugal; Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Oeiras, Portugal. How natural populations adapt to contrasting environments and which genomics signatures can be detected associated with this process is one of the most challenging question in current evolutionary biology. These questions are particular complex for West-Mediterranean tree species showing both long distance gene flow and evolutionary and demographic histories influenced by Pleistocene glaciation or even older geological events. Cork Oak populations were sampled and genotyped across the species’ range and 21 environmental variables were used. Several types of genetic and genomic data (e.g.: MassArray and GBS) were used to gather a total of approximately 1300 SNPs. The results from traditional molecular markers and NGS based genome scans show the complexity of the evolutionary process and the interplay between structure, adaptation and gene flow. Furthermore, genomic signatures of positive and balancing selection were unravelled and their potential role in local adaptation through associations with environmental variables was explored under several scenarios and methodologies. These results reinforce previous work (Modesto et al. 2014) emphasising the role of selection

and gene flow, rather than history and drift as the main driving forces in shaping the pattern of genetic diversity and local adaptation in this species. The implications of contrasting adaptation in the species response to rapid climate change will be discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Cryptic species within a cardinalfish: evidence for ecological speciation in the coral reef (51900) Gabriele Gerlach, Jelle Atema, Michael Raupach, Michael J. Kingsford. Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg; Boston University; Senckenberg am Meer, German Center of Marine Biodiversity Research; Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and School of Marine, James Cook University. Evolutionary theory requires understanding of mechanisms that drive microevolution and maintain population divergence. Isolation of marine populations caused by large-scale geographic barriers cannot alone explain the high speciation rates and biodiversity of coral reef fishes with their larval dispersal that would predict genetic hom*ogeneity. We searched for other isolating mechanisms starting at small spatial scales that drive microevolution despite gene flow. We show that incipient speciation can be observed on the spatial scale of meters to few kilometers. Genetic analysis of the cardinalfish Ostorhinchus doederleini over ten generations at the Capricorn-Bunker group in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, revealed five overlapping, phenotypically indistinguishable clades that can be considered different species inhabiting two different ecological niches: coral reef lagoons and coral reef slopes. Sequence data of two mitochondrial gene fragments as well as microsatellite markers indicated almost complete genetic isolation; but hybrids exist. Our data provide evidence that shortly after hatching larvae imprint on olfactory cues of their natal environment including their own population. Orientation behavior, divergent selection between ecological niches and population recognition contributes to natal recruitment and genetic divergence that can persist despite gene flow. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Asymmetric gene flow between populations of the marine crab Liocarcinus depurator (51879) Francesc Mestres, Víctor Ojeda, Pere Abelló, Marta Pascual, Teresa García. Universitat de Barcelona; Universitat de Barcelona; Institut de Ciències del Mar. Barcelona; Universitat de Barcelona; Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga. In marine species, oceanographic discontinuities may be permanent and asymmetric, allowing mostly unidirectional gene flow. Nonetheless, even so-called permanent fronts can fluctuate, allowing for changes in migrant direction. We analyzed spatial genetic differentiation in the

crab Liocarcinus depurator across the three main oceanographic discontinuities found along the western Mediterranean: Gibraltar Strait, Almeria-Oran Front and Ibiza Channel. A partial fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was sequenced in more than 400 individuals collected in five localities during four different time periods, so that genetic changes could be estimated across space and time. The intensity of interannual differences varied among populations, probably due to local shifts in circulation patterns modifying the asymmetric flow. The discrepancies previously reported on the effect of oceanographic discontinuities over multiple species could result from time-space interactions on the distribution of genetic variation. The present study highlights the importance of temporal replicates to better understand the spatial genetic structure of marine species and implement better management strategies for their conservation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Dominance genetic variance for traits under directional selection in Drosophila serrata (51860) Jacqueline Sztepanacz, Mark W. Blows. University of Queensland. In contrast to our growing understanding for patterns of additive genetic variance in single and multi-trait combinations, the relative contribution of non-additive genetic variance, particularly dominance variance, to multivariate phenotypes is largely unknown. While mechanisms for the evolution of dominance variance have been, and to some degree remain, subject to debate, the pervasiveness of dominance is widely recognized, and may play a key role in several evolutionary processes. Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that the contribution of dominance variance to phenotypic variance may increase with the correlation between a trait and fitness; however, direct tests of this hypothesis are few. Using a multigenerational breeding design in an unmanipulated population of Drosophila serrata, we estimated additive and dominance covariance matrices for multivariate wing shape phenotypes, together with a comprehensive measure of fitness, to determine whether there is an association between directional selection and dominance variance. Fitness, a trait unequivocally under directional selection, had no detectable additive genetic variance, but significant dominance genetic variance. For single and multivariate morphological traits, however, no relationship was observed between trait-fitness correlations and dominance variance. These data suggest that for many fitness components a positive association between directional selection and dominance variance may not be expected. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The genome-wide landscape of population genetic variation in brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations. (51839) Martha Gavan, Alex Douglas, Andy Black, Darren Christie, Sally Poncet, Martin Collins, Stuart Piertney.

University of Aberdeen; University of Aberdeen; Government of South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands; Government of South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands; Government of South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands; Government of South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands; University of Aberdeen. Demographic perturbations such as founder effects can often create small, isolated populations that are at risk of becoming genetically depauparate due to the effects of random genetic drift. However, it has previously been demonstrated that even in small populations, selection can oppose drift to maintain variation at adaptive loci. Understanding the extent to which genetic diversity at immunologically important genes is affected by demographic perturbations is essential for the effective management of genetic resources in natural populations. Here we utilise next-generation sequencing techniques, specifically genotypingby-sequencing (GBS), to identify genome-wide variation across ten isolated populations stemming from two separate founder events of brown rats (R. norvericus) at the island of South Georgia in the southern Atlantic. GBS target sequences are assembled and mapped to the rat reference genome using a low density linkage map. SNP calls and estimated allele frequencies are used to characterise the patterns of genetic structure across samples, and pinpoint the regions of the genome that are displaying significantly higher sequence diversity than predicted by the genomic background. These “diversity islands” will highlight the genomic regions that are acting in a non-neutral way, and comparison across populations provides insight into the extent to which parallel or convergent responses occur. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Hidden giant viruses in the public databases. (51837) Vikas Sharma, Philippe Colson, Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Raoult. Evolution Biologique et Modélisation. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), or proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Environmental metagenomic studies show that there is a “dark matter”, composed of sequences not linked to any known organism, as determined mainly using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, which therefore ignore giant viruses. Large scale phylogenetic analysis were performed, where we found few universally conserved genes were able to delineate Megavirales as separate clade which strongly suggest them as distinct biological entity compared to cellular organisms. Among these genes, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) is universally conserved in microbes and as well as in giant viruses. While phylogenetic reconstruction using RNAP gene, we found that three giant virus that have been mis annotated as as Hydra magnipapillata, Marine group II Euryarcheota and Phytophthora parasitica, additionally new viral clades have been detected from environmental database (Sharma et al., 2014) . Our analysis suggest that RNAP as well as few other genes is a critical marker to detect hidden microbes and dark matter which may replace rDNA to delineate the four branches of life, Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya and “Megavirales”. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - POL 300

Variation in the strength and shape of natural selection across three centuries of human civilisation (51832) Erik Postma, Dominique Waldvogel. University of Zurich. Although natural selection is ubiquitous in plant and non-human animals, the question how selection is acting in human populations remains controversial. Indeed, it has been argued that with the introduction of birth control and dramatic improvements in medical care, selection has become negligible, and human evolution has come to a halt. However, this idea appears to be at odds with reality, with recent studies showing substantial amounts of variation in fitness, and strong selection on a range of human traits. As of yet we know very little about the generality of these findings, as they are based on a few populations and relatively short time periods. Here we will present an analysis of a uniquely detailed, longitudinal and individualbased human dataset, covering a period of three centuries. We will show how the distribution of lifetime reproductive success and its relationship with reproductive timing and lifespan has changed during this period, and how these have been shaped by culture, demography and the environment. Thereby we will provide one of the most complete investigations of variation in selection in our own species, and a fascinating glimpse into life as we know it. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Reference genome, population genetics and population genomics of wild falcons (51822) Xiangjiang Zhan, Michael Bruford. Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; School of Bioscinces, Cardiff University, UK. Using the next generation sequencing technology, we have sequenced the genome of saker falcons (Zhan et al., 2013). The genome was about 1.2 Gb in length, from which we have annotated 16,204 genes. Falcon genomes were found to have consistent signatures of rapid evolution but less olfactory receptor genes. Compared with its relative species, peregrine falcons, the saker living in the arid environments seems to have evolved a robust gene repertoire to conserve more water and secret more sodium. Then, we used the candidate gene approach referencing the draft genome to study the population genetics of sakers across Eurasia, and we found that exonic SNPs were key to resolving genetic differentiation between the QTP and non-QTP sakers, and were able to infer five SNPs as being subject to directional selection (Zhan et al., 2015). Now we are at the stage of taking our research from candidate genes and the reference genome to a population genomics level. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Comparative transcriptomics reveals the modular organisation of ant phenotypic traits (51818) Claire Morandin, Morten Schiøtt, Liselotte Sundström, Jes Søe Pedersen, Heikki Helanterä, Alexander S. Mikheyev. Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Helsinki University; Centre for Social Evolution, University of Copenhagen; Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. Alternative phenotypes may be the results of genomic novelty or gene network interactions co-opted via natural selection. Reproductive division of labor in eusocial insects represents a major transition in evolution, and is a striking example of the same genetic background giving rise to alternative phenotypes, namely queen and worker castes. The extent to which casteassociated regulatory architecture is preserved across taxa remains unexplored. Applying weighted gene co-expression network analysis to transcriptomic data from 17 ant species, we show that most genes participate in conserved co-expression modules of functionally related transcripts. Furthermore, selection operating on these genes is heavily influenced by the coexpression network properties. Surprisingly, in addition to playing a role in caste differentiation, module expression levels were associated with other important traits, such as the evolution of worker sterility, caste dimorphism, polygyny and even invasiveness. These results provide insights into the complex structure of social insect transcriptional architecture, and identify functionally important units that serve as building blocks of phenotypic innovation. This study gives novel insights into the molecular interactions responsible for outstanding characteristics of eusocial insects, which would not be achieved by analyzing data from a single species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Estimating Selection of Skull Shape using Geometric Morphometrics (51796) Elis Damasceno, Chris Klingenberg. University of Manchester. Natural selection is the evolutionary theory's centrepiece, and therefore it has drawn the interest of many researchers since its discovery. Although a very sought-after subject, selection gradients are not easily estimated, since it requires a measurement of fitness in addition to the quantitative data throughout several generations. Fitness and crossgenerational data are even harder to obtain in wild populations, making such studies quite scarce in the literature. The Soay sheep of St. Kilda is one of the few wild populations in which such data is available, seeing that the population has been closely monitored since 1985. In this study, I used geometric morphometrics to estimate selection on skull shape. I digitized 1,527 Soay sheep skulls, that are stored at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. Using geometric morphometrics to estimate selection is particularly useful since not only do we get the strength of selection, but we can also visualize exactly how each trait is being selected. Given that skulls are very complex, multi-dimensional structures, it gives an enormous advantage when compared to traditional measurements.

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The evolution of genomes and fitness traits in response to environmental change in the emerging model system Daphnia (51784) Luisa Orsini, Anurag Chaturvedi, Craig Jackson, Nathan Keight, Omid Shams Solari, James Brown, Michael Pfrender, Kelley Thomas, Luc De Meester. University of Birmingham, UK; University of Leuven, Belgium; Indiana University Bloomington, USA; University of California Berkeley, USA; Notre Dame University, IN, USA; University of New Hampshire, USA. Understanding evolutionary adaptive responses of natural populations to environmental stress is challenging, owing in part to the complexity of natural environments. The waterflea Daphnia magna is a keystone species in aquatic ecosystems, a sentinel for water quality, and a model organism for eco-evolutionary genomics. It also creates dormant populations that accumulate in layered sediments of lakes and ponds – which can be resuscitated centuries later – thereby showing clear adaptive responses to environmental changes. Capitalizing on this unique ecological system, we present a complete analysis of genome structural variation and evolution of fitness traits in response to a suite of environmental stressors (parasites, land use, and fish predation) across a complex landscape of shallow ponds. We further validate these findings in time in populations resurrected from sediment cores with known histories for the same stressors. In our analysis of structural variation we link candidate gene networks and CNV genes to fitness traits using statistical tools optimized by the ENCODE consortium, unraveling the genetics of complex traits. We identify the mechanisms of evolution underlying responses to both natural and anthropogenic stressors and assess repeatability of evolutionary adaptive processes in nature. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Rapid morphological evolution related to male-male combat of invasive green anole in Ogasawara Islands, Japan. (51769) Wataru Anzai, Hiroo Takahashi, Mitsuhiko Toda, Hideki Endo. The University of Tokyo; Japan Wildlife Research Center. Introduced species have been noted to be model organisms which can be observed rapid evolution. We report that two populations of invasive green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) in Chichi-Jima Island and Haha-Jima Island show different morphological traits although it has been only thirty years since invasion of these lizards. By comparison of body size and head size between two populations of islands and sexes, males of Haha-Jima populations showed significant larger body and head considered to be advantageous for territorial combat though females indicated no significant differences between islands. Because of diverse results between sexes, it is considered that these traits are affected by not only ecological factors common to sexes such as pray animals or vegetation but also male-specific factors

such as territorial combat between individuals. Addition, as a result of the comparison of mass of limb muscles between populations, heavier humeral adductor muscles of lizards in ChichiJima than in Haha-Jima were shown only in males. Our results demonstrate that green anole have occurred morphological differences between island populations for only fifty years, and suggest the differences have evolved through sexual selection such as male-male combat. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Investigation of selection patterns across the New Zealand Giant Weta genome, using comparative transcriptomics (51766) Victoria Twort, Richard Newcomb, Howard Ross, Thomas Buckley. Landcare Research; The Univerisy of Auckland; Allan Wilson Centre; The New Zealand Institute of Plant and Food Research Ltd. Giant Weta are among the largest extant insects on earth, and are an iconic part of the New Zealand biota. However, a number of these species are endangered. The Poor Knight Giant Weta (Deinacrida fallai, Orthoptera) is one such species, and is restricted to a small offshore island. Our aim is to construct a comparative genomic dataset that will be used to investigate various aspects of molecular evolution and evolutionary relationships of this endemic New Zealand insect. The D. fallai genome is larger (approximately 8.5 GB) than the only other published Orthoperan genome (Locusta migratoria), with the current draft assembly being generated with SOAPdenovo2. Transcriptome data has been obtained to identify unigenes involved in reproduction, glycolysis and sensory processes in order to study rates and patterns of molecular evolution among species. RNA-seq data has also been generated for a number of Tree and other Giant Weta species, resulting in an average of 190,943 contigs per species, and an average N50 of 875 bp. This current dataset is being combined with Genotyping-BySequencing data to investigate various conservation genetics issues, in order to better inform current and future conservation efforts. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evaluation of adaptive potential of the European eel population suggests a recovery of its genetic status (51762) Miguel Baltazar-Soares, Seraina E. Bracamonte, Till Bayer, Frédéric J.J. Chain, Reinhold Hanel, Chris Harrod, Christophe Eizaguirre. Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research (GEOMAR); Department of Biology, McGill University, Canada; Thunen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Germany; Universidad de Antofa*gasta, Chile; School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, UK. The integration of evolutionary theory in conservation programs provides a framework that has greatly improved our ability to protect endangered species. However, it is only seldom

applied to the management of marine living resources. One of the most staggering examples is that of the European eel, the only critically endangered species in the World whose exploitation is still legal. The recruitment of this species has suffered a sudden collapse in the begging of the 1980s. By 2011, it remained as low as 1% of the values preceding the 1980s period. Surprisingly, conservation measures are limited to the translocation of juveniles and implementation of fishing quotas. Here we present the first study assessing the evolutionary potential of the European eel. We compared the neutral genetic diversity - microsatellites and mtDNA - and the adaptive genetic diversity - the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) – of two distinct generations of eels. The evolution of MHC genes is particularly relevant as the European eel faces a parasitic threat by a recently introduced nematode. Our results show that both the recruitment collapse and the parasite introduction have left signatures of a genetic bottleneck event. However, results also suggested an ongoing recovery positively affecting estimates of genetic diversity - critical for the adaptive potential of the species -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Catch me if you can: Adaptation from standing genetic variation to a moving phenotypic optimum (51748) Sebastian Matuszewski, Joachim Hermisson, MIchael Kopp. University of Vienna; Max F. Perutz Laboratories; Aix Marseille Université. Natural populations are constantly faced with environmental changes that force them to either adapt or go extinct. Therefore, increasing our understanding of the adaptive process is important for both basic and applied research. Accordingly, numerous studies have tried to provide a formal framework for the description of the adaptive process. Out of these, two complementary modeling approaches have emerged: While so-called adaptive-walk models consider adaptation from the successive fixation of de-novo mutations only, quantitative genetic models, on the other hand, assume that adaptation proceeds exclusively from preexisting standing genetic variation. The latter approach, however, has focused on short-term evolution of population means and variances rather than on the statistical properties of adaptive substitutions. Thus, I will here address what has been described as "the most obvious theoretical limitation when describing the adaptive process," and propose an analytical framework for the genetic basis of adaptation from standing genetic variation in terms of the effect-size distribution of individual alleles. This approach addresses one of the central questions in this context: From the multitude of standing genetic variants segregating in a population, which are the ones that ultimately become fixed and contribute to adaptation, and how does their distribution differ from that of de-novo mutations? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Why no stabilizing selection (in damselflies)? (51742) John Waller.

Lund University. Several published reviews of selection gradients that have been estimated field populations have failed to show that stabilizing selection is a the predominant mode of selection on microevolutionary time scales. Instead these reviews have shown that stabilizing and disruptive selection are equally common in nature. Two major explanations have been put forward to resolve this apparent discrepancy between these selection gradients on microevolutionary time scales, and the macroevolutionary assumption that stabilizing selection should predominate and lead to evolutionary stasis: (1) Low statistical power (2) and fluctuating selection. However, few studies have been replicated over several generations and with high sample sizes, and even fewer have attempted verify that stabilizing selection is indeed operating on macroevolutionary time scales. Here we will present the results of a multi-season selection study of two congeneric damselfly species (“demoiselles”; Calopteryx splendens and C. virgo), using large sample sizes and replicated estimates across years and populations. Additionally, macroevolutionary trends on body size within the suborder Zygoptera (damselflies) will be presented and compared to the patterns of selection in extant populations. Finally, I will address other sources of low power within selection studies, namely low recapture probabilities can affect the results of natural selection studies in field populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Sex in space: what changes? (51738) Hanna Kokko, Anna Harts, Luke Holman, Lisa Schwanz. University of Zurich; Australian National University; University of New South Wales. No-one who travelled from afar to the ESEB disputes that environments vary spatially. Still, many topics in evolutionary ecology are modelled assuming one panmictic population. I will discuss two cases where this tradition can make us miss intriguing and important phenomena. The first question considers spatial variation with dispersal in the context of the lek paradox. A spatial selection mosaic is sometimes seen to be ‘bad’ and sometimes ‘good’ for female choice for genetic benefits: bad because it disrupts signal reliability; good because it prevents female choice from being too efficient for its own good (by depleting variation). We will show the need to proceed beyond simplistically discrete GxE worlds to find out how often “good > bad” in this context. The second question: is there an a priori reason to expect that alleles that benefit one particular sex are favoured when there is sexual antagonism? One might think ‘no’ in diploid species because approximately ½ of gene flow operates through males, the other ½ through females. Our modelling shows, however, that a fundamental asymmetry between female and male importance as determinants of demography can change this conclusion – but only when there is spatial variation in habitat quality. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Using a landscape genomic analysis to detect selection by climate in natural populations of a Mexican endemic oak, Quercus rugosa (51733) Karina Martins, Paul Gugger, Jesus Llanderal Mendoza, Antonio Gonzalez-Rodrigues, Ken Oyama, Victoria Sork. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California; Department of Biology, Federal University of São Carlos; Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAM; Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California. Climate places strong selective pressure on local populations. In tree species with extensive gene flow, it is not clear the extent to which climate creates locally adapted populations. By using a landscape genomics analysis of geographic patterns of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), DNA sequence data can be used to test the hypothesis that tree populations are locally adapted to climate. Our goal to find evidence of local adaptation to climate and identify specific loci under selection by surveying DNA fragments spread throughout the genome of Quercus rugosa. We sampled adult leaf tissue from 105 trees in 17 localities across Mexico, extracted DNA, and used the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method to generate SNPs from thousands of “random” 100-bp fragments. We controlled for background demographic history using covariance matrices and then correlated individual SNP genotypes with specific climate variables using the Bayesian approach implemented in Bayenv2. After aligning our fragments to a Quercus lobata reference draft genome, we generated 8,383 SNPs. Several SNPs were correlated with climate variables, usually variables associated with precipitation. We conclude that landscape genomics provides an effective tool to find evidence for selection in natural populations of nonmodel species, and for providing excellent information about the genome-wide genetic structure. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

The evolutionary history of Cochlearia (Brassicaceae) in Central Europe: Population- and phylogenomics of a cold relic in a warming world (51728) Marcus Koch, Eva Wolf. COS Heidelberg, Heidelberg University. The genus Cochlearia represents an isolated evolutionary lineage that diverged from its Mediterranean sister clade during the Miocene and since that did not underwent any significant speciation until Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles. During the Pleistocene approximately 20 taxa evolved within a polyploid complex, with most of the species closely associated with cold-characterized habitats. Similar eco- and phenotypes of varying ploidy levels emerged and are scarcely distributed all over Europe and the Circumarctic. One sub-group of species is occurring mostly along coastal lines and a second sub-group is highly restricted to mountain and high elevation/altitude regions. The proposed project aims to unravel the evolutionary history of the various species, subspecies and cytotypes on a high-resolution-scale in space and time. The resulting evolutionary-systematic framework will lay the ground to study in particular hypotheses on parallel evolution and

adaptation to cold environments with its respective characteristics and types of habitats (e.g. bedrock types, elevation, etc.). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Effects of environmental heterogeneity on phenotypic and genetic variance components in a tree swallow population (51696) Audrey Bourret, Dany Garant. Université de Sherbrooke. Despite numerous reports of selection on heritable traits in wild populations, expected evolutionary responses are often absent. Different causes for this stasis are suggested, including undescribed fluctuating selection and unstudied factors influencing phenotypic/genetic variance components. Heterogeneous environmental conditions, in space and/or in time, can affect both selective pressures and trait heritabilities in wild populations and thus reduce our capacity to predict evolutionary changes. Here, we will use data from a long-term study of Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) in southern Québec (Canada) to assess the effects of environmental heterogeneity on phenotypic and genetic variance components of several traits. This study system, followed since 2004, is composed of 400 nest boxes equally distributed within 40 farms in a highly heterogeneous agricultural landscape. Previous studies in this population reported patterns of fluctuating selection in direction and/or strength for morphological and reproductive traits over space and time. Our analyses will assess the importance of phenotypic and genetic variance components across these scales and provide predictions on the evolutionary potential of these traits in this population. Our results will thus contribute to a better understanding of the environmental effects on evolutionary processes in the wild. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Evolutionary Origin of Antimicrobial Peptide (AMP) Resistance in Firmicutes Bacteria (51678) Sonja Grath, Helge Feddersen, Susanne Gebhard. Department of Biology II, University of Munich (LMU), Planegg-Martinsried, Germany ; Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, United Kingdom. To combat the alarming rate of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are seen as promising new drugs. However, AMP resistance already exists in many bacteria, including important pathogens. We focus on BceAB-like transport systems, which mediate AMP resistance in a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we present a highly interdisciplinary approach that combines bioinformatic analyses of the evolutionary origin of BceAB-like transporters with experimental work on the structure and function of these proteins. Protein domains – the evolutionary, functional and structural building blocks of

proteins – are the modules on which evolution acts. Bce-like transporters possess two FtsX domains of unknown function, which also occur in other resistance transporters found in most bacterial phyla. To gain insights into the relationship and evolution of the diverse group of FtsX-domain transporters, we studied their domain arrangements. Computational analyses of FtsX domains showed that the two domains in BceAB-like transporter have diverged from one another, which is a good indication of the evolution of separate functions. Our approach is aimed to gain insights that can ultimately lead to the development of new stochastic models for the evolution of antibiotic resistance in general or of new drugs that counteract this resistance. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Domestication of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and its adaptation (51660) Maria Chacon, Jaime Martinez-Castillo. Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán. Lima bean is an ancient crop widely distributed in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Three wild gene pools with disjunct distributions are recognized: the Andean one distributed on the western slope of the Andes in Ecuador and northern Peru, the Mesoamerican I located in central-western Mexico, and the Mesoamerican II distributed from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, always on the eastern slope of the Andes. Humans domesticated Lima beans in at least two separate events: once in Mexico from wild populations of the gene pool MI, and a second event in the Andes of Ecuador-northern Peru. Both domestication events resulted in strong founder effects and in a group of landraces that although share many domestication traits, also differ in many morphological characteristics and in their adaptation to diverse agroecological conditions. In this study, we applied Genotyping by Sequencing in a set of wild and domesticated individuals of Lima bean representative of its geographical distribution in the Americas for two purposes: identify genomic regions associated with climate adaptation and with the adaptive syndrome of domestication. The present results contribute to our understanding of the adaptation processes of wild species to new environments during domestication and the origin of traits of agricultural importance. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Genetic structure and signature of selection in a cyanobacterial lichen symbiosis (51646) Silke Werth, Hörður Guðmundsson, Zophonías Oddur Jónsson, Ólafur Sigmar Andrésson. Institute of Plant Scineces, University of Graz, Austria; Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Iceland. Lichens represent a textbook example of mutualistic symbiosis. For green-algal lichens, evidence is mounting that the ecological niche of the lichen-forming fungi is shaped by

associations with green-algal strains that are locally adapted to specific ecological and climatic conditions. These green-algal associations are frequently highly specific, with lichenforming fungi associating with one or few green-algal taxa. Cyanobacterial symbioses represent about 10% of the lichens. Cyanobacterial lichen symbioses frequently show low specificity, with local strains being present in a lichen that are frequently more closely related to free-living or bryophyte-associated cyanobacteria than to the cyanobacterial strains occurring in the same lichen, collected from another site. Here, we compare the genetic structure among P. membranacea and its Nostoc photobiont based on ddRAD tag sequences. We found differences in genetic structure among lichen symbionts, with the fungus showing less isolation by distance than its associated cyanobacteria. Finally, we detect outlier RAD tag loci in both symbionts and relate these to the bioclimatic factors and environmental conditions of the sites to evaluate whether either one of the partners exhibits signatures of selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - POL 300

Long term sperm competition radically alters male success (51630) Tom Price, Paulina Giraldo-Perez, Paul Herrera, Nina Wedell. University of Liverpool; University of Vienna; University of Exeter. Competition between sperm from more than one male within females has major evolutionary impacts. However, research has typically focused on females that store sperm for a short time. In nature, females from many insects and reptiles store sperm overwinter or summer, and some may store sperm for decades. Here we investigate sperm competition in the fruit fly Drosophila pseudoobscura. We show that sperm competition that occurs over winter has radically different outcomes to the short term sperm competition seen in the summer. Moreover, overwintering duration greatly increases the cost of carrying an ejacul*te, with high death rates among females that have mated with particular male genotypes. We suggest that many of the puzzles of reproductive physiology may turn out to be adaptations to long term sperm storage and competition. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Resistance and tolerance towards parasites in a polymorphic insect (51645) Beatriz Willink, Erik I. Svensson. Lund University. The role on biotic conflicts promoting the buildup of distinct genetic clusters is widely appreciated in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary arms races propelled by parasitism and sexual conflict can be driven to a halt through the evolution of alternative phenotypic strategies governed by or linked to a few major loci. In the pond damselfly Ischnura elegans (Common Bluetail) sexual conflict over mating rates is involved in the maintenance of female genetic colour morphs via frequency-dependent male-mating harassment. However, several

other traits differ between these discrete morphs. These damselflies are parasitized by water mites (Arrenurus spp.) whose abundance and pathogenicity may vary largely across populations and years. We analyzed how parasite loads effected female fecundities over a decade and across a dozen populations in southern Sweden. Resistance and tolerance are integrated differently in the two most common morphs: male coloured females suffered from higher parasitism but their egg production was largely insensitive to mites, whereas the other morph carried fewer parasites but their fecundity was more severely affected by the parasite loads. Our results are in line with the theoretical tenet that negative correlational selection operates to couple resistance and tolerance, resulting in alternative adaptive peaks of these sympatric morphs. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Evolutionary Potential of Ectoparasitism by Mites (51750) Michal Polak, Joshua Benoit. University of Cincinnati. Knowledge of the fitness costs of parasitism and the genetic basis of host defensive traits are critical components of our ability to predict evolutionary response to parasitism. We studied the evolutionary potential of ectoparasitism by mites in two species of Drosophila hosts, D. nigrospiracula and D. melanogaster, which occur naturally in the North American Sonoran Desert and in Taiwan, respectively. We demonstrate significant fitness costs of ectoparasitism, including damage to host lifespan and reproduction. Both host species responded to laboratory artificial selection for increased resistance, demonstrating significant additive genetic variation for defense. Flies resistant to one species of mite exhibited crossresistance to the other, indicating that resistance may be a broad-based multiple-parasite defensive phenotype, as seen in certain other animal, plant and microbial systems. We performed RNA-seq analyses to characterize acute responses to ectoparasitism. Parasitized flies exhibited over 600 genes with differential expression compared to controls. Among flies exposed to mites but that evaded parasitism, 13 genes were upregulated while 27 were downregulated. Among upregulated genes, some are involved in gluconeogenesis and amino acid metabolism, suggesting shifts in metabolic processes resulting from defensive activities. This transcriptional characterization identifies potentially variable genes serving as substrate for evolutionary response under parasite-mediated selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Coevolution between the red flour beetle and Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria: transcriptome analysis of host defence after experimental evolution (51782) Barbara Milutinovic, Jennifer Greenwood, Kevin Knoblich, Philip Rosenstiel, Daniela Esser, Hinrich Schulenburg, Joachim Kurtz.

Institute of Science and Technology Austria; Insitute for Evolution and Biodiversity (University of Münster); Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology (CAU Kiel); Zoological Institute (CAU Kiel). Host-parasite interactions are ideal systems for studying fast coevolutionary processes. We performed a laboratory evolution experiment using an oral infection system of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. We were specifically interested in distinguishing coevolution-specific patterns from patterns resulting from the adaptation to a non-changing antagonist. For this, we used such an experimental design where the antagonists were either adapting reciprocally to each other ('coevolution' treatment), or to a non-changing, ancestral parasite or host genotype, respectively ('evolution' treatments). We found that after only seven host generations, parasite virulence was increased in the 'coevolution' treatment, but not in the parasite 'evolution' treatment, where some replicate lines of the parasite even showed reduced virulence. By contrast, the hosts evolved to increased resistance in both 'coevolution' and 'evolution' treatments. Using RNA sequencing, we studied the transcriptomes of the evolved hosts upon infection to find out to what extent differences in the regulation of host defences might be responsible for the fast (co-) evolutionary responses of the hosts. To detect evolved differences in host defences shaped by the differing selection pressures we compared transcriptome responses of the selected hosts upon infection and will report our first results. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Contemporary evolution of immunity in invasive species: the case of the domestic mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) and of the black rat (Rattus rattus) in Senegal. (51810) Christophe Diagne, Khalilou Bâ, Carine Brouat, Nathalie Charbonnel, Ambroise Dalecky, Mamoudou Diallo, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Laëtitia Husse. Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations (CBGP) Montpellier, FRANCE; IRDBIOPASS/CBGP (Dakar, SENEGAL); Département de Biologie animale (FST/UCAD, Dakar, SENEGAL); LPED UMR 151 IRD, Marseille FRANCE; VetAgroSup / LBBE (Lyon, FRANCE). Biological invasions provide unique opportunity for studying adaptive evolution over contemporary time scales. The recently refined “evolution of increased competitive ability” (EICA) theory predicts that invasive populations are likely to favour less expensive antibodymediated immunity at the expense of costly cell-mediated one, what would increase their competitive ability. We tested this hypothesis by comparing immune responses of invasive (Mus musculus domesticus, Rattus rattus) and native (Mastomys erythroleucus) rodents along invasion routes in Senegal. We estimated several components of immunity, including humoral pathways (natural antibodies and complement) and inflammation (haptoglobin). We found significant differences in immune investment between native and invasive rodents, as well as between anciently established and wave-front populations of invasive species. Surprisingly, inflammatory responses were found to increase in wave-front populations of both invaders, whereas an increase in humoral responses was only detected in M. m.

domesticus. These results are compatible with some patterns observed when studying parasite communities (helminths, bacteria) along invasion routes, which highlighted higher infection risks for invasive hosts in wave-front populations. Experimental immune challenges are in progress to decipher whether these changes in immune investments may be explained by selection or plasticity. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

A targeted proactive response to prevent disease outbreaks in ant societies (51870) Christopher D Pull, Simon Tragust, Mark JF Brown, Sylvia Cremer. IST Austria; University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany; Current address: University of Bayreuth, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany ; Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK. Infectious diseases will have represented a major challenge during the evolution of sociality, given that close contact with conspecifics is a key transmission route for many pathogens. To prevent epidemics, societies have evolved mechanisms to reduce pathogen exposure, and to prevent transmission when infections do occur. The most efficient way to block transmission is to break the infectious cycle of the pathogen. Here we show how ants alter their behavioural response, from the initial intensive care of pathogen-exposed colony members, to a colony-level disease-containment strategy, when a an individual becomes fatally infected. Crucially, we found that the ants responded proactively towards infected colony members, inhibiting pathogen replication early during the infection cycle, before they became a source of infection to others. The ants achieved this through the very early detection of sick individuals, before they displayed outward signs of disease, followed by destructive mechanical and chemical disinfection, which inhibits pathogen growth. Thus, although this defensive strategy does not cure the sick colony member, it has a beneficial effect at the colony level, avoiding further infections that may otherwise lead to an epizootic. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Parasitism as a driver of age-specific mortality in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) (51896) Carly Lynsdale, Hannah Mumby, Khyne U Mar, Virpi Lummaa. University of Sheffield.

Parasitism has long been proposed to drive trade-offs between host investment in reproduction and survival. In natural populations, hosts vary in their ability to resist or succumb to parasite infection and the extent to which such infection impacts upon host health and reproductive fitness. Determining the causes of variation in resistance and the consequences of infection for different individual hosts is key in understanding host-parasite evolution. We investigated the effect of parasitism as a driver of age specific mortality in a population of semi-captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) employed in logging camps across Myanmar. First, using a longitudinal database encompassing elephant life-history, health and reproductive data (n= ~2,350), we determined variation in causes of host mortality across different ages and any sex differences therein. Second, we linked parasite-caused mortality at different ages to individual reproductive history across previous life. This research highlights the importance of host variation in parasitic resistance and susceptibility, providing data on effects of parasitism on elephant mortality and reproduction across a lifetime. Through determining individuals for which infection may be a particular risk, we provide important insights for the conservation, welfare and management practices of Asian elephants. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Protein evolution of Toll-like receptors 4, 5 and 7 within Galloanserae birds (51898) Michal Vinkler, Hana Bainova, Josef Bryja. Department of Zoology, Charles University in Prague; Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong among essential activators of vertebrate immunity. We analysed interspecific variability in coding sequences of three TLRs (bacterial-sensing: TLR4, TLR5 and viral-sensing: TLR7) within the Galloanserae bird clade (13 species). The investigated TLRs are interspecifically invariant in their tertiary structures but vary in some of their physiochemical properties, mainly in the predicted surface electrostatic potential distribution. The predicted ligand-binding features of avian proteins (mainly TLR4 and TLR5) were distinct from their fish and mammalian counterparts and variable within the Galloanserae clade. We have identified 20 positively selected sites and 79 evolutionarily nonconservative sites, several of which were located in close topological proximity to the ligandbinding sites reported for mammalian and fish TLRs. Most of these functionally relevant positively selected sites were found in TLR5. In viral-sensing TLR7 the variability seems to be functionally far more conservative than the variability in the bacterial-sensing TLRs. Our results suggest that avian TLRs might be differentially adapted to pathogen-derived ligand recognition than the corresponding TLRs in mammals and we have found signatures of positive selection even within the Galloanserae lineage itself. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - GEN 2000

Individual multilocus heterozygosity at immune gene loci but not microsatellites influences roe deer natal dispersal (51957) Cécile Vanpé, Lucie Debeffe, Maxime Galan, Mark Hewison, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Nicolas Morellet, Erwan Quéméré. LBBE - CNRS; CEFS - INRA; CBGP - INRA; VetAgro-sup - Université Lyon 1. Most previous studies on immune genes have focused on immunological defence, pathogen resistance, mate preference, or kin recognition. Although both immune function and pathogen infestation, which are associated with immune gene diversity, have been found to influence dispersal decisions, no study has yet investigated the influence of immune genes on dispersal. Here, we filled the gap by investigating the effect of individual heterozygosity at five immune gene loci (from the Major Histocompatibility Complex and encoding Toll-Like Receptors) on roe deer natal dispersal. We showed that dispersal propensity was affected by immune gene diversity, with a body-mass dependent effect likely linked to pathogen-mediated selection through over-dominance, whereas individual multilocus heterozygosity at 12 putatively neutral microsatellite markers did not affect natal dispersal. Overall, in support of the bodycondition dependent dispersal hypothesis, dispersal propensity increased with both body mass and immune gene diversity. However, very light roe deer with low immune gene diversity dispersed much more than expected from their size. We suggest these poor quality individuals exhibited an emergency life-history tactic to escape a heavily infested environment associated with poor fitness prospects. Our results have potentially important consequences in terms of population genetics and demography, and improve our knowledge of host-pathogen evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The QRS (Quantification of Representative Sequences) pipeline for amplicon sequencing: Case study on within population ITS1 sequence variation in a microparasite infecting Daphnia. (51964) Enrique Gonzalez Tortuero, Jakub Rusek, Adam Petrusek, Sabine Giessler, Dimitrios Lyras, Sonja Grath, Federico Castro Monzon, Justyna Wolinska. Department of Ecosystem Research, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB); Berlin Centre for Genomics in Biodiversity Research (BeGenDiv); Department of Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University in Prague. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms are replacing traditional molecular biology protocols like cloning and Sanger sequencing. However, accuracy of NGS platforms has rarely been measured when quantifying relative frequencies of genotypes or taxa within populations. Here, we compared results generated by 454 amplicon sequencing with the results obtained from Sanger sequencing of cloned PCR products. Specifically, we focused on sequence variation of the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the ichthyosporean Caullerya mesnili, a microparasite that commonly

infects water fleas (Daphnia). Caullerya samples were obtained from seven spatially isolated host populations, some of which were sampled across different years (16 population samples altogether). In order to analyse 454-generated sequence data, we developed a bioinformatic pipeline – Quantification of Representative Sequences (QRS) – that clusters slightly varying sequences into representative variants and determines the frequency of these variants per population sample. Overall, there was a good correspondence in absolute frequencies of ITS1 variants obtained from Sanger and NGS sequencing; consequently, the respective analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) resulted in similar amounts of genetic variance partitioned across spatial and temporal components. Our results support the usefulness of amplicon sequencing data for studies of within-population structure. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Variation of vector competence in Culicoides sonorensis (51979) Ramiro Morales-Hojas, Rhiannon Silk, Malcolm Hinsley, Irina Armean, Paul Kersey, Simon Carpenter, Mark Fife. The Pirbright Institute; European Bioinformatics Institute. Culicoides species include major vectors of livestock disease agents such as Bluetongue (BTV), Schmallenberg and African Horse sickness viruses. Understanding the genetics of virus transmission is a fundamental step towards controlling these diseases. As in the case for other vector-borne diseases, this task can be greatly facilitated by the availability of a genome sequence, however the closest phylogenetic species to the biting midges for which complete annotated genomes are available are the mosquitoes, which have a divergence of more than 200 million years. With the aim of understanding the genetic basis of vector competence in C. sonorensis, the North American vector of BTV, we have de novo sequenced the first genome for this group of vector species. Using this genome as reference, we have studied the differences in gene expression between individuals that are susceptible to virus infection and are, thus, vector competent, and those that are refractory to infection and are not capable of BTV transmission. The differences observed will help understanding the evolution of Culicoides-BTV interactions and the relevance of genetic variation in vector species for arbovirus transmission. This information will be central to control BTV transmission and its range expansion. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Why Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Tend to Cause Infertility: An Evolutionary Hypothesis (51988) Péter Apari, Joao Dinis De Sousa, Vktor Müller. Eötvös Loránd University; Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Extending earlier work we argue that the tendency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to cause infertility is likely to reflect an evolutionary adaptation of the pathogens. We use an evolutionary perspective to understand how STI pathogens may benefit from reducing fertility in the host, and what clues the mechanisms of pathogenesis can offer to the evolution of this ability. We survey three lines of evidence. First, we present a compilation of recent epidemiological and clinical data to illustrate the breadth and magnitude of the problem; second, we draw on sociological and behavioural data to argue that infertility can destabilize partnerships and thereby increase promiscuity—-which facilitates the transmission of STI pathogens; and third, we review the pathomechanisms of STI induced infertility, and demonstrate that most of these mechanisms have a specific targeted effect on fertility, which is strong indication that the mechanisms have evolved specifically for their role in infertility. Our evolutionary framework also provides clues to why STI induced infertility tends to affect female host more than male hosts, and suggests specific medical interventions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Ants do drugs to fight disease (51990) Nick Bos, Liselotte Sundström, Siiri Fuchs, Dalial Freitak. Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, University of Helsinki and University of Jyväskylä; Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, University of Helsinki. Parasites are everywhere, and if anything in life is certain, it is that at one point, you are going to get infected. One way to fight infection is self-medication, which occurs when an organism consumes biologically active compounds to clear or inhibit an infection. Self-medication can either be therapeutic or prophylactic, depending on the health status of the organism when it consumes the biologically active compounds. Here, we show for the first time that ants selectively consume harmful substances (Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS) upon exposure to a fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana, yet avoid these in the absence of infection. This increased intake of ROS, while harmful to healthy ants, leads to higher survival of infected ants. The fact that ingestion of this medicine carries a fitness cost in the absence of pathogens rules out compensatory diet choice as the mechanism, and provides the first conclusive evidence that social insects engage in therapeutic self-medication. They have a sense of what they eat, and can modulate their choice of food in response to environmental challenges such as pathogens, resulting in a fine-tuned interaction between pathogens and host. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Steady state and induced immunity among castes of Formica exsecta (52105) Dimitri Stucki, Liselotte Sundström, Dalial Freitak.

Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions / Department of Biosciences; University of Helsinki; Tvärminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki; Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, University of Jyväskylä. Probably the most striking feature of eusocial insects is the separation into distinct castes, each of which specialize in different aspects of colonial performance. As a consequence gynes, males and workers which perform different tasks follow different life history trajectories. While the short-lived males and long-lived gynes only leave the colony for reproduction, workers experience frequent contact with the surrounding environment. In addition, depending on their task some workers stay closer around the nest (nurses) or spread further outdoors (foragers). Thus, each caste and worker class encounters pathogens at a different frequency, which might influence demands on individual immune defenses. We examined the differences in steady state immunity and expression of immunity after challenge with Beauveria bassiana in males, gynes and two worker classes of Formica exsecta. Using gene expression data for ten genes we found a clear separation between castes in steady state gene expression patterns. The response in gene expression to infection with B. bassiana was distinct between gynes and males but not between nurses and foragers or sexuals and workers in general. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The Impact of Parasite Mediated Selection on the Host’s Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity at the Metapopulation Level (52123) Andrea P. Kaufmann, Ebert Dieter. University of Basel; 2Tvärminne Zoological Station, Hanko, Finland. Theory suggests that parasite mediated selection varying in space and time is capable of maintaining diversity in disease related traits. Studying parasite mediated dynamics in natural populations has proven challenging because it is difficult to disentangle the relative roles of natural selection, migration, drift and mutation in shaping the genetic structure of a subdivided population. In this project we aim to uncover signatures of spatially fluctuating, parasite mediated selection in a natural metapopulation of Daphnia magna. We hypothesize that the polymorphism in disease related traits of the host can be explained by the dynamic metapopulation structure of the host and the parasite. The spatial variation in the presence and absence of a microsporidian parasites leads to fluctuating selection for and against (if there is a cost of resistance) resistance, respectively. As a consequence hosts evolve specific adaptation to the parasites, which is costly and hence lost in uninfected populations. To test this hypothesis we compare among population variation in neutral marker allele frequencies and quantitative trait divergence and correlate the infection status of local populations (infected or uninfected) with the measured phenotypes to infer local adaptation of the host to the parasite, simultaneously inferring a measure of the cost of resistance. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Use, effectiveness and variability of external immune defense in ants (52148) Simon Tragust. University of Bayreuth. Antimicrobial secretions delivered to the environment play a major role in several hostparasite interactions. Although they are generally not viewed as an integral part of the immune system of an organism, these compounds improve an organism’s survival and manipulate the microbial community surrounding the organism. It has recently been proposed to that these secretions play an underappreciated selective force in shaping the evolution of insect immune systems. However variability in the susceptibility of different pathogen strains to antimicrobial secretions as well as variability in the effectiveness of antimicrobial secretions within and among species has seldom been shown, despite the fact that it represents the raw material for (co)evolution and might shed new light on the evolution of virulence. Using the recently described external immune defense trait of formic acid as cleaning agent against entomopathogenic fungi I will investigate the universality and variability of this cleaning agent within the formic acid carrying ant subfamily Formicidae as well as the possibility of entomopathogenic fungi to adapt to formic acid. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

MULTIDIMENTIONAL MANIPULATION OF HOST BEHAVIOUR EXPLAINS THE ECOLOGICAL SUCCESS OF A SOCIAL PARASITE (52149) Evelien Jongepier, Isabelle Kleeberg, Susanne Foitzik. Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. Manipulative parasites influence interspecific interactions and thereby the composition of communities. Yet, how evolutionary dynamics govern the ecological success of these parasites is still poorly understood. Manipulative parasites frequently alter multiple host traits and here we test the hypothesis that variation in host resistance to this multidimensional manipulation drives the parasites’ ecological success. We quantified parasite-induced behavioural alterations in 16 populations of two hosts of the social parasitic ant Protomognathus americanus. We thereby covered the entire range of these Temnothorax ants, including non-parasitized populations. We demonstrate that the parasite can manipulate its hosts along two, interrelated behavioural axes, and that these manipulations promote parasite survival and prevalence. Hence, the multidimensional manipulation can explain the parasite’s ecological success, whereas initial variation in the host’s constitutive defences, which are target of the manipulation, cannot. Our findings underline the importance of host manipulation for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics between hosts and parasites. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Host age modulates parasite within-host competition (52190) Rony Izhar, Frida Ben-Ami. Tel Aviv University. Among the most striking differences among hosts within most populations is host age, which is a key epidemiological factor, but there is very little data on how age-dependent effects impact ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host and parasite populations. Using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, we examined how host age at exposure interacts with multiple infections to influence the expression of parasite virulence and lifetime transmission potential. We further analyzed the competitive outcome of multiple infections in different host age groups. We found that multiply-infected hosts were more susceptible to infection and suffered higher mortality than singly-infected hosts. As host age increased competition shifted from coinfection, where both parasite clones succeeded in producing transmission stages, to superinfection, where one of the parasite clones was excluded. Thus, the host population age structure could serve as a limiting factor for parasite strain coexistence. Our results emphasize that the outcome of within-host competition is influenced by the complex interplay between host demography and the ecology of host and parasite populations, and present a call for incorporating agedependent epidemiological parameters into stage-structured theory and virulence modeling. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Local adaptation between malaria and its bird hosts: an experimental approach (52242) Tania Jenkins, Jessica Delhaye, Philippe Christe. Dept Ecology and Evolution. The virulence and dynamics of malaria parasites can depend on whether they coevolve with their vertebrate hosts. Previous studies have investigated the spatial and genetic patterns of malaria and have suggested that coevolution is likely. However, experimental data demonstrating local adaptation, a signature of coevolution, is needed in order to confirm this hypothesis. We tested for local adaptation between the great tit, Parus major, and its malaria parasites by conducting a reciprocal transplant experiment in the field, where we exposed individuals from two populations of great tit to Plasmodium parasites. We were therefore able to assess the extent of host adaptation to their local parasites. We present three main findings: i) there was low support for local adaptation. However, the direction of the effect was more consistent with one of host adaptation and hosts appeared better able to resist foreign parasites; ii) there were site-specific effects of malaria infection on the hosts and iii) there was a sex-bias in infection success. These data represent one of the few experimental studies of parasite-host local adaptation using a natural malaria system. These results may have consequences on the ecology and evolution of vector-transmitted parasites and on the evolution of host defense traits. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - GEN 2000

Variation in Toll-like receptor 4 in closely related passerine species adapted for different environments (52243) Tereza Králová, Michal Vinkler, Hana Bainová, Arild Johnsen, Jan T. Lifjeld, Josef Bryja, Tomáš Albrecht. Institute of Vertebrate Biology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; National Centre for Biosystematics, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are designed to optimally bind conservative microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). These proteins, therefore, evolve under strong diversifying selection. It has been repeatedly shown that even MAMPs are structurally variable and this may be particularly true for structures originating from pathogens occurring at different latitudes. According to one of the hypothesis, tropical and migratory birds are exposed to higher pathogen diversity than their closely related sedentary species, and thus they may also be expected to exhibit higher variability in immune receptors. In this contribution we focused on genetic variability in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which binds, amongst other ligands, lipopolysaccharides from outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria to trigger the immune response. Here, we present our result on intra- and interspecific comparison of TLR4 ligandbinding region sequence variation in closely related passerine species from tropical (Cameroon, Nigeria) and temperate zone (Czech Republic, Norway). We assessed 15 unrelated individuals per species to evaluate the differences in TLR4 variability and ongoing selection using 46 species from 26 passerine families. The acquired information provides us with unique insight into the evolutionary effects acting on this genes in different environments. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The Genetic Basis of Behavioral Coevolution: Adaptations in Socially Parasitic Slavemakers and Their Hosts (52258) Austin Alleman, Barbara Feldmeyer, Daniel Elsner, Susanne Foitzik. Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz. In the ant genus Temnothorax, socially parasitic, slavemaking behavior has evolved multiple times independently. Results of phenotypic studies suggest that slavemakers and hosts, which tend to be closely related species, engage in evolutionary arms races, coevolving through reciprocal adaptations. Aside from morphological differences, the behavior and activity patterns vary markedly between slavemaker and host workers. Slavemaker workers do not participate in normal worker chores and display raiding activity only during a few weeks in summer. Conversely, host workers carry out a number of different tasks, including brood care, foraging, and, during slavemaker raiding season, nest defense. However, the genetic basis of

raiding and defensive behavior, including the primary genes involved in the ongoing coadaptation of these systems, remains unknown. Through transcriptome analysis of three host and three slavemaker species, we will investigate three primary objectives: a) to elucidate the genetic basis of differential behavior patterns within a species, b) the general evolution of slavemaker raiding and host defensive behavior, and c) search for selective signatures involved in parasite-host differentiation. We will report on genes and functional groups responsible for a specific behavioral pattern, their consistency across species, as well as selective signatures of parasite-host coevolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

MIXED DIETS – THE KEY TO A HEALTHY LIFE? (52263) Franziska Dickel, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak. Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, University of Jyväskylä; Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, University of Jyväskylä; Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, University of Jyväskylä and University of Helsinki. The uptake of secondary metabolites can increase the ability to combat an infection. Therapeutic self-medication describes the insect’s ability to actively change their diet, ingesting possibly toxic plants after encountering an infection. Most of the studies so far have focused on the short term effect of a single diet post infection, rather than looking at the mixed food in long term. Also, even if the consumption of a harmful substance is increasing the probability to survive an infection, how is this affecting the long-term fitness of the insect? To test this we used larvae of the polyphagous Wood tiger moth, Parasemia plantaginis, fed them with three different food plants (Plantago major, Taraxacum sect. ruderalia, Lactuca sativa) and infected them with a bacterial pathogen, Serratia marcescens. We found that a combination of diet 1- harmful plant and diet 2- nutrient rich plant provides the highest medication effect and furthermore guarantees a normal larval development. Steady state immunity is upregulated in response to the most harmful plant. This indicates that the change of food plants is essential in increasing the ability to survive bacterial infections, but also the combination of several diets is the key for long-term fitness. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Evolution of immune responses and parasitoid virulence in a spatial context (52273) Peter Hambäck, Lisa Fors, Ulrich Theopold, Robert Markus. Dept Ecol. Env. and Plant Science, Stockholm university; Dept of Molecular Life Sciences, Stockholm university.

In polyphagous parasitoid species, the ability to successfully parasitize hosts may vary between host species and depending on community context, potentially causing population divergence and speciation. Causes for host race formation and speciation are however poorly understood in parasitoid species and deserves further attention. In a system with a eulophid parasitoid (Asecodes parviclava) and three leaf beetle species (Galerucella sp), we found that hosts vary in their ability to encapsulate parasitoid eggs from weak encapsulation (G. calmariensis) to efficient encapsulation (G. pusilla). Encapsulation was shown to involve at least three cell types in the hemolymph and particularly one type was differentially induced among host species. We also found differences among parasitoid populations in parasitism success. Parasitoids hatching from G. pusilla had much higher success rate than parasitoids hatching from G. calmariensis when attacking G. pusilla larvae. This ability was particularly obvious when using parasitoids from some localities, suggesting local adaptation in parasitoid virulence. The differences in parasitoid success rate was also apparent in cytological studies, where induction in several cell types was surpressed when parasitized by a highly virulent parasitoid. We believe that this system is at an early stage of speciation, conclusions that are also supported by genetic studies. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

How are coevolutionary trajectories affected by variable environments? (52275) Franziska Brunner, Jaime Anaya-Rojas, Blake Matthews, Christophe Eizaguirre. Queen Mary University of London; Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Research and Technology . Host-parasite interactions are strongly affected by their environmental context. Differences in such context dependence between populations can occur in two different ways: differences in molecular host responses between populations reflect adaptation to a local optimum whereas different patterns of variation within populations can reveal different levels of genetic diversity and/or how phenotypic plasticity has evolved in each of them. Using experiments performed with different three-spined stickleback ecotypes and their monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus gasterostei we examined how eutrophication – a major environmental factor affecting stickleback habitat – alters parasite success and molecular host responses on the gene expression level. We found that eutrophication has opposite effects on parasite success between host ecotypes. We also show that host gene expression response to eutrophication is population specific in both mean expression levels and variation within ecotypes. Together, these findings show that ecological conditions can rapidly alter both directional selection and plasticity within a host-parasite system. Both aspects can have an important impact on coevolutionary trajectories. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Uncovering host defense strategies: bacterial infection in Drosophila melanogaster (52283)

Megan A. M. Kutzer, Sophie A. O. Armitage. Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster. In principle hosts can employ two strategies to limit parasite load. Resistance, a host’s ability to limit pathogen load, has been well studied. While tolerance, a host’s ability to limit damage caused by a parasite, a phenomenon well documented in the plant literature, is less well understood in animals. Previous work on resistance and tolerance in animals focuses primarily on host survival or health rather than on fitness measures or life history traits like fecundity. Reproduction for insects like Drosophila melanogaster is costly, so it is reasonable to predict a tradeoff in egg and offspring production in response to bacterial infection, depending on the defense strategy employed by the host. Here we aimed to assay resistance and tolerance in response to dietary restriction by limiting protein intake and to characterize bacterial infection pathology at the individual level. Because infectious diseases are not always lethal we chose to test the effect of two non-lethal, persistent bacteria. A low protein diet translated into lower egg production and decreased resistance, but tolerance was unaffected. We uncovered considerable individual variation in resistance despite controlled conditions. Future experiments will reveal the long-term impacts of infection and the underlying causes of individual variation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The relationship between host oxidative stress and Plasmodium infection in the canary, Serinus canaria (52320) Jessica Delhaye, Fabrice Lalubin, Philippe Christe. Inter-individual variation in parasite susceptibility exists among hosts. However, the underlying mechanisms driving these inequalities are still poorly understood. The release of pro-oxidants is known to play a key role in the fight against pathogens with potential harmful side-effects for hosts in terms of oxidative stress. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant compounds have been shown to affect Plasmodium development. In this study, we experimentally infected canaries, Serinus canaria with two Plasmodium strains, P.relictum and P. polare to investigate the link between Plasmodium infection and host oxidative stress. We monitored the infection dynamic in terms of changes in parasite intensity and host oxidative stress, measuring both pro-oxidant production and antioxidant defence traits. We looked at the effect of oxidative stress prior to infection on subsequent Plasmodium development as well as the effect of infection on oxidative stress. One component of oxidative stress prior to infection affected subsequent Plasmodium development. We further found that infection status, parasitaemia and Plasmodium strain affected oxidative stress during the course of infection. These results support that initial oxidative stress can play a role in affecting host susceptibility and that Plasmodium infection can also impose a further physiological stress on the host. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Coinvasion and Coinfection: evolution and adaptation in two invasive parasites infecting blue mussels (52369) Marieke E. Feis, K. Mathias Wegner. Alfred Wegener Institute; Alfred Wegener Institute. Biological invasions of parasites offer ideal opportunities to study coevolution in nature – especially when hosts are faced with repeated invasions of parasites. Such coinvasions not only lead to selection on the host but also to selection on parasites arising from direct competition. Here, we present data from a crossed coinfection experiment using two closely related copepod parasites that have invaded the Eastern Atlantic, infecting mussels. One is the specialist Mytilicola intestinalis that invaded from the Mediterranean Sea in the 1930ies and the other one is the generalist Mytilicola orientalis that invaded from Japan in the 1990ies. This system thus offers the opportunity to study host-parasite interactions along a gradient of different coevolutionary timescales and host specificity. Here we report the first results of this experiment on the phenotypic level focussing on the balance and trade-offs between host and parasite traits, i.e. infectivity – virulence for parasites and virulence - tolerance for hosts. We find different interactions along these trade-offs between both interactions. We also find that the generalist new invader is outcompeting the old invader. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Gene diversity of Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIβ alleles of Scandinavian anuran species (52376) *Maria Cortazar Chinarro, Ella Z. Lattenkamp, Yvonne Meyer-lucht, Anssi Laurila, Jacob Höglund. Uppsala University. Animal Ecology Department. Gene diversity of Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIβ alleles of Scandinavian anuran species. Amphibian populations face a multitude of threats, including habitat degradation, environmental change and infectious disease such as those caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) or Ranavirus, among others. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes play key roles in the vertebrate immune system response. MHC loci are the most polymorphic genes ever reported which are used by vertebrates to withstand newly emerging diseases. The proposed mechanism for why MHC is so polymorphic is balancing selection ultimately caused by parasites and pathogens. MHC Class II molecules bind to chopped up particles of bacteria and macroparasites that have been engulfed by macrophages. When MHC molecules present these particles on the cell surface of the macrophages, antibody production against the disease is induced. Using the Miseq sequencing platform and 10 different microsatellites markers, we investigated the patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation of five species of frogs along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. For one species, the moor frog (Rana arvalis), preliminary results show low gene

diversity at northern and southern latitudes and high gene diversity at intermediate latitudes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Disentangling genetic and parental effects in determining immune function in a simultaneously hermaphroditic snail (52420) Otto Seppälä, Laura Langeloh. Eawag / ETH Zürich. Parasites are an ubiquitous selective force in natural populations. Evolutionary change in defence traits, such as immune function, requires additive genetic variance in them. However, also parental (especially maternal) effects can be important in determining the strength of immune function, which could affect their evolution by altering the phenotypes on which selection can act. Therefore, understanding the relative role of genetic background and parental effects in determining expression of immune traits is highly important. We investigated variation in constitutive immune defence traits in a simultaneously hermaphroditic snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We compared phenoloxidase-like and antibacterial activity of snail haemolymph across pairs of full-sib families, each pair sharing the same two parents (i.e. same genetic background) but in reversed sex roles. We found that the variation in immune defence traits was largely dependent on the genetic background of snails (i.e. families sharing the same genetic background were often similar, but differed from families with different genetic backgrounds). However, also parental effects played a role indicated by differences between families in some of the family pairs. This suggests that parental effects (possibly due to immune priming) can add to evolution of defence traits against parasites. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Microbiota plays a role in oral immune priming in Tribolium castaneum (52476) Momir Futo, Joachim Kurtz. Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity. Animals are inhabited by a diverse community of microorganisms. The relevance of such microbiota is increasingly being recognised in a broad spectrum of species, ranging from sponges to primates, revealing various beneficial roles microbes can play. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum represents a well-established experimental model organism for studying questions in ecology and evolution, however, the relevance of its microbial community is still largely unknown. T. castaneum larvae orally exposed to inactivated bacterial components of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis showed increased survival upon a subsequent challenge with this bacterium. We explored the role of microbiota for oral immune priming in this species. To investigate whether T. castaneum microbiota plays a role

in this phenomenon, we established a protocol for raising germ-free larvae and subsequently tested whether they differ in their ability to mount such a priming response. Here we demonstrate that larvae, which lack their microbiota, show decreased survival upon secondary challenge with bacterial spores, compared to animals which still had, or were allowed to regain their microbiota before priming. Although the exact mechanism of oral immune priming is still unclear, we here suggest that the microbiota plays a crucial role in oral immune priming in this species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Not all MHC alleles are equal: different characteristics of MHC Class I alleles among song birds (52497) Emily O'Connor, Maria Strandh, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Dennis Hasselquist, Helena Westerdahl. Lund University. Molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) play a key role in protecting animals against infection by helping to determine which pathogens can be presented to the immune system for elimination. Song birds (i.e., passerines) appear to possess a larger number of MHC genes than most other animals. However, very little is currently known about potential differences in characteristics and functions among these gene copies which could influence the number of pathogens they recognise. We have used next generation amplicon sequencing to investigate MHC class I alleles for 12 candidate songbird species spanning the passerine radiation from each of the following families: Passeridae, Muscicapidae, Acrocephalidae, Sylviidae, Phylloscopidae and Paridae. We found three different MHC allele lengths with a strong phylogenetic signature in the distribution of these sequences among species. In some species these length differences were associated with evidence for different selection pressure. Furthermore, in species from Passeridae, Acrocephalidae and Paridae there were groups of alleles with strikingly little variation. This is counter to expectations for classical MHC genes where selection from a diverse pathogen fauna is expected to generate high allelic polymorphism. Potential implications for pathogen recognition of the observed differences in allele characteristics among species will be discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Use of Concanavalin A in skin-swelling test of immune responsiveness facilitates interpretation of the measurement in rodents (52532) Barbora Bílková, Tomáš Albrecht, Milada Chudíčková, Vladimír Holáň, Jaroslav Piálek, Michal Vinkler.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University; Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Květná 8, 603 65; Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083. Skin-swelling test is a widely used method to quantify immune responsiveness of free-living animals in immunoecological studies. This test is based on measuring magnitude of tissue swelling in the time after injection of an artificial inflammatory stimulant, most commonly phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). However, given the complexity of the immune response, interpretation of the test results is not completely clear. The aim of our study was to improve the test protocol to facilitate interpretation of the skin-swelling data. In mice, we compared cellular immune response to PHA and an alternative pro-inflammatory stimulant Concanavalin A (ConA). We measured magnitude of the tissue swelling and compared it with intensity of infiltration of blood cells into the tissue in a 72-hour time frame. Our results show that the response to ConA and PHA differs in time. ConA induces grater swelling with greater cellular activity and higher pro-inflamatory cytokine expression than PHA. Furthermore, after ConA injection, the magnitude of the swelling is positively associated with the cellular activity. Considering also the molecular binding specificity of the two lectins, we conclude that ConA is a more suitable stimulant for the skin-swelling test in rodents than PHA. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Evolution of specific resistance against bacterial infection: Based on genetically hard-wired or phenotypically plastic defences? (52582) Kevin Knoblich, Robert Peuß, Joachim Kurtz. University of Münster. Insect immune systems can provide their host with pathogen-specific protection, either via genetically hard-coded or acquired responses (genetic and phenotypic specificity, respectively). So far the evolution of phenotypic specificity is not well understood, in particular during the process of genetic adaption to a pathogen. Therefore, we experimentally selected the Coleoptera Tribolium castaneum for its ability to survive an infection with either one of four closely related strains of Bacillus thuringiensis or one of the two Gram-negative bacteria Lactococcus lactis and Pseudomonas fluorescence. Selection regimes consisted of immune priming (using heat-killed bacteria) followed by septic challenge (with the same bacteria as for priming, but alive). After 11 generations, we performed a full-factorial priming and challenge experiment to discriminate whether genetically hard-wired or phenotypically plastic immune specificity responded to selection. We found that the beetles evolved a slightly increased resistance for five out of the six bacteria species or strains. Resistance was specific for the bacterial species and even strain, i.e. there was no cross-resistance towards the other bacteria. Survival of the infection was not strongly affected by the priming treatment. This suggests that in this host-pathogen system, resistance evolution might mostly rely on genetically hard-wired rather than acquired defence components. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Host-mutualist and host-parasite coevolution in tripartite interactions (52586) Charlotte Rafaluk, Kayla King. University of Oxford. Host-parasite coevolution can drive rapid reciprocal adaptation. Several host- parasite coevolution experiments have been carried out to date demonstrating reciprocal coevolutionary change under laboratory conditions. In nature, however, hosts and parasites coexist in complex ecological communities, with different kinds of interaction taking place between different species pairs within the community. In communities where hosts and their parasites coexist, species that decrease the negative impacts caused by parasites to hosts, termed defensive mutualists, may have important effects on the dynamics of host-parasite coevolution. Additionally, coevolution is also likely to occur between the defensive mutualist and the host which may feedback in turn to effect host-parasite coevolution. In order to test whether host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics differ when a protective mutualist is present and to assess how hosts and mutualists coevolve, we are carrying out a coevolution experiment with: 1) treatments allowing a host species, Caenorhabditis elegans to coevolve with a parasite species, Staphylococcus aureus, in the presence and absence of an evolutionarily static defensive mutualist , Enterococcus faecalis; and 2) treatments allowing C. elegans to coevolve with a defensive mutualist, E. faecalis, in the presence and absence of an evolutionarily-static parasite, S. aureus. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Differential expression of MHC genes in three species of sparrows indicates conserved functional differences (52589) Anna Drews, Maria Strandh, Lars Råberg, Helena Westerdahl. Lund University. The Major Histocompatibility Complex, MHC, is an important component of the vertebrate immune system. MHC enables recognition of foreign antigens which triggers an immune response. MHC genes are highly variable and this variation is thought to be maintained by host-parasite interactions. Songbirds have a larger number of MHC genes than most vertebrates. However the individual function of these multiple copies are to a large extent unknown. We have therefore studied gene expression of different MHC gene copies, as a first estimate of their relative importance in the immune system, in three species of sparrows; house sparrows, tree sparrows and Spanish sparrows. All three species had a similar MHC organization containing MHC alleles with low variability. This group of alleles was significantly separated from all the remaining MHC alleles which were highly variable. We hypothesized that these alleles with low variability would be expressed to a lower degree than the other alleles. We used massively parallel amplicon sequencing to determine relative expression of the alleles. Not all alleles were expressed equally; the low variability alleles were expressed to a significantly lower degree. This conserved differential gene expression pattern among species suggests that there are MHC genes of different functions in sparrows.

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Interactions among co-infecting bacterial strains and fluke genotypes shape disease virulence (52654) Katja-Riikka Louhi, Lotta-Riina Sundberg, Jukka Jokela, Anssi Karvonen. University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Jyväskylä, Finland. ; Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.; ETH Zurich, Institute of Integrative Biology, Zürich, Switzerland.. It is common that several parasite or pathogen genotypes of the same or different species co infect a single host individual. Such co infection can intensify competition for host resources, favoring more competitive strains that are more virulent to the host. Here, we present the first evidence that the genetic identity of the co¬ infecting partners largely determines the virulence of co infections between bacterial strains and parasitic fluke genotypes, to a degree that the outcome cannot be predicted from the virulence of respective single infections. By measuring the overall disease virulence of single bacterial strains, single fluke genotypes, and combinations of reciprocal co infections, we demonstrate that co infection caused higher than predicted virulence and infection intensity in most strain genotype combinations, but not in all. We conclude that predicting the overall disease virulence may be much more complex than previously acknowledged, making it necessary to consider how genetic interactions among co infecting parasites affect disease dynamics and host health in different host parasite systems. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Acquired host responses erode advantages of co-infection by multiple parasite genotypes (52658) Ines Klemme, Katja-Riikka Louhi, Anssi Karvonen. University of Jyväskylä. Co-infections by multiple parasite genotypes or species are common and have important implications for host-parasite evolution through within-host interactions. Typically, these infections take place sequentially and thus, co-infection dynamics may be shaped by host immune responses targeted against previous infections. However, our understanding of these processes is limited. Here, we investigated whether acquired host resistance affects interactions between co-infecting parasite genotypes of the trematode eye-fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, infecting one of its intermediate hosts, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. We show that simultaneous attack of two genotypes facilitates parasite establishment in immunologically naïve hosts, which is in accordance with previous results. More importantly, we show that sequential infection and immune priming of the host erode this facilitation in infection, thus significantly altering the interactions between co-infecting

genotypes. Our results may have significant implications for the evolution of co-infections and parasite transmission strategies. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Defence by AMP synergies against variable parasites (52677) Monika Marxer, Paul Schmid-Hempel. ETH Zurich; ETH Zurich. In the model system of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris and its trypanosome parasite, Crithidia bombi, parasite populations are highly variable. We studied how hosts can defend themselves despite having genetically fixed immune repertoires. We show experimentally that variation in the concentrations of the expressed genes for anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) can keep different strains of the parasites specifically in check. This defence by “synergistic co*cktails” is an efficient and flexible strategy of defence against varaible and quickly changing parasites. Some evolutionary implications are discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

MHC and Borrelia in bank voles: Divergent allele advantage (52732) Kristin Scherman, Martin Andersson, Helena Westerdahl, Lars Råberg. Department of Biology, Lund University. Parasite-mediated selection is generally invoked to explain the extreme allelic diversity found in the vertebrate Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Balancing selection may operate either in the form of heterozygote advantage, or through the interaction of pathogens and specific MHC alleles. Moreover, heterozygotes with minimal overlap in antigen recognition should be selected for according to the divergent allele advantage hypothesis. Selection for divergence can also work on multiple genes favouring individuals that recognise a wider range of antigens. We surveyed allelic polymorphism at the MHC class II DQB gene in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) hosting Borrelia afzelii, a multi-strain infection causing Lyme disease in humans. Screening more than 500 individuals and a subset of families on DQB made it possible to group alleles from four loci in a haplotypic framework. We tested 12 different DQB haplotypes for associations with Borrelia. We found two significant associations between DQB haplotype and infection prevalence: one associated with resistance and the other with susceptibility. We found no evidence for heterozygote advantage but the average pairwise amino acid divergence (p-distance) was higher for voles with the protective haplotype than other voles. Conversely, voles with the susceptible haplotype had less divergent genotypes than other voles. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - GEN 2000

Transcriptomic response to pathogen challenges in leaf-cutting ants (52737) Morten Schiøtt, Sze Huei Yek, Jacobus J. Boomsma. University of Copenhagen. Social insects can be expected to experience a high selection pressure on their immune system, as their social lifestyle is prone to ease the spread of diseases. This is especially true for leaf-cutting ants due to their large colony size and the monoclonality of their fungal symbiont. Paradoxically genome sequencing projects have revealed that social hymenopterans such as the honey bee have fewer known immune genes than e.g. fruit flies, which may be attributed to social immunity of social insect colonies. Alternatively social insects may have evolved immune genes not known from insect model species. We examined the behavioural and gene expression (using RNA-seq) response in leaf-cutting ants after challenging both the ants and their fungal symbiont with either an ant pathogen (Metarhizium brunneum) or a fungus-garden pathogen (Escovopsis weberi). While the behavioural response by the ants was largely independent of pathogen identity, the gene expression response showed clear differences, and only inoculations with Metarhizium caused a large increase in the expression of known immune genes. Inoculations with Metarhizium also caused a pronounced upregulation of several genes of unknown function. These putative immune genes are currently being functionally analysed using RNAi knock-down methods and immune assays of heterologously expressed proteins. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Distribution of protective symbiont in natural populations (52749) Mélanie LECLAIR, Jean-Christophe SIMON, Yannick OUTREMAN. Université Rennes 1; INRA; Agrocampus-Ouest. A majority of species maintains associations with symbiotic microorganisms. They can change the ecology and evolution of their hosts by inducing a variety of effects on phenotype. Symbionts are most often heritable; phenotypes induced by symbiotic associations can be transmitted to subsequent generations. The obtained phenotypes can appear very beneficial for the host: some microbial symbionts allow their host to access a new food resource or be protected against their natural enemies. Although very beneficial, these symbiotic associations are sometimes poorly represented or absent in some natural populations. Our goal is to understand why a beneficial trait conferred by a symbiotic association is not spread in all host populations. To answer this question, the biological model used was the pea aphid and its optional bacterial symbiont leading to many phenotypic effects including protection against natural enemies. The distribution of these symbionts in different specialized populations of aphids was analyzed via numerous field surveys. Two major effects on the distribution of the symbionts, a priori beneficial, were tested: interactions between symbionts and properties of the host environment as pressure of natural enemies.

Our study reveals that distribution of the symbionts in natural populations is affected by many ecological and evolutionary factors and doesn’t respond to a simple relationship ‘profitfixing’. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Is There An Association Between Haemosporidian Parasite Infection And Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Genotype? (52759) Haslina Razali, Shinichi Nakagawa, Terry Burke. University of Sheffield; University of Otago. There is an enormous advantage to being polymorphic in the immune genes such as the major histocompatibility complex and toll-like receptors (TLRs) loci because this increases the chance of combating mutliple pathogens. TLRs are part of the first line of defence in the immune system. In humans, TLR4 and TLR7 have been found to be associated with malaria. We tested whether TLR polymorphism in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) has been shaped by local pathogenic pressure. We hypothesized that different malaria strains exert different selection pressures on the TLRs. Testing for infection with haemosporidian parasites, such as malaria, may result in false negatives, especially using PCR detection methods. The advent of next-generation sequencing enables more accurate detection and identification of haemosporidian parasites. Initial analyses detected two major malarial strains in the north and south islands of New Zealand. We screened seven TLR loci in this house sparrow population and report our results on their association with malaria infection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Superinfection and the coevolution of parasite virulence and host recovery (52802) Sara Kada, Sébastien Lion. CEFE, UMR 5175 CNRS, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5 France; Université de Montpellier 2. Parasite strategies of host exploitation may be affected by host defence strategies and multiple infections. In particular, within-host competition between multiple parasite strains has been shown to lead to higher virulence. However, little is known on how multiple infections could affect the coevolution between host recovery and parasite virulence. Here, we extend a coevolutionary model introduced by van Baalen [1] to account for superinfection. When the susceptibility to superinfection is low, we recover van Baalen’s results and show that there are two potential evolutionary endpoints: one with avirulent parasites and poorly defended hosts, and another one with high virulence and high recovery. However, when the susceptibility to superinfection is above a threshold, only the outcome where both virulence and defence are high remains. We discuss how different parasite and host strategies (facilitation, competitive

exclusion) as well as demographic and environmental parameters, such as host fecundity or various costs of defence, may affect the interplay between multiple infections and hostparasite coevolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

An examination of Dscam1 in the light of immunity, fecundity and behaviour (52864) Robert Peuß, Kristina U. Wensing, Luisa Woestmann, Hendrik Eggert, Barbara Milutinović, Marlene Sroka, Jörn P. Scharsack, Joachim Kurtz, Sophie A.O. Armitage. Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Münster; Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki; : Institute of Science and Technology Austria. Dscam1 (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1), has important neuronal functions and seems to play a role in immunity as well, which is however less -well understood. We took an integrative approach to understand more about the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum. At present there is a lack of consensus on the conditions under which Dscam1 expression changes after exposure to pathogens. We therefore tested whether exposure to the same bacteria species affects Dscam1 expression in two model insect species in a similar way. We found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 expression after septic or oral bacteria exposure. Furthermore we hypothesized, if Dscam1 is involved in immunity, RNAi-mediated knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure might result in reduced T. castaneum survival, but this was also not the case. Since Dscam1 is vital for nervous system development and is also expressed in the reproductive system we predicted that there may be a behaviour and fecundity cost to the knockdown. Indeed, Dscam1 knockdown as larvae resulted in significant changes in adult behaviour and fecundity-related traits. Our results take a step towards understanding more about the role of Dscam1 in immunity, fecundity and behaviour. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Ecological factors dictate the degeneration of induced immunity in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (52886) Gonçalo Matos, Nicky Wybouw, Nelson E. Martins, Maria Riga, John Vontas, Miodrag Grbic, Thomas van Leewen, Sara Magalhães, Élio Sucena. Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal; CE3C, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Laboratory of Agrozoology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent, Belgium; Faculty of Applied Biotechnology and Biology, University of Crete, Crete, Greece; Department of Biology University of Western Ontario, Canada; IBED,

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Nederlands; Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. The genome of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, is missing important elements of the canonical Drosophila immune pathways necessary to fight bacterial infections. Thus, the spider mite may rely on different mechanisms to mount an immune response or may have lost this response to pathogen aggression. We compared the consequences of bacterial infection in the spider mite that feeds on virtually aseptic plant cell contents, to infection in Sancassania berlesei, a litter-dwelling mite. Whereas in S. berlesei infections are kept under control, T. urticae does not mount a response and dies from uncontrolled bacterial proliferation. Furthermore, in accordance with their different ecologies, spider mites harbour three orders of magnitude fewer commensal bacteria than S. berlesei. We postulate that life-history has driven the loss of induced immune responses in T. urticae and is convergent with other arthropods with which it shares ecological conditions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Endosymbiont-mediated immune protection in a novel host species (52915) Tânia Paulo, Vitor G. Faria, Alexandre B. Leitão, Élio Sucena. Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência; Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Lisbon, Portugal. Host-symbiont relations are a key class of interactions present in natural populations. Drosophila melanogaster hosts several species of symbionts, such as Wolbachia, a gramnegative endosymbiont of arthropods, known to manipulate the host’s reproductive system for its own advantage. Yet, beneficial effects of Wolbachia infection have been unveiled also, namely that it confers protection to viral infection in D. melanogaster. Our first objective is to determine whether the viral protection conferred by the Wolbachia strain carried by Drosophila would operate in a novel host, the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi. Secondly, we wish to determine whether this protection can occur upon horizontal transmission from a Wolbachia-infected D. melanogaster host to the wasp host. We screened parasitoid wasps for horizontal transmission of one of two Wolbachia strains (wMel-like and wMel_CS) and infected them with Drosophila C Virus through systemic and oral routes. We estimate the maintenance of the distinct protective effects of different Wolbachia strains in its novel host. We will also determine if wasps can act as viral vectors between Drosophila hosts. In sum, this work will highlight the immediate ecological and evolutionary consequences that Wolbachia presence may confer to a novel host upon a naturally occurring event of horizontal transmission. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Local specialists and global generalists : understanding parasite diversification patterns within host communities at different spatial scales. (51657) Karen McCoy. CNRS. The parasitic environment is often both strongly spatially-structured and highly heterogeneous, and particularly so when parasites exploit a wide range of host species within local communities. At the scale of their global distribution, such parasites are often classified as host generalists, only to find that they are in fact composed of a series of local host specialists. Such is the case for the cosmopolitan seabird tick, Ixodes uriae. This ectoparasite commonly exploits colonial seabirds across the temperate and polar regions of both hemispheres. Host race formation has occurred multiple times across its worldwide distribution, with clear signatures of local adaptation to different host types within the local seabird community. Here, we use genetic markers and simulation modeling to explore the relative roles of selection and drift in the diversification process by retracing host colonization patterns at regional scales. We quantify both the frequency and direction of local host divergence events at the within-colony scale in three isolated regions of its distribution and place our results within the context of its historical phylogeography. Our results illustrate how understanding the origin of parasite diversity at different spatial scales can help us predict the evolution patterns in a changing world. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Linking morphologic and genetic divergence with host use in the tropical tick complex, Ornithodoros capensis sensu lato. (51659) Marlene Dupraz, Céline Toty, Valérie Noël, Jean-Pierre Dujardin, Thierry Boulinier, Karen McCoy. Université Montpellier; IRD; CNRS. Vector-borne diseases are often the result of a complex transmission cycle where a vector transmits a pathogen through numerous reservoir host species; the epidemiology of the pathogen being a consequence of host use by the vector. Vector-host interactions can be intense and host use by the vector is not always directly related to host availability. In order to understand pathogen transmission cycles, it is therefore essential to understand the local structure of vector populations within host communities. Soft ticks of the Ornithodoros capensis complex exploit colonial seabirds in tropical-subtropical areas across the globe. Morphological resemblances among species and a lack of genetic data have limited our ability to clarify the local and global phylogenetic positions of the species of this complex. Here, we link phenotypic and genetic data to understand geographical distributions and host relationships within this complex. We test whether host use is always accompanied by the same phenotypic changes and, if these changes are associated with patterns of genetic divergence. We find that strong host associations, closely linked to genetic structure, exist across the complex suggesting that speciation in the group has been strongly shaped by host adaptation and that geography plays only a secondary role.

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Phylogenetic patterns in species diversity (51760) Eric Lewitus, Helene Morlon. Institut de Biologie, Ecole Normale Supérieure. Our understanding of any biological phenomena is guided by our ability to identify what is universal and what is specific. In the particular case of species diversity, identifying features of diversification universal to all clades and specific to certain clades could allow us to derive a general model of the evolution of species richness. Here, we introduce a method based on phylogenetic trees — trees defining species relationships over evolutionary time — that allows such an identification. We treat phylogenies as graphs and characterize them by the spectrum of the graph Laplacian. This allows us to quantitatively and visually compare phylogenies both across and within clades and to identify features of diversification universal to all clades and specific to certain clades. Because biological systems are most aptly explained by the distribution of their parts, graph theory is, in general, well suited for deciphering the organization of biological networks. The spectrum of the graph Laplacian is shown here, in its application to phylogenetic trees, to be particularly useful in identifying evolutionary patterns in species diversity. We illustrate our approach with birds and mammals. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Resistance to invasive congener’s pollen in Japanese dandelion: reproductive character displacement in response to biological invasion? (51761) Daisuke Kyogoku. Kyoto University. Japanese dandelion, Taraxacum japonicum, has declined in abundance in the last several decades due to the invasion of common dandelion, T. officinale. The decline is thought to be due to reproductive interference; seed production of T. japonicum, which is self-incompatible, is reduced by T. officinale pollen even when sufficient amount of compatible pollen is pollinated. However, recently I found a place where T. japonicum is apparently recovering from population decline. The recovery of T. japonicum population suggests the evolution of resistance to T. officinale pollen. In a preliminary experiment, I found that the seed production of T. japonicum in that population was not affected by T. officinale pollen, a consistent result with my prediction. T. japonicum may be being evolutionarily rescued by the evolution of resistance to heterospecific pollen. To make the hypothesis testing vigorous, the same experiment needs to be performed in other sites both where T. japonicum population is recovering and where it is not.

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Correlation of the intraspecific diversity patterns of benthic invertebrates with the microbial community functioning (51843) Katerina Vasileiadou, Christina Pavloudi, Anastasis Oulas, Giorgos Kotoulas, Christos Arvanitidis. IMBBC-HCMR; Biology Department, University of Patras; Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ghent; Department of Microbial Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bremen. Transitional water ecosystems host a number of habitats with temporally and spatially variable conditions, thus they can be very useful in understanding the mechanisms affecting population establishment. Samples were collected from lagoons located in Amvrakikos Gulf (Western Greece). These ecosystems are characterized by increased hypoxia and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, which is produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. It has been suggested that burrowing polychaetes may cause substantial changes in oxygenation and redox potential of surficial and burrow-lining sediments, that may have a significant effect on the bacterial assemblages. The polychaete Nephtys hombergii is one of the most abundant species found in the lagoons. A fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (COI gene) was analyzed from this species. Sediment DNA was extracted and processed through next generation sequencing of a region of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) gene, which is found in sulfate reducing bacteria. The C-score index was used to quantify patterns of taxa co-occurrence. The observed values for this index were significantly different from that of simulated assemblages suggesting that the patterns of species co-occurrence do not arise by chance and that the genetic diversity of benthic assemblages may be driven by the microbial community functions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Interlopers or welcome guests? The role of non-protective invertebrates in an ant–plant mutualism (52066) Joyshree Chanam, MS Sheshshayee, Srinivasan Kasinathan, Amaraja Jagdeesh, Kanchan A. Joshi, Renee M. Borges. National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore; University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore; Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. How a symbiosis originates and is maintained is an important evolutionary question. Symbioses in myrmecophytes (plants providing shelter for ants) are believed to be maintained by protection and nutrition provided by specialist plant-ants in exchange for nesting spaces (domatia) and nourishment offered by ant-plants. In the unspecialised ant-plant Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae), which offers extrafloral nectar to ants, only some plants have domatia. These domatia are occupied mostly by non-protective ants and invertebrates, especially

arboreal earthworms; protection mutualism with ants is restricted to a small part of the plant's geographical range. Stable isotope analysis showed that 8% (earthworms) to 17% (protective or non-protective ants) of nitrogen of plant tissue nearest the domatium came from domatiainhabitants. 15N-enriched feeding experiments with domatia-inhabitant ants demonstrated nutrient flux from domatia-inhabitants to nearby plant modules from domatia-bearing branches. This study is the first to demonstrate nutritive role of non-protective ants and nonant invertebrates, hitherto referred to as interlopers, in an unspecialised myrmecophyte. This suggests that even in the absence of specialised ant–plant protection mutualism, nutritional benefits conferred by domatia-inhabitants can explain fitness benefits of bearing domatia, and thus might have had a role in the origin and maintenance of this symbiosis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Interspecific interactions influence contrasting spatial genetic structures in two closely related damselfly species (52112) Aapo Kahilainen, Inka Keränen, Katja Kuitunen, Janne S. Kotiaho, K. Emily Knott. Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä; Department of Mathematical Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä; Natural History Museum, University of Jyväskylä. Spatial genetic structure (SGS) is largely determined by colonization history, landscape and ecological characteristics of the species. Therefore, sympatric and ecologically similar species should exhibit similar SGSs, potentially enabling prediction of the SGS of one species from that of another. On the other hand, due to interspecific interactions, ecologically similar species could have different SGSs. We explored the SGSs of the closely related Calopteryx splendens and Calopteryx virgo within Finland and related the genetic patterns to characteristics of the sampling localities. We observed different SGSs for the two species. Genetic differentiation within short distances in C. splendens suggests genetic drift as an important driver. However, we also observed indication of previous gene flow (revealed by a negative relationship between genetic differentiation and increasing potential connectivity of the landscape). Interestingly, genetic diversity of C. splendens was negatively related to density of C. virgo, suggesting that interspecific interactions influence the SGS of C. splendens. In contrast, genetic differentiation between C. virgo subpopulations was low and only exhibited relationships with latitude, suggesting high gene flow, colonization history and range margin effects as the drivers of SGS. The different SGSs of the two species caution indirect inferences of SGS based on ecologically similar surrogate species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Invasion triggers rapid phenotypic evolution in a native freshwater snail species (52277) Elodie Chapuis, Thomas Lamy, Jean-Pierre Pointier, Philippe Jarne, Patrice David.

IRD; EPHE; CNRS. A successful invasive species and a closely related native species occupying similar niches may coexist in a community through niche or character displacement. We here evaluate whether the invasion of the metacommunity of freshwater snails from Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles) by Physa acuta is associated with a modification in life-history traits in the related species Aplexa marmorata, or in the invader itself. We study 21 populations of A. marmorata and 16 of P. acuta, which have been in contact with the other species from zero to eleven years. Reproduction, growth and survival were measured under common garden conditions. Our analyses show that several traits have changed in the native species as a result of fast evolution while the invasive species was hardly affected. Our analysis also indicates that local changes in the environment or in the snail community do not explain these modifications. These results therefore show that bioinvasions may trigger fast phenotypic evolution. They also are of interest for theories of species interaction and community assembly. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Spatial genetic structures of strongly interacting species at different trophic levels in a fragmented landscape (52426) Abhilash Nair, Christelle Couchoux, Saskya van Nouhuys. University of Helsinki; Cornell University. The genetic structures of species that interact trophically are interrelated, and differ depending on resource specialization and dispersal behaviour. The Glanville fritillary butterfly, Melitaea cinxia, lives as a metapopulation in the Aland islands, Finland. The butterfly hosts multiple parasitoid species at different trophic levels. Its caterpillars are parasitized by a specialist parasitoid wasp, Hyposoter horticola, which itself is parasitized by the specialist hyperparasitoid wasp, Mesochorus stigmaticus. Studying the genetic differentiation of these strongly interacting species helps us to understand the influence of landscape fragmentation on demographic histories and evolution of spatial genetic structure in mulitrophic communities. The host butterfly populations are highly differentiated spatially and genetically in this fragmented landscape, with a high number of genetic clusters (n=27). In contrast, the parasitoids, which depend on the host butterfly and inhabit the same landscape, have weak spatial genetic structure (FST = 0.02-0.06) and fewer genetic clusters (n=3-8), with the hyperparasitoid having less structure than the primary parasitoid. This is expected because the parasitoids are much more dispersive than the host butterfly, resulting in weaker spatial genetic differentiation. They are however, constrained by the population dynamics and dispersal limitation of the host butterfly in the fragmented landscape -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Viral diversity in ant communities (52459) Matthias, Alois Fürst, Thomas Eder, Thomas Rattei, Sylvia Cremer.

IST Austria; University of Vienna; University of Vienna; IST Austria. Viruses are important infectious pathogens, regularly causing epidemics in societies, whether human or social insect. While research has made considerable progress in understanding viral infections in vertebrate societies, our knowledge in social insects is nearly exclusive to honey bees as important pollinators and fire ants, a serious pest species. Almost all studies available focus on single viral infections rather than multiple viruses present in a host population, taking the pathogen community into account. In this study we explore the natural viral component communities, different virus species populating a single host species, of three host ant species from three different subfamilies across various sampling sites. Next generation sequencing allows us to catch the whole viral diversity within the sampled host populations. We will highlight conserved viral community patterns within single host species across our sampling sites. For a deeper understanding of natural host pathogen systems the new techniques at hand offer valuable insights into complex ecological communities like multihost multi-pathogen systems. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

From mutualism to parasitism: variation of toxicity in communities of mimetic butterflies (52547) Mónica Arias, Johanna Mappes, Bastien Nay, Marianne Elias, Marc Théry, Violaine Llaurens. UMR 7205. CNRS-MNHN. Institut de Systématique, Evolution et Biodiversité. Batiment d’entomologie. 45; University of Jyväskylä. Department of Biological and Environmental Science P.O. Box 35 FI-40014 Uni; UMR 7245. CNRS-MNHN. Molécules de Communication et Adaptation des Micro-organismes, 57 rue Cuvier; UMR 7179. CNRS-MNHN. MECADEV 1 avenue du petit château 91800 Brunoy (France). Müllerian mimicry is the evolutionary convergence of several toxic species towards common warning signals and an example of mutualistic interactions driving species assemblage. Common local warning signals allow toxic species to share predator learning costs. However, such signals vary within natural communities, perhaps due to toxicity levels variation. Less defended species might weaken the protection brought by the shared signals, promoting new warning signals and associated mimetic communities. To investigate the role of toxicity variation in the warning signal diversity of the mimetic communities, we focused on toxic and brightly coloured neotropical butterflies from the genus Heliconius and a distantly related tribe, Ithominii. Several mimetic communities include several species from one or both clades. The Heliconius butterflies’ toxicity relies on cyanogenic compounds, whereas Ithominii butterflies present pyrrolizidine alkaloids. A characterization of the compounds found in both clades and a dosage analysis were done, providing information about the toxicity levels variation among various phylogenetic distance species. Additionally, the toxicity variation effect on the rejection of different butterflies by predators, was tested through behavioural experiments with insectivorous wild caught birds (Parus major). Our results provide new insights on the effect of toxicity variation on species and colour pattern diversity of mimetic communities.

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Ploidy level and genome size influence angiosperm species distributions under different nutrient conditions. (52623) Maite Guignard, Ilia Leitch, Richard Nichols, Rob Knell, Catalina-Andreea Romila, Andy MacDonald, Mark Trimmer, Andrew Leitch. Queen Mary University of London; 2Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Queen Mary University of London; Queen Mary University of London; Queen Mary University of London; Rothamsted Research; Queen Mary University of London; Queen Mary University of London. Angiosperm species display a 2400-fold wide range in genome size and ploidy levels as high as 38 are estimated. Focusing on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, we hypothesise that ploidy and genome size influence angiosperm distributions and abundance under different nutrient regimes. Angiosperm genomes are strongly skewed towards small values, suggesting selection for small genomes. A potential source of selection is N and P availability, since large genomes are more costly in terms of the N and P needed to make nucleic acids. We analysed the impact of fertilizer treatments on angiosperm species with different genome sizes, ploidy levels, and Grime’s C-S-R plant strategies, growing in the world’s longest running ecological experiment, Park Grass (Rothamsted, UK). Genome sizes of species growing on plots with N+P fertilizer were significantly higher than plants growing on control plots and plots with either N or P. Polyploids also increased most significantly with N+P fertilizer, in particular polyploids with a strong C (competitor) strategy. These results are consistent with the hypothesized influence of large genome size on plant abundance under macronutrient limitation. They also suggest that ploidy and genome size are functional traits which contribute to plant distributions, community composition, and plant responses under different nutrient conditions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Unraveling the role of host traits in predicting host parasite assemblages (52635) Alexander Hayward, Masahito Tsuboi, Christian Owusu, Alexander Kotrschal, Josefina Zidar, Hanne Løvlie, Niclas Kolm. Stockholm University; Uppsala University; Linköping University. Parasites are common and abundant members of ecological communities. Additionally, parasites impose a range of host impacts, leading to major influences on community composition and function. However, despite their widely appreciated ecological and evolutionary significance, little is known about the factors that determine the great variation in parasite load observed among host species. Specifically, understanding remains lacking regarding the influence of host species traits, such as diet, body size, habitat usage, phylogeny

and mating system, on the abundance and diversity of parasites. To address this question, we sampled a wide range of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes, a model system in speciation research, and their gut macroparasites. This powerful approach, combining an extensive field sample with comparative evolutionary analysis, permits us to tease apart the relative influence of a large set of host traits on the abundance, diversity, prevalence and spread of parasites. Our findings suggest that the species richness of hosts occupying a habitat is the dominant factor in dictating differences in parasite diversity, abundance, and prevalence, while mating system explains skew in the distribution of parasites across individuals within a species. Our results provide unique new insights into the factors that govern variation in parasite assemblages across host species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The distribution and phylogeography of an important pollinator parasite (52665) Regula Schmid-Hempel, Paul Schmid-Hempel. ETH Zürich. Crithidia spp, especially C. bombi, are important parasites of bumblebees; in turn, bumblebees are key pollinators in temperate and cold areas. Work over the last decade has shown that Crithidia are more diverse than realized before and that they occur in most of the areas so far investigated, forming communities of co-shared parasites. Here, we report on the worldwide distribution and communities of these parasites. The findings have implications of the study of host invasions into different areas,e g. South America, as well as for the problem of possible parasite spillovers as has been reprorted for several cases. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Rapid evolution alters natural microbial community structure (52683) Pedro Gómez, K. McElroy, L. Xuan, S. Paterson, M.D. Sharma, A. Buckling. Biosciences, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus. TR109FE, UK; Centre for Marine BioInnovation and School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, UNSW, AUS; Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK. There is growing acceptance of the key role that evolution occurring over ecological time scales plays in shaping the structure and function of communities. However, while there are numerous demonstrations in laboratory settings, studies in natural communities have only reported affects when evolutionary change, although rapid, occurred over much longer time scales than the ecological time scales of the experiments. We determine whether and how rapid evolution of a single resident species affects the structure of a soil microbial community, where evolutionary and ecological changes occur over comparable time scales. We compared how the presence of ancestral or pre-adapted (for 48 days) populations of the soil bacterium

Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 affected the natural microbial community structure in soilcompost over 2 months. The pre-adapted P. fluorescens bacteria both reduced the density and altered the composition of the resident community, a key feature of the latter being a large reduction in the proportion of resident Pseudomonads – the species most related to the preadapted focal species. Our results show that evolution of a single microbial species over ecological time scales predictably alters natural community structure by outcompeting genetically (and presumably ecologically) similar species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Agricultural landscapes influence the repartition of traits on carabid beetles. (52748) Alexia Marie, Manuel Plantegenest. Agrocampus-ouest. The intensification of agriculture and its consequences on landscapes are considered as a major cause of biodiversity decline. The composition of landscape affects diversity of arthropods in particular through the diversity of available habitats. Indeed, a general trend that landscape heterogeneity is positively correlated with specific richness is well documented. On an applied point of view, this loss of biodiversity affects ecosystem services that it provided, especially, pest regulation service provided by natural enemies’ diversity. However, an approach based on species traits at the community level can highlight strategies that allow species to settle and to maintain themselves in an environment, and in the same time, identify filters that favor benefic traits for biological control. During this study, we focused on carabid beetles which are considered as good natural enemies on several pests. The work consisted in finding links between landscape composition and traits at the community level. The beetles were trapped on 57 fields spread on 3 different regions of West of France. An analysis on fields according to their landscape characteristics showed an opposition between two agricultural systems: cereals farms and breeding farms. For each system, particular traits were found, showing an opposition between two strategies. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Phylogeography and taxonomy of Arabidopsis halleri across its distributional range (52786) Gabriela f*cková, Eliška Záveská, Filip Kolář, Magdalena Lučanová, Stanislav Španiel, Karol Marhold. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; Institute of Botany, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Průhonice, Czech Republic; Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

Arabidopsis halleri comprises about five subspecies and represents an important model species for the study of heavy metal tolerance and phytoremediation. Nevertheless, the so far unclear evolutionary history and provisional taxonomy may hamper correct interpretation on the evolution of these important traits within the species. A. halleri is a perennial, clonal and self-incompatible plant. Four subspecies tentatively recognised (A. halleri subsp. halleri, subsp. dacica, subsp. ovirensis, subsp. tatrica) are centred in Central Europe, while the last one, A. halleri subsp. gemmifera occurs in Japan and the Far East. Despite representatives of A. halleri are purely diploid (2n=16), a high morphological variation combined with geographic differentiation stand behind complex and still unresolved taxonomy of the group. Using six microsatellite loci and AFLP’s we aimed to reveal phylogeographic structure of this lineage and to find correlations with the results of morphological analyses. We collected 450 samples from 40 populations across its whole European range in the Carpathian Mountains, the Dinaric and Balkan Mountains, the Bohemian Massif, the Alps and comparative material of A. halleri subsp. gemmifera from Japan . Our results indicate simpler genetic structure with three main groups within the European area generally correlated with geographical distribution, not with the current taxonomic concept. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Evolution of a community of a multiple-strain tick-borne pathogen during 11 years: Is fitness a good predictor? (52836) Jonas Durand, Maarten Voordouw. Laboratory of Ecology and Evolution of Parasites, University of Neuchâtel. Borrelia afzelii is a tick-borne spirochete that causes Lyme disease in humans. The polymorphic ospC gene of B. afzelii codes for the immunodominant outer surface protein C and is a useful strain-specific marker. Previous genetic studies on the ospC gene found a pattern of balancing selection. One explanation is that the host immune system targets common ospC groups, thereby reducing their frequency over time. We examined the diversity of ospC groups in a local population of Ixodes ricinus ticks infected by B. afzelii (n=196) over 11 years (2000-2010). We used 454-sequencing to characterize the ospC community in each tick. We also used experimental infections of mice to estimate the intrinsic fitness of six B. afzelii ospC strains in the lab. We found that the frequency distribution of the B. afzelii ospC groups was stable over the duration of the study. Our laboratory estimates of strain fitness explained over 65% of the variation in the strain-specific frequencies in the field. The pattern of genetic variation at the ospC locus suggested there was strong selection against intermediately divergent ospC alleles. Our results are consistent with theoretical models on how acquired immunity structures multistrain pathogen populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The Role of Plant-Microbe-Insect interactions in driving rapid evolution using Medicago polymorpha as an experimental system (52990) Chandra Jack, Maren Friesen. Michigan State University. Invasive plant species leave behind coevolved herbivores and competitors when they invade novel environments. In these new environments, they face new biotic conditions that they must adapt to in order to become established. This includes multitrophic interactions with microbes and insects. Historically, these interactions were studied in two group interactions (plant-microbe or plant-insect) (Biere and Tack 2013). Yet, evidence suggests that these interactions are driven either directly or indirectly by a third party and can alter ecological and evolutionary outcomes (Heath and Lau, 2011). Our work explores the role of simultaneously interacting with beneficial microbes and insect herbivores in the evolution of Medicago polymorpha, a small invasive legume, in novel environments to determine the importance of multitrophic level interactions on rapid evolution and the success of invasive species as they enter new territories. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Host-microbiota interactions during adaptation to different nutritional conditions in Drosophila melanogaster (51830) Berra Erkosar, Sylvain Kolly, Jan Roelof van der Meer, Tadeusz Kawecki. DEE-UNIL; DMF-UNIL. In the last decade, Drosophila emerged as a model to study host-microbiota interactions. Compared to mammals, Drosophila has a relatively simple microbiota that is mainly composed of aero-tolerant species, belonging to Lactobacillales and Acetobacteraceae families, which were previously shown to influence host digestive function and/or metabolism, that in turn impacts hormonal pathways and juvenile growth. Our major aim is to identify the role of gut microbiota during evolutionary adaptation to different nutritional conditions. To do this, we use experimentally evolved Drosophila populations that are maintained in distinct diets over numerous generations. During this period, fly populations got adapted to their nutritive regime causing remarkable phenotypes in terms of life history traits. By performing microbiota transplants among populations that are kept in distinct nutritional regimes, we aim to understand better how microbiota evolves on different food sources and how it contributes to host phenotypes that emerged upon adaptation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Can different biocontrol agents be combined to develop evolutionary-proof biocontrol method against Ralstonia solanacearum plant pathogen? (51897)

Zhong Wei, Xiaofang Wang, Ville Petri Friman, Yangchun Xu, Qirong Shen, Alexandre Jousset. Nanjing Agricultural University; UK-based University of York; Utrecht University. Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) is a notorious soilborne plant pathogen. It has been demonstrated that many biocontrol methods including interference competition and parasitic phages might efficiently suppress RS disease. However, the long-term effectiveness or combinatory effects of different biocontrol methods have been less studied. For example, it is possible that RS could rapidly evolve resistance to single biocontrolling bacteria or phages. However, it is less likely that RS would evolve resistance simultaneously to different biocontrol agents. Here we tested this directly in realtime co-evolution experiments where we cultured RS bacterium with antagonistic antibiotic-producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciences T5 strain and RS-specific phage pQL2014 alone or in combination. Besides tracking population dynamics , we also measured RS resistance evolution against different biocontrol agents. Our results show that B. amyloliquefaciences T-5 strain offered relatively more long-term protection against RS, while bacteria evolved resistance to phage pQL2014 within 4 days. Surprisignly, phage selection constrained the inhibitory effect of B. amyloliquefaciences T-5 strain. Using multiple biocontrol agents simultaneously could thus potentially reduce the effectiveness of each single biocontrol agent. Applying different biocontrol agents sequentially will be discussed. This work provides an important step toward understanding the resistance evolution of R. solanacearum against different biocontrol agents. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

More than just density: different paths to the evolution of larval competitive ability (51908) Manaswini Sarangi. JNCASR. In D. melanogaster, series of studies on adaptation to larval crowding has led to an understanding about enhanced competitive ability being strongly correlated with increase in feeding rate and waste tolerance. This has been shown to be at the expense of lowered food to biomass conversion efficiency. More recent studies from our laboratory suggest that there are alternative routes to the evolution of adaptation to larval crowding in Drosophila populations. We show that populations of D. melanogaster when subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability by a combination of different suite of traits which includes faster egg to adult development and greater food to biomass conversion efficiency. This is in contrast to what had been seen earlier in similar selection experiments, that there was neither elevated feeding rate nor enhanced tolerance to nitrogenous waste in the culture. We did certain experiments in which we observed subtle changes in the ecology of laboratory-adapted Drosophila populations under slightly different maintenance regimes can potentially affect the suite of traits that evolve in response to chronic larval crowding. We discuss the findings in the perspective of how the balance of food availability and build-up of nitrogenous waste can potentially affect the fitness of different traits underlying competitive ability.

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Shape matters: lifecycle of cooperative patches promotes cooperation in bulky populations (51977) Dusan Misevic, Antoine Frénoy, Ariel B. Lindner, François Taddei. INSERM U1001,University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité. Natural cooperative systems take many forms, ranging from one-dimensional cyanobacteria arrays to fractal-like biofilms. We use in silico experimental systems to study a previously overlooked factor in the evolution of cooperation, physical shape of the population. We compare the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in populations of digital organisms that inhabit bulky (100x100 cells) or slender (4x2500) toroidal grids. Although more isolated sub-populations of secretors in a slender population could be expected to favor cooperation, we find the opposite: secretion evolves to higher levels in bulky populations. We identify the mechanistic explanation for the shape effect by analyzing the lifecycle and dynamics of cooperator patches, from their emergence and growth, to invasion by non-cooperators and extinction. Because they are constrained by the population shape, the cooperator patches expand less in slender than in bulky populations, leading to fewer cooperators, less public good secretion, and generally lower cooperation. The patch dynamics and mechanisms of shape effect are robust across several digital cooperation systems and independent of the underlying basis for cooperation (public good secretion or a cooperation game). Our results urge for a greater consideration of population shape in study of the evolution of cooperation across experimental and modeling systems. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Co-evolutionary constraint after the true domestication of fungal crops by attine ants (51980) Jonathan Z. Shik, Ernesto Gomez, William T. Wcislo, Jacobus J. Boomsma. Centre for Social Evolution, University of Copenhagen; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Republic of Panama; Centre for Social Evolution, University of Copenhagen. Unlike humans, attine ants receive all of their nutrition from a single food crop, obligately farming fungus for over 50 million years. Around 20 MYA, the attines domesticated a specialized fungal lineage capable of concentrating nutrients in special organs (staphylae with gongylidia). Despite this innovation, attine colony-farms remained small (100 workers) until 12 MYA when the genus Atta began using fresh-cut leaves as compost to produce massive fungus gardens sustaining millions of ants. Towards explaining this transition, we used geometric framework experiments to compare the nutritional ecology of two Panamanian rainforest attines: Atta colombica (industrial-scale farmer) and Trachymyrmex cornetzi

(small-scale sister lineage). We found that A. colombica produces faster-growing fungus that is more robust to nutritionally imbalanced compost. In contrast, T. cornetzi workers are extremely averse to harvesting substrate with excess protein because this induces fungusgarden collapse and constrains colony growth. Moreover, T. cornetzi (but not A. colombica) faces nutritional compromises between maximizing fungus growth (fueled by carbohydrates) and staphylae production (fueled by protein). Our results shed new light on how nutritional adaptations helped leaf-cutting ants overcome co-evolutionary constraints in selection for crop improvement and achieve symbiotic complementarity that gave rise to the most advanced societies of farming ants. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The simplicity and complexity of the attine ant gut microbiota: living within a symbiotic network (52071) Panagiotis Sapountzis, Mariya Zhukova, Lars H. Hansen, Søren J. Sørensen, Morten Schiøtt, Jacobus J. Boomsma. Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen; Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk,; Molecular Microbial Ecology Group, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen. The attine fungus-growing ants are a monophyletic group that switched to an almost exclusive fungal diet ca. 50 MYA. They are a model of complex symbiosis and have several fungal and bacterial symbionts. We obtained comparative and functional gut-microbiome data for 19 Panamanian species, representing 8 genera, which are dominated by few bacterial species belonging mostly to the Alpha-Proteobacteria and Mollicutes. These bacteria are located in specific gut tissues with some being found intracellularly. Rhizobiales species were among the most abundant gut bacteria and mediated the acquisition of nitrogen via the expression of NifH proteins in the hindgut where they form a biofilm. Guts and surrounding organs of higher attine, and particularly leaf-cutting, ants harbor most of these bacteria, consistent with the symbiosis being protein-limited in spite of increasing specialization of the crop fungus over evolutionary time. The composition of the gut microbiota appears to be correlated with the presence or absence of a cuticular microbiome of actinomycete bacteria: attine species that maintain cuticular actinomycetes had more stable gut microbiomes, possibly because the antibiotics produced by these bacteria protect gut microbiomes against invasion by nonsymbiotic bacteria. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Host genotype × environment interaction change the microbial community of Daphnia (52177) Karen Sullam, Samuel Pichon, Tobias Schär, Dieter Ebert. University of Basel.

The environmental conditions and genetic background are believed to shape the composition of host-associated microbiota. It is unclear if the environment or the host genotype has the predominant role in shaping the microbiota of the host and whether they interact in doing so. We evaluated the effect of environment (temperature), host genotype, and their interaction on the composition of microbiota by using the cyclic parthenogenetic freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. We used 21 different clones of D. magna from a wide geographic range, reared at 20 and 28 °C, to focus on microbial diversity and the abundance of indicator taxa under different environmental conditions. Our analysis reveals strong genetic, temperature and G x E interaction effects on the microbiota of D. magna, including a shift in overall community structure. Additionally, the abundance of certain microbial constituents shift consistently at higher temperatures across clones, while others exhibit clone-specific characteristics and change minimally across temperature conditions. The disparity in reactions of microbes to different temperatures and clones highlights their complex interactions with the environment and their host. This work enables a better understanding of the genotypic and environmental controls and selective forces that shape the variation found within a host’s microbiota. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Chemical warfare no solution against parasite attack: Tribolium castaneum vs. Beauveria bassiana (52199) Gerrit Joop, Charlotte Rafaluk, Yang Wentao, Andreas Mitschke, Philip Rostenstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg. University of Giessen; University of Oxford; University of Kiel. The beetle Tribolium castaneum disposes an extended external immune defence, in addition to the classical invertebrate immune defence, coming with broad antimicrobial properties. Here, we wanted to gain a better understanding of if and how this external defence responds upon contact with a parasite and how the two interact. We conducted a coevolution experiment with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, taking the host and the parasite perspective. In the host we measured levels of internal and external immune traits throughout the experiment and survival as a proxy of resistance against the fungus. In the parasite, we tested for fungal virulence towards the host as well as for potential resistance against the host's external secretion, combined with a transcriptomics approach. While no obvious change in host external immunity or survival was observed as a consequence of host-parasite coevolution, we were able to show that B. bassiana increased in virulence during the course of coevolution, based on the fungal isolates evolving resistance to the external immune defences of T. castaneum. Results present a rare example of an experimentally coevolved increase in virulence, where the exact barrier of host immune defence overcome by the parasite has been described, the external secretion of quinones. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Heterosis in yeast increases with parental divergence and environmental stress (52247) Joana Bernardes. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology. Reproduction between genetically different parents often leads to F1 offspring with enhanced traits, a concept known as heterosis. While the phenomenon itself can be easily described using familiar genetic concepts (dominance, over-dominance and epistasis), the underlying molecular mechanisms for heterosis are still unknown. We tested the genetic and environmental factors that influence the strength of heterosis, using a set of sequenced and phenotyped yeast strains. We accurately measured heterosis in 45 heterozygous F1 hybrids, by competing them with their hom*ozygous parental strains. F1 hybrids were on average 4% fitter than their mean parent. Interspecific crosses were significantly fitter than the intraspecific crosses, thus genetic distance was positive correlated with the strength of heterosis. We then tested a representative interspecific F1 hybrid under a range of extreme environmental conditions to measure how the strength of heterosis was affected. We found an increase of heterosis under stress. Next we will use transcriptome data to test if there is a general molecular mechanism underlying heterosis at a multigenic level. For this, we will test if the hybrids may be able to preferential express certain alleles for a specific environment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Stability and variation in the gut and fungus comb microbial communities in fungus-growing termites (52287) Saria Otani, Michael Poulsen. University of Copenhagen. The higher termite subfamily, Macrotermitinae, domesticated a plant-degrading fungus, Termitomyces, 30MYA. The adoption of Termitomyces has shaped fungus-growing termite gut microbiotas to become different from those of other termites and predicts that the external fungus combs could inhabit specialised bacteria communities. Using 16S rRNA highthroughput sequencing, we investigated the bacterial community compositions in fungusgrowing termites by analysing guts of nine termite species from the Ivory Coast, 33 different fungus combs from four termite species and four sites in South Africa over two years, and 134 gut samples from worker and soldier castes from four South African Macrotermitinae species. Forty-two bacteria form a core community in Macrotermitinae guts and this core is more similar to co*ckroach microbiotas than those of other termites, with signals of termite phylogenetic ancestry. Comb communities were non-random, more variable than gut microbiotas, and shaped by gut content and time, likely due to environmental fluctuations. Gut microbiotas are expected to be shaped by caste more than species or colony, as gut communities are influenced by caste-specific functions. These results imply the uniqueness of fungus-growing termite microbiotas; both in guts and fungus combs, and that variation exist among castes and different genera as finer adaptations to specific lifestyles.

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Eco-evolutionary dynamics of a predator-prey system provide insight into the paradox of enrichment (52416) Gökçe Ayan, Lutz Becks. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology. Resource enrichment might cause destabilization of a predator-prey system. However, it might stabilize the system by accelerating coevolutionary dynamics and diversification due to increased population sizes of interacting species. Coexistence of different prey types might also stabilize the system via preventing the predator to overexploit a specific prey type. Here, we combine these aspects in ciliate-bacteria (predator-prey) microcosm experiments to test for coevolution with resource enrichment in hom*ogeneous and heterogeneous environments. We followed the population dynamics, measured the diversification in the prey as well as important traits such as the prey’s grazing resistance, and the predator’s counter adaptation over time. We found that with resource enrichment the extinction of predator occurred when there was no diversification in the prey (i.e. in hom*ogeneous environments), whereas coexistence of predator and prey lasted 60 days in heterogeneous environments. We also showed that the frequency of defended prey increased with increasing resource levels. All these suggest that selection by predator and diversity in prey populations affect the coexistence of the predator-prey and matter for stabilization of the interaction. Thus, an ecoevolutionary approach is needed to understand the role of resource enrichment and the importance of rapid evolution for resolving the paradox of enrichment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Predation and the evolution of multicellular groups in algae (52512) Stefania Kapsetaki. University of Oxford. The major evolutionary transition from unicellular to multicellular life and, in particular, social group formation is a puzzling question in biological research. Why do single cells form a group? Defence against predation has been proposed to drive social group formation mainly on the basis of predators being unable to engulf large sized entities. However cells in some species remain in their unicellular state upon encounter with a predator, implying that there are also fitness costs to forming groups. We investigated how widespread predation pressure is as a driving force towards colony formation by using Ochromonas spp., Tetrahymena thermophila and Daphnia as predators and the algae Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus as prey, giving rise to a total of nine different predator-prey combinations. Our results showed that in all combinations, apart from two cases, Ochromonas spp.-S.obliquus and T.thermophila-S.obliquus, the prey species formed colonies, though the hypothesis of there being a size advantage in forming a colony was only confirmed in the case

of T.thermophila-C.sorokiniana. Overall, in seven combinations we observed that predation pressure causes colony formation in the prey and potentially, ensuring high relatedness, can favour multicellularity. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Insects’ detoxification mechanisms as target for antagonistic filamentous fungi? (52649) Monika Trienens, Joachim Kurtz, Bregje Wertheim. Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, University of Münster DE; Evolutionary Genetics, University of Groningen NL. Insects and microorganisms co-inhabit resources for feeding and development. Microorganisms often excrete detrimental substances, i.e. mycotoxins and antibiotics, into these resources, and co-occupants need to cope with these substances. To study the evolution of such coping mechanisms in insect-fungus interactions, we combined experimental evolution and transcriptomics. We mimic co-infestation, using breeding sites of fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, and inoculate these with filamentous fungi, Aspergillus nidulans. To disentangle the fruitfly responses to the mere presence of fungi (e.g., alterations in substrate pH-level, amino acid import) from responses caused by mycotoxins, we forced fruitfly populations to develop in the presence of wild type fungus, toxin-impaired fungus, a pure mycotoxin or under control conditions. After several generations, the wild-type and mycotoxin-selected populations survived subsequent confrontations significantly better, while the mycotoxin-selected fruitflies did not show increased survival when confronted with wild-type fungus. RNA-seq analysis of D. melanogaster larvae during confrontation revealed a small set of genes in first and second line detoxification mechanisms that were induced during mycotoxin confrontation, whereas exactly these mechanisms were down-regulated in both fungal strain confrontations. Mycotoxins elicit selection in insect-fungus interaction, yet are they the key mechanism? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The genotypic view of social interactions in multispecies microbial communities (52660) Sara Mitri, Kevin Foster. University of Lausanne; University of Oxford. Microbes live in dense communities composed of different strains and species, where cells can affect the growth and survival of their neighbours both positively and negatively. Disentangling these social interactions is central to understanding the stability and productivity of these microbial communities that are ubiquitous in our lives. By combining

ecological and evolutionary theory, we have recently proposed a general null model, which we call the genotypic view. This states that cooperation will be under positive selection when cells are surrounded by identical genotypes at the loci that drive interactions, whereas different genotypes will typically compete, leading to the evolution of antagonistic phenotypes or spatial separation. I will begin by presenting the logic of the genotypic view, supported by a mathematical model. I will then discuss various theoretical and experimental methods we are currently developing to test these ideas within two relatively simple communities composed of five to seven microbial species. These include approaches to disentangle existing social interactions, and later to follow their evolutionary trajectory over larger time-scales. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Eco-evolutionary dynamics of Pepino mosaic virus (52679) Pedro Gómez, M. Juárez, M.A. Sánchez-Pina, C. Alcaide, M.A. Aranda. CEBAS- CSIC, Dpto Patología Vegetal, Murcia, Spain; Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. While individual plants are often infected in nature with more than one related or unrelated virus, the extent to which mixed infections can modulate the evolutionary dynamics of these viruses is unclear. Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging RNA virus known to be one of the most important tomato pathogens worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that PepMV populations in Spain are composed of isolates of two types (PepMV-CH2 and PepMV-EU) that appear to be still co-circulating after 10 years from their first detection. This study addressed how viral interactions among both PepMV types and also with other tomato RNA virus (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV) could affect their evolutionary dynamics. Combining a population genetics approach with biological analyses of these viruses in planta, our results showed that an antagonistic interaction between both PepMV types was hostnonspecific, as patterns of RNA viral accumulation in single and mixed infections in different hosts were similar, and neither was affected by the presence of CMV. Furthermore, microscopy preliminary results show that these viruses are able to infect the same cell types, and ultra-structural analysis by electron microscopy will reveal whether they are infecting the same cell, and therefore, competing for the same plant and/or viral resources. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The role of parasitims and environmental change in ecosystems during sticklebacks adaptive radiations (52735) Jaime M. Anaya-Rojas, Franziska Brunner, Christophe Eizaguirre, Ole Seehausen, Blake Matthews. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology ; University of Bern; Queen Mary University London and Ewag.

Ecosytems can be affected by both ecological and evolutionary changes, for instance, throught changes in the nutrient levels or indirect trait-mediated effects. Theory suggests that different phenotypes have different effects on the environment, however, less is known about the role of other relevant ecological factors such as parasitism. In a large scale mesocosm experiment, we studied how parasite exposure and contrasting nutrient levels affect (I) the diet of a recently divergent lake-stream pair of sticklebacks and (2) prey-community structure and ecosystem dynamics. Parasites had strong effects on fish diet, particularly for lake fish. The ecosystem effects of parasites were weaker. At the prey-community and ecosytem processes level (e.g., nutrients concentration, and primary productivity) interactive effects were statistically significant. We concluded that parasites can affect ecosystem processes throught changes in feeding behavior of sticklebacks (e.g. prey-preferences or feeding performance) in different ways depending on the nutrient level of the environment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Genome streamlining in bacteria evolving under high predation pressure (52804) Michael Baumgartner, Stefan Roffler, Thomas Wicker, Judith Blom, Jakob Pernthaler. University of Zurich, Limnological Station; University of Zurich, Institute of plant biology. Predation by eukaryotic protists is a major mortality source for aquatic bacteria. Consequently, many species have developed phenotypic antipredator strategies to cope with this threat. Such mechanisms are costly in terms of resource allocation or cause other competitive disadvantages, and therefore, are expected to be under strong selection pressure. We set up a long-term predator-prey experiment with a bacterial freshwater isolate, Sphingobium sp. Z007 and the bacterivorous flagellate Poterioochromonas sp.. The prey bacterium forms increased proportions of inedible cell aggregates in the presence of the predator. Bacteria in pure culture and a bacteria-predator co-culture were maintained in oligotrophic medium and regular propagations for 200 days. In both treatments, bacteria exhibited a rapid phenotypic adaptation to the presence or absence of flagellates. Strains under continuous predation pressure showed higher proportions of aggregates, and this phenotype was also maintained when grown in the absence of a predator. Bacteria in pure culture lost their ability to form aggregates but showed higher efficiency in substrate usage. Three independent evolutionary lineages of strains exposed to predation showed pronounced genome streamlining, whereas this was never observed in the evolved pure cultures. We hypothesize that this adaptation helped the evolved strains to increase their growth efficiency despite the resource investment in predator defence. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The genomic basis of phenotype variation in social myxobacteria isolated from nature (52889) Sébastien Wielgoss, Gregory Velicer.

ETH Zürich. Analyzing genetic variation in nature is mandatory for better understanding the processes governing the evolution of phenotypes in natural populations. For microbes, however, data on how natural genetic diversity relates to phenotypic divergence are sparse, including the remarkably sophisticated social traits exhibited by the myxobacteria. For example, members of this bacterial cooperate upon starvation to engage in the formation of fruiting bodies within which only a small fraction of cells form stress-resistant spores. Fruiting bodies of the model organism Myxococcus xanthus harvested from soil are composed of clones among that are highly genetically related and harbor a surprisingly high degree of diversity in social phenotypes. However, the molecular basis of this extremely fine-scale social diversity is unknown. Here, by applying whole genome sequencing to dozens of clones derived from individual fruiting bodies from nature, we shed light on the genomic basis of natural social diversity. Based on experiments, we then set out to pinpoint the evolutionary forces that could explain the particular genetic and phenotypic variation within groups. We conclude that fruiting bodies could be viewed as natural analogs to laboratory colonies in experimental evolution settings in which individuals share a single recent common ancestor but have undergone micro-diversification. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The outcomes of bacteriophage selection on the evolution of virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae (52911) Anni-Maria Örmälä-Odegrip, Harald Eriksson, Lauri Mikonranta, Pilvi Ruotsalainen, Sari Mattila, Ville Hoikkala, Anders Nilsson, Jaana Bamford, Jouni Laakso. University of Jyväskylä; Stockholm University; University of Helsinki. Bacterial viruses or bacteriophages are ubiquitous bacterial parasites that impose a strong selection pressure for bacterial phage-resistance. Phage-resistance is often associated with fitness costs on bacterial traits such as virulence in multicellular hosts. We studied whether there were associated costs for resistance against single or multiple phages on bacterial virulence, growth ability and biofilm formation in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae. We found that resistance against multiple phages was in general associated with lowered virulence, when measured in vivo with Galleria mellonella wax moth larvae. However, selection by two phages alone led to increased virulence, coupled with an increased growth rate in bacteria. Biofilm production was negatively correlated with virulence, whereas growth rate had a positive correlation with bacterial virulence across all treatments. Our findings suggest that the presence of multiple phages could select for bacterial virulence, possibly due to a trade-off between phage resistance and rate of replication. However, this is dependent on the identity of phages. This is the first study to report increased bacterial virulence associated with exposure to lytic bacteriophages. Our findings are of practical importance when developing phage therapy, the use of bacterial viruses in treating bacterial infections that are resistant to conventional antibiotics. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - GEN 2000

ACQUIRED IMMUNITY AND CROSS-IMMUNITY EFFECTS ON SYSTEMIC AND CO-FEEDING TRANSMISSION OF A MULTI-STRAIN TICK-BORNE PATHOGEN. (52968) Maxime Jacquet, Maarten Voordouw. Université de Neuchâtel. Tick-borne pathogens have multiple modes of transmission including systemic (host-to-tick) and co-feeding transmission. Co-feeding transmission can occur when ticks exchange pathogens by feeding at the same time on the same host. We tested whether Borrelia afzelii, which causes Lyme disease in Europe, can use co-feeding transmission to escape the acquired immune response in the vertebrate host, and how cross-immunity influences the fitness of cross-reactive strains. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a single-copy, polymorphic antigen of B. afzelii that induces a strong immune response in the vertebrate host. Mice were immunized with one of two variants of the OspC antigen: A3 or YU then challenged with the hom*ologous or heterologous B. afzelii ospC strain via tick bite. Mice were infested with larval ticks to measure co-feeding and systemic transmission. Ticks were tested for infection prevalence and bacterial load using qPCR. Acquired immunity against the rOspC antigens blocked both co-feeding and systemic transmission of the hom*ologous but not the heterologous strains. Cross-immunity had no effect on transmission but reduced the spirochete load in the tick vector. Acquired immunity and cross-immunity against the immunodominant OspC antigen have important consequences for the fitness and evolution of multi-strain Borrelia populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Evolution of male and female choice in promiscuous mating systems (51788) Mikael Puurtinen, Lutz Fromhage. University of Jyväskylä; Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions. While empirical studies have revealed that both males and females often exercise mate choice, theoretical understanding of systems where both sexes can evolve mate choice is limited. We studied the evolution mate choice in a system where females vary in fecundity and males in sperm production. Additionally, sperm availability limits female fertility, and ejacul*te size affects males’ success in sperm competition. The probability with which opposite sex individuals are accepted as mating partners is a freely evolving parameter for each sex. Both sexes can also evolve choosiness, the cost of which increases with increasing discrimination between individuals of different quality. We solve the model for evolutionarily stable combinations of male and female mate acceptance strategies, varying the costs of mating and choosiness. Results of the model show that while highest quality males and females mate most often, these patterns mostly result from lower mating activity and higher choosiness of low quality males who have less sperm and evolve to use it more prudently.

These results highlight the need for explicit evaluation of mate acceptance criteria of both sexes in empirical mating system studies, and caution against making unsubstantiated conclusions about the mechanisms underlying mating patterns. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Disassortative mating in plants: paternity analysis of floral morphs within experimental populations (51831) Violeta I. Simón-Porcar, Thomas R. Meagher, Juan Arroyo. University of Stirling; University of St. Andrews; University of Seville. Heterostyly enhances disassortative pollination between floral morphs through reciprocal placement of stigmas and anthers, and through a physiological heteromorphic incompatibility system which impedes within-morph fertilization. Which of these mechanisms is the main driver of disassortative mating in this polymorphism is object of debate. Stylar-dimorphism lacks reciprocal anther placement and hence disassortative mating could be compromised, particularly when there is not intra-morph incompatibility. Variable rates of disassortative mating along with differential female fecundity or siring success among floral morphs could lead to variation in morph ratio in this polymorphism. We investigated mating patterns in Narcissus papyraceus, an intra-morph compatible species with dimorphic (long- and short-styled) and monomorphic (long-styled) populations in central and north regions of its range, respectively. We established experimental populations in both regions and exposed them to ambient pollinators. Using paternity analysis, we found high disassortative mating in most populations. Female fecundity of morphs was similar in all populations. Our results provided evidence for the evolutionary stability of stylar dimorphism in N. papyraceus and reveal the central role of morphological reciprocity of sexual organs in promoting disassortative pollination, even when such reciprocity is imperfect. However, it is unclear what forces lead to complete loss of one of the morphs in some natural populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

A novel cost to sex allocation in the mostly monandrous wasp, Nasonia vitripennis (51840) Rebecca Boulton, David Shuker. University of St Andrews. The near-ubiquity of polyandry is a crucial component of mating system evolution, yet there is much we still do not understand about the economics of polyandry. Females of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis are “mostly monandrous” in the wild, but become increasingly polyandrous under laboratory culture. They have also been well-studied in terms of sex allocation, producing female-biased sex ratios in line with the predictions of local mate

competition (LMC) theory. Here we present the results of a series of experiments showing that the costs and benefits of multiple mating in this species are contingent on sex allocation under LMC. We show that harassment and multiple mating during oviposition results in the increased production of sons under conditions that instead favour female-biased sex ratios. We also find evidence that mating multiply with virgin but not with previously-mated males increases female fecundity. In the laboratory, LMC is low compared to the wild, increasing the abundance of virgin males and perhaps relaxing the sex allocation cost of harassment and mating. We discuss the relevance of these findings with regards to the laboratory evolution of polyandry, and the evolution of polyandry more generally. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Paradox of high outcrossing and no selfing syndrome despite no inbreeding depression after a loss of self-incompatibility (51884) Marie Voillemot, John R. Pannell. Unil; Unil. Evolution toward selfing is one of the most frequent transitions to have occurred in flowering plants, and its causes, mechanisms and consequences continue to pose puzzles. Species that vary in their mating systems among populations offer ideal material to test hypotheses for the transition. A strong prediction is the evolution of high selfing rates and a syndrome of selffertilization (low attraction to pollinator attraction and reward) in populations that evolve low inbreeding depression. The toadflax species, Linaria cavanillesii (Scrophulariaceae), which is endemic to south-eastern Spain, exhibits variation in self-incompatibility (SI) among populations, with some populations being SI and others having lost this outcrossing mechanism to become self-compatible (SC). Surprisingly, populations with SC individuals appear to maintain a high outcrossing rate, and their flowers do not show the typical evolution toward a full selfing syndrome. We present results of an inbreeding depression experiment that further shows that SC individuals display much lower inbreeding depression that their SI counterparts. We discuss the reasons for the combination of low selfing rates and low inbreeding depression despite the loss of SI. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: Color vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) (51886) Ben Sandkam, C. Megan Young, Felix Breden. Simon Fraser University. A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studying mate

choice evolution, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for co-variation in visual tuning, light environment, and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that guppy females from 'low predation' environments have stronger preferences for males with more orange/red coloration than do females from 'high predation' environments. We found color vision also varies across populations, 'low' predation guppies invest more of their color vision to detect red/orange coloration. In independently colonized watersheds, guppies expressed higher levels of both LWS-1 and LWS-3 (the most abundant LWS opsins) in ‘low predation’ versus ‘high predation’ populations at a time that corresponds to differences in cone cell abundance. We also observed differences in the frequency of a coding polymorphism between high and low predation populations. Together this shows the variation underlying preference could be explained by simple changes in expression and coding of opsins, providing important candidate genes to investigate the genetic basis of variation in this model system. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The repeatability of mating failure in a polyandrous insect (51919) Ginny Greenway, David Shuker. University of St Andrews. Sexually-selected post-copulatory traits combined with well-documented costs of mating would be expected to maximise fertilisation success, yet high rates of mating failure (the lack of production of offspring following copulation) are observed across multiple taxa. However the mechanisms and causes of mating failure are not easy to isolate, typically being hard to directly observe. For example, it is unclear if failures are stochastic occurrences between incompatible mating partners or represent a persistent, meaningful phenotype on the part of one or other sex. Here we test this in the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, by sequentially mating families of males with randomly-allocated unrelated females and calculating the repeatability of mating outcome for each individual male and family. Mating outcome was found to be significantly repeatable within individual males but far less so between full-sib brothers. Furthermore approximately a quarter of experimental males failed to father any offspring given multiple opportunities to do so. We infer from the observed low levels of between-sib repeatability that mating failure, in this species at least, represents a commonly occurring male-associated and environmentally-influenced phenotype with low heritability. This may be key to unravelling the evolution of polyandrous mating systems in both this species and more generally. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Evolution of female multiple mating and sperm competition: co-evolutionary feed-backs between female and male traits (51963) Greta Bocedi, Jane M. Reid.

University of Aberdeen. Explaining the evolution of costly polyandry remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Polyandry creates sperm competition, exerting strong selection on male allocation to sperm traits. Such male allocation may simultaneously affect female fitness, thereby imposing positive or negative selection on polyandry. However, the degree to which female polyandry and male allocation to sperm traits can drive co-evolution of both sexes’ strategies has not been explicitly modelled and clear, empirically testable predictions are lacking. We used a genetically-explicit individual-based model to test the “sexually-selected sperm” (SSS) hypothesis, that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male sperm competitiveness. We show that the SSS process is unlikely to generally explain the evolution of costly polyandry. We then used a multi-trait model that allows simultaneous evolution of female mating interval and male allocation to sperm number versus longevity to test the hypothesis that co-evolutionary feed-backs between female mating interval and male sperm allocation can drive the evolution of costly polyandry assuming female sperm limitation. We demonstrate that depending on the cost of sperm and the degree of sperm limitation, sperm allocation driven by sperm competition can prevent males from overcoming sperm limitation, thereby driving evolution of polyandry. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The impact of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles on mate attraction and reproductive isolation in two grasshopper species (Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis) (51970) Jonas Finck, Sven Geiselhardt, Janine Kuntze, Monika Hilker, Bernhard Ronacher. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Freie Universität Berlin. The attraction and identification of mating partners are major tasks in animals’ lives. Many species uses multiple signals to increase reproductive success and to sustain reproductive isolation. Sympatrically occurring grasshoppers’ species (genus Chorthippus) are morphologically and genetically similar. Acoustic signals serve as pre-zygotic barrier and are under sexual selection. On a close range scale, however, the acoustic signal has only a minor impact on the fertilization rate of Chorthippus females, suggesting that additional hybridization barriers exist, probably based on chemical cues. A GCMS analysis provided evidence that the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of C. biguttulus and C. mollis exhibit speciesand sex-specific differences. Behavioral tests demonstrated that males of C. biguttulus respond with a calling song to the odor of conspecific females but not to odors of heterospecific females. This behavior could be reproduced with males of the sibling species (C. mollis). Therefore, we conclude that grasshoppers use chemical signals to identify mating partners and that multiple hybridization barriers evolved to prevent gene exchange. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Are females always better? Sex ratio variation and population genetic diversity affect the female advantage in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus (51973) Sascha van der Meer, Thomas Sebrechts, Nicholas Lund, Hans Jacquemyn. KU Leuven. Gynodioecy is a reproductive system in which hermaphrodites and females co-occur within a population. Theoretically this polymorphism can only be maintained when females have a reproductive advantage over hermaphrodites. In this study, we examined how sex ratio variation and population genetic diversity affected the female advantage in 27 populations of Plantago coronopus. We hypothesized that: 1) females produce more seeds than hermaphrodites and seed production is related to population sex ratio, 2) seeds of females have higher germination rates, 3) females are genetically more diverse than hermaphrodites and therefore have a higher chance of establishing in stressful environments. The studied populations showed large variation in sex ratios from 2 to 60% females. In contrast to our hypothesis, females had, on average, a reproductive disadvantage in terms of seed production (FA: 0.91), but this diminished when the percentage of females in the population was low. On the other hand, seeds of females were heavier and germinated better, most likely reflecting a trade-off between seed production and seed weight. Genetic analysis showed that females were genetically more diverse than hermaphrodites, suggesting that inbreeding avoidance as well as frequency dependent processes explain the occurrence and size of the female advantage in P. coronopus. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Selection and differentially expressed genes governing mixed mating in a plant (52003) Maria Strandh, Jane Jönsson, William B. Walker III, Bengt Hansson, Josefin Madjidian, Mattias C. Larsson, Åsa Lankinen. Lund University, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) Alnarp, Sweden. The evolutionary processes governing the large variation in mating system found in flowering plants are unclear. Using mixed-mating Collinsia heterophylla as a model we investigated population selfing rate variation in relation to environmental and floral trait variation and whether selection or genetic drift determine floral trait variation. Population selfing rates varied substantially. The best predictor of selfing rate was a negative association with dichogamy, 'stage of stigma receptivity'. Floral trait differentiation (PST) was substantially higher than neutral genetic differentiation (FST) in four estimated traits, suggesting that variation in floral traits is shaped by natural selection. Moreover, we report differential gene expression in self- vs outcross pollinations. The association between stage of stigma receptivity and selfing rate in C. heterophylla indicates that this floral trait is strongly linked with the mating system. The detected effect of natural selection acting on this trait and three additional mating-system related traits suggests that variability in mating system is not only

determined by genetic drift or by direct abiotic or biotic environmental factors. Determining the evolutionary processes influencing levels of mixed mating and associated floral traits, as well as mining the transcriptomes expressed in these pollinations provide important insights to mating system function and evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Molecular evolution of freshwater snails with contrasted mating systems (52046) Concetta Burgarella, Philippe Gayral, Marion Ballenghien, Aurélien Bernard, Patrice David, Philippe Jarne, Sylvie Hurtrez, Nicolas Galtier, Sylvain Glémin. Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution, UMR CNRS 5554, Université Montpellier II; Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l’Insecte, UMR 7261, CNRS, Univ. François-Rabelais, Tours; CEFE/CNRS, Montpellie. Selfing recurrently evolved from outcrossing in many groups, especially in flowering plants. However, selfing species are of recent origin and less numerous than outcrossing ones. Despite short-term advantages, selfing is supposed to be an evolutionary dead-end strategy: selfing species experience reduced effective population size and recombination rates, which decrease the efficacy of natural selection. Selfing species should thus go through higher extinction rates because of reduced adaptive potential and/or genomic accumulation of deleterious mutations. However, empirical evidences are only partly congruent with theoretical expectations. Here we analyze coding sequence polymorphism, divergence and expression levels of two groups of freshwater snails in which mating systems have been stable for several millions of years. We report strongly reduced genetic diversity, decreased efficacy of purifying selection, slower rate of adaptive evolution and weakened codon usage bias/GCbiased gene conversion in the selfer Galba compared to the outcrosser Physa, in full agreement with theoretical expectations. Our results demonstrate that self-fertilization, when effective in the long run, is a major driver of population genomic and molecular evolutionary processes. We also suggest that the particular ecology of Galba truncatula may buffer the consequences of the genetic load, shedding new light on the dead-end hypothesis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The role of geographical and demographic factors in shaping floral morph frequencies in the tristylous Lythrum salicaria at the southern edge of distribution (52087) Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer CH Barrett. CFE, Centre for Functional Ecology and Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto.

Style morph frequencies in heterostylous populations are largely determined by a balance between stochastic forces and negative frequency-dependent selection. Investigation of morph frequencies at geographical range limits can provide new insights on the forces maintaining the floral polymorphism and the factors causing biased morph ratios. The aim of our study was to investigate floral morph frequencies at the southern European range of the tristylous self-incompatible perennial Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae). Floral morph composition was assessed in 101 localities along a latitudinal transect from Galicia to Andalucia, Iberian Peninsula. Population size and morph frequencies were recorded for each population. Most populations of L. salicaria were trimorphic (90.10%) and isoplethic (68.75%). No consistent bias in floral morph frequencies across the sampled area was found. Population size was positively associated with latitude, i.e., smaller populations occurring towards the southern range limit. Despite the greatest variance in morph frequencies detected for smaller populations, a positive relation between population size and morph evenness was found. Our results provide evidence for the abundant centre distribution model and highlight the influence of finite population size and genetic drift on morph frequencies in a tristylous species which seems to be quite resilient to changes to the polymorphism. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The evolution of reproductive isolation between two hybridizing dungfly species Sepsis cynipsea and S. neocynipsea (Diptera: Sepsidae) (52111) Athene Giesen, Martin A Schäfer, Wolf U Blanckenhorn. Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies. Identifying traits contributing to reproductive isolation among species and their evolution challenges biological research. The evolution of sexual traits for mating and fertilization is interesting due to their role in the establishment of reproductive barriers to gene flow. It is necessary to characterize phenotypic differentiation, evolutionary and genetic processes underlying trait diversification that contributes to reproductive isolation. Only then we can understand the mechanisms of speciation, driven by pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation. To understand the underlying processes of speciation in two closely related, allopatrically and sympatrically occurring sister species Sepsis cynipsea and S. neocynipsea (genetic distance at COI gene < 2%), we investigated mating behavior and fitness measures (fecundity, hatching success) of hybrid offspring as an indicator of pre- and postzygotic barriers. We show successful hybridization, with lower hybridization rates between sympatric than between allopatric populations. Our data reveal prezygotic isolation with females discriminating more strongly against hetero-specific males in geographic areas of co-occurrence. These results indicate that this female resistance can be due to species recognition. Further we show greatly decreased copulation success for pure hybrid crosses and backcrosses, with male hybrid offspring being more sterile than females, indicating postzygotic isolation in accordance with Haldane’s rule. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - GEN 2000

Polyandry rates and reproductive success in a nuptial gift-giving dance fly Rhamphomyia longicauda (52115) Elizabeth J. Herridge, Rosalind L. Murray, Deborah A. Dawson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Terry Burke, Andre Gilburn, Darryl T. Gwynne, Luc F. Bussière. University of Stirling; University of Sheffield; University of Toronto at Mississauga. Females are rarely monogamous, but the processes that explain variation in polyandry are little understood, in part because few studies have measured selection on female mating frequency in the wild. In many species of dance fly, females obtain protein-rich nuptial gifts from males during courtship, and in many cases competition for these gifts involves elaborate female ornamentation which challenges theoretical arguments for the rarity and modesty of female ornaments. We use molecular markers to assess mating frequency among wild female long-tailed dance flies (Rhamphomyia longicauda) by probabilistically estimating the likeliest number of males contributing to the allele profiles of stored sperm. We compared mating frequency estimates to reproductive success as indicated by developing egg number and egg size. We consider how mating frequency, the proportion of multiply mated females, and egg maturation changes over the season, and use these measures to quantify how mating success mediates fecundity selection on ornamentation in the long tailed dance fly. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Artificial selection in the context of contrasted mating system (52172) Elsa Noël, Philippe Jarne, Violette Sarda, Sylvain Glémin, Patrice David. CEFE ; ISEM ; . Autogamous species are thought to adapt more slowly than allogamous ones and to go extinct more easily, for several reasons. (i) Self-fertilization leads to hom*ozygosity and inefficient recombination. (ii)Self-fertilizing species have a lower effective population size and are more sensible to drift. (iii) Because of the magnitude of inbreeding depression, numerous families (and then genomes) are lost, by purge of the lethal genes they carry. The consequences are that they are suspected to have less standing variation and then a lower adaptive potential than outcrossing species. In the lab, we have experimental lines of Physa acuta, a preferential outcrossing freshwater snail, able to self-fertilize if partners are missing. Two types of lines are evolving under two different mating systems, since around 30 generations: one “Control” line were the individuals reproduce in random mass mating (a proxy of panmixy), and one “Lack of partners” line, were individuals are isolated and forced to self-fertilize frequently. We decided to apply artificial selection on one morphological trait of those snails, in two contrasted mating systems treatments: (i) self-fertilization and (ii) random mass mating. The aim of this experiment is to see whether the response to selection differs between these two types of lines and these two reproduction treatments.

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Bottom-up effects of selection locally on outcross siring success shape the regional population genetic structure of an annual plant (52176) Luis Santos del Blanco, John Pannell. University of Lausanne. In outcrossing plant populations, selection on siring success is expected to lead to the evolution of traits that enhance the production and effective dispersal of pollen locally. Indeed, such selection is probably the ultimate cause of a great many floral and inflorescence traits in angiosperms, including genetic polymorphisms such as dioecy and distyly. Importantly, local selection for siring success can have strong implications for population structure, because traits selected for high dispersal locally can also reduce genetic differentiation among population regionally. In the wind-pollinated plant Mercurialis annua, selection for enhanced siring success is probably responsible for the maintenance of males with females or hermaphrodites, whereas hermaphrodites are probably maintained by selection for self-fertilization when population densities are low. Here we show that variation in the maintenance of males among local populations strongly impacts on the regional genetic structure of the metapopulations to which they belong. Although metapopulation dynamics likely contribute to the population structure observed, we argue that competition for siring success locally has important knock-on effects on the metapopulation, too. Our study points to the possibility that the distribution of long-distance dispersal events may be shaped by the outcome of selection principally dispersal over short-distances. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Frequency and life-history consequences of mixed mating in the freshwater snail Radix balthica (52185) Anja Bürkli, Kirstin Kopp, Jukka Jokela. EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology & ETH Zurich. Mixed mating describes the coexistence of self-fertilization (henceforth selfing) and outcrossing within individuals or populations, and might occur in almost half of the animals capable of selfing. Yet, our understanding of mixed mating is surprisingly limited. To document the frequency of mixed mating and its importance for reproductive fitness in the freshwater snail Radix balthica, I estimated within- and among-individual variation in selfing rates using microsatellite progeny arrays for both lab-laid and field-collected clutches. As selfing rates might show seasonality, e.g. driven by changes in mate availability, field clutches were obtained throughout reproductive season. I then investigated the consequences of being selfed on life-history traits and parasite

infection rate in a large-scale field experiment. I placed selfed and outcrossed juveniles sharing the same mother in cages, either at the site of their grandparents or in a nearby deepwater habitat. After ten weeks, surviving snails were counted, measured, and screened for parasite infections. First results suggest that inbreeding depression in survival was considerable in both habitats, but not intensified in deep water where overall mortality was higher. These rare datasets on mixed mating in a free-living population will help to understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of this fascinating mating system. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Inbreeding depression and selective history in Noccaea caerulescens (52285) Mathilde Mousset, Agnès Mignot, Ophélie Ronce, Christophe Petit, Marine Second, PierreOlivier Cheptou. Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier; Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive. Inbreeding depression, a key driver of self-fertilization evolution, varies among species and populations, and can increase or decrease under stressful conditions. Few studies have attempted to disentangle the effects of stressful environmental conditions from those of selective history and adaptation to these conditions on the variation in inbreeding depression magnitude. We here test whether adaptive history affects inbreeding depression in stressing conditions using the self-compatible and heavy-metal tolerant herb Noccaea caerulescens. This species harbors two ecotypes with different adaptation history to soil pollution: the non-metallicolous ecotype grows on regular soils whereas the metallicolous ecotype thrives on contaminated soils such as mine wastes. Metallicolous and non-metallicolous plants originating from outbred and inbred crosses from nine populations were grown in controlled conditions on contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Inbreeding depression was measured on vegetative and reproductive traits along the life cycle. We found that metallicolous plants often suffer from greater inbreeding depression than non metallicolous plants. Early survival of inbred progeny is greater than that of outbred progeny in most non-metallicolous populations on both soil contamination levels, revealing outbreeding depression within-populations. These findings are discussed in the context of variation of self-fertilization rate and adaptation history of the different ecotypes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Female mate sampling strategy based on acoustic signals of a field cricket: implications for sexual selection (52333) Diptarup Nandi, Rohini Balakrishnan.

Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science. Empirical studies on sexual selection in orthopterans and anurans have generally focused on measuring male mating success based on their acoustic signals by quantifying the variation in their signal components and by studying female preferences for the different signal components. However, little is known about how females in natural choruses sample males based on their acoustic signals in the process of choosing mates. Theoretical models of mate sampling have demonstrated significant differences in individual fitness returns for different sampling strategies. Moreover, studies on mate sampling strategies can further elucidate the relative importance of the two mechanisms of sexual selection: male-male competition and female mate choice. Thus, in this study we empirically investigated female mate sampling based on acoustic signals of males in a wild population of the field cricket species Plebeiogryllus guttiventris. We then used simulations to generate estimates of male mating success based on male trait distribution and their relative spacing in natural choruses, for the observed female mate sampling strategy and also for the different theoretical sampling strategies. We finally compared male mating success between the observed and the theoretical sampling strategies to infer the mechanisms of sexual selection acting on these acoustic signals. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

To each according to her... colour? Non-random male courtship effort in a viviparous fish with traditional sexual roles (52383) Marcela Méndez-Janovitz, Constantino Macías Garcia. Instituto de Ecología, Uiversidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Lower potential re-mating rates of females than of males lead to female mating selectivity, often based on male badges of quality. By definition such male displays are costly, and if they make every mating attempt too costly, males may also become selective, preferentially directing their mating efforts towards females with high reproductive value. We evaluated this possibility in Girardinichthys viviparus (Goodeidae), a matrotrophic fish whose stringent female mate choice is associated with costly male courtship. We found that males exposed to pairs of females devoted more courtship effort to the female whose flank had a more orange chroma, and to the one with wider abdominal distension -a direct indication of fecundityeven if this was the smaller of the pair. As we expected, male G. viviparus did not devote their courtship efforts randomly, but rather concentrated them on certain females; those with attributes that appear to indicate reproductive value. Yet males seemed to neglect the most obvious correlate of fecundity in viviparous fish; female size. This is probably because the mechanics of Goodeidae copulation promote size-assortative mating, thus variance in the size of available females is small for any given male, promoting the use of other indices of female quality. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Measuring sexual selection: a more holistic model of reproductive life histories (52434) Jonathan Henshaw, Karoline Fritzsche, Andrew Kahn. The Australian National University; Uppsala University. Sexual selection drives the evolution of some of nature’s most spectacular traits, yet its measurement has proved difficult and controversial. Empirical studies are plagued by the problem of choosing appropriate target traits. Theoretical studies, on the other hand, have concentrated on a relatively narrow subset of naturally occurring patterns of sexual selection. This makes it difficult to draw general conclusions about how sexual selection covaries with mating system, sex roles, and other aspects of an organism’s reproductive life history. We present a mathematical model that mirrors patterns of sexual selection across a wide range of biologically realistic life histories, incorporating variation in mating system, parental investment, mate choice and competition. We determine what common measures of sexual selection, such as the opportunity for sexual selection and the Bateman gradient, can tell us about the underlying biology and discuss their limitations. A recently defined measure, the ‘maximum intensity of precopulatory sexual selection’ s’max, performs better than other measures at tracking the actual strength of sexual selection across populations. We compare the predictions of our model to published empirical studies. Our study aims to synthesise insights from recent debates over measures of sexual selection. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Experimental evolution under manipulated sex ratios alters mating behaviour in two sex role reversed beetle species (52546) Karoline Fritzsche, Isobel Booksmythe, Göran Arnqvist. Uppsala University. We examined how two beetle species with sex role reversed mating systems evolved in response to experimentally induced differences in sex ratio and food availability. In both species males transfer a large nutritious ejacul*te during mating. Females actively court males for this direct benefit and males are choosy about whom they mate with. We let both species evolve under either male biased (125M:25F) or female biased (25M:125F) adult sex ratios and with either high or no food resources during adulthood. After 20 generations of evolution the two species showed very different adaptations. In one species males responded to elevated male-male competition under male-biased sex ratios by transferring more ejacul*te per mating. In the other species, males surprisingly showed no measurable response to evolution. Females however responded to female-biased sex ratios by initiating courtship sooner and were more successful in gaining matings. Females of the second species that evolved under high food availability also increased their turning rates (a form of courtship effort). Our study provides direct evidence that closely related species can show very different evolutionary responses to the same selection pressures. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - GEN 2000

Reproduction in social insects: what can superorganisms teach us about mating system evolution? (52548) Heikki Helanterä. University of Helsinki. Social insect colonies have been for a long time likened to individual organisms or ”superorganisms”, and thus considered a prime example of a major transition in evolution, or a transition in individuality. However, this metaphor has not been exploited to its full potential, but has mainly been used as a mechanistic description of colony function. But what kind of organisms are they? Could superorganisms and their diversity allow testing evolutionary hypotheses about sex and reproduction in a novel way? In this work, I present an evolutionary framework in which to employ social insect diversity in novel independent tests of evolution of mating systems. I will discuss cases like evolution of anisogamy, evolution of separate sexes, and evolution of gamete dispersal. This approach will aim for a more thorough understanding of the general principles on the one hand, and idiosyncratic determinants on the other, of mating system evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

A Drosophila-based screen for genes important to reproductive regulation in social insects (52613) Graham Thompson, Alison Camiletti. Western University. For 50 years kin theory has provided a gene-based explanation for sociality, but for the most part we have yet to identify these genes. The burgeoning field of sociogenomics is bridging this gap between theory and discovery, but is limited by the genomic tools available for all but a few social insects. Here we show that we can use queen honeybee pheromone to ‘trick’ female Drosophila into a state of worker-like sterility. This remarkable observation potentially enables a Drosophila-based screen of mutant and transgenic lines responsive to queen pheromone. Preliminary screens reveal that the pseudo-social response from flies is mediated by mutations at the foraging locus as well as other loci previously implicated in honey bee worker sterility. Our results suggest deeply conserved elements of reproductive regulation in social and non-social insects. We further nominate new loci that seem to affect the fly's worker-like response to bee pheromone, including Or83b that is essential to insect olfaction and has a clear bee orthologue. Beyond screens, our novel Drosophila-based assay provides a framework for testing social gene function in situ using RNAi targeted knockdowns. We highlight the potential and limits for adopting non-social Drosophila as a model of social gene discovery. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - GEN 2000

Contrasting patterns of inbreeding depression and hybrid vigor between small and large populations of Daphnia magna (52637) Christoph Haag, Jennifer Lohr, Barbara Walser. CNRS Montpellier, France; Univ. Hamburg, Germany; Univ. Fribourg, Switzerland. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna shows a wide array of different breeding systems, including partially genetic sex determination, which favours outcrossing and which is found only in some populations. One factor that is thought to play a major role in determining the advantage of outcrossing is population size through its predicted effect on the magnitude of inbreeding depression. Here we test these predictions empirically and show that, among eight populations of Daphnia magna that strongly differ in size, strong inbreeding depression is consistently found for a number of life-history traits in large populations. Small populations, on the other hand, show only low or no inbreeding depression, suggesting that the load of deleterious mutations has either been purged or become fixed. To test for fixed load, we crossed individuals among nearby populations of similar size and found that outcrossing resulted in strong hybrid vigour in crosses between small, but not between large populations. This confirm the presence of fixed load in small populations. Overall, our results show that the fitness benefits of obligate outcrossing strongly depend on population size, suggesting that the amount of genetic drift is an important modulator of costs and benefits in breeding system evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Paternal care and paternity revisited (52738) Julia Schroeder, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Isabel Winney, Mirre Simons, Shinichi Nakagawa, Terry Burke. Max Planck Institute for Ornithology; University of Otago; University of Sheffield. Whether and why male parents should adjust the amount of care they provide to young if the female partner is unfaithful has been discussed for more than two decades. While there is general agreement that such a relationship exists across species, empirical results for withinpopulation effects are ambiguous. The problem partially lies in the difficulty to disentangle between-individual from within-individual processes. We use an exceptionally well-suited dataset on wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to revisit this problem. Females were repeatable in the proportion of extra-pair offspring they produced per brood, however, the repeatability was higher when they stayed with the same male. Individual males phenotypically adjusted paternal care to paternity only when they changed mates. We found no support for an association of this adjustment within pair bonds. The within-male paternal adjustment between–pairs was not affected by male age, offspring relatedness to the caring male, seasonality or the brood order. However, the paternal care adjustment was negatively associated with the number of annual extra-pair paternities the male gained with other

females. Our results support that social feedback may be driving paternity-parental care dynamics, allowing a better understanding of evolution female polygamy. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

A protected polymorphism for shell colour in a natural population of a marine snail (52778) Daniel Estévez, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez, Juan Galindo. University of Vigo. A well-established population of Littorina fabalis has been monitored since 1990, showing an apparently stable shell colour polymorphism. The analysis of mating pairs captured in the field across several years revealed a significant negative assortative mating (I_PSI = -0.4) for shell colour. This pattern could be produced by a mechanism of, negative frequencydependent sexual selection based in shell colour. In order to test this prediction we estimated colour fitness with two alternative methods: by using 1) sexual selection plus viability estimates, and 2) inter-annual total fitness estimates. Both types of fitness estimates presented a significant (negative) correlation with colour frequency across samples of different years, providing a clear evidence for the polymorphism being maintained by frequency-dependent natural selection presumably caused by strong negative assortative mating. The evolutionary mechanisms (inbreeding avoidance or apostatic selection) able to cause the origin and maintenance of strong negative assortative mating are discussed. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Condition-dependent outcrossing in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans (52861) Nicolas O. Rode, Sijmen Schoustra, Devin Arbuthnott, Rees Kassen, Howard Rundle. INRA-Montpellier; University of Wageningen; Univeristy of Washington; Univeristy of Ottawa. Recent theoretical models predict that facultatively sexual organisms should reproduce clonally when their fitness is high, but sexually when their fitness is low (condition-dependent sex). Most empirical studies have been hampered by the difficulty of measuring simultaneously fitness along with sexual and asexual reproduction. For example, male fitness is notoriously difficult to estimate in most species. In facultatively sexual organisms, sexual reproduction virtually always produces sexual structures involved in spatial (or temporal) dispersal. Hence, disentangling condition-dependent sex from condition-dependent dispersal is almost impossible in most organisms. In hom*othallic haploid organisms, selfed spores are genetically identical to asexual spores. We investigated condition-dependent outcrossing in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus

nidulans, where sexual spores (both selfed and outcrossed) are enclosed within the same structures. This property allows ruling out condition-dependent dispersal as a possible alternative to condition-dependent outcrossing. We competed different wild and lab strains in a single environment. We measured the investment in asexual reproduction, self-fertilization and outcrossing, along with absolute and relative fitness. Our results unravel the complex interactions between resource allocation to these different modes of reproduction and fitness. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Does self-fertilization enhance or reduce response to selection ? Empirical test in a freshwater snail. (52924) Marie-Agnès Coutellec, Marc Collinet, Maïra co*ke, Patrice David. INRA, UMR ESE 0985; INRA, U3E; CNRS, CEFE. Selfing as an evolutionary dead-end is a longstanding hypothesis, based on two main tenets: unidirectional evolution towards selfing through a purge process of the genetic load, and increased extinction rate due to low adaptive potential associated with selective interference in highly hom*ozygous lineages. Although ancient, this hypothesis has been only recently started to be tested empirically. As a contribution to this endeaour, the present study focuses on the expected relative adaptability of selfing and outcrossing lines of an animal hermaphrodite (gastropod, Lymnaea stagnalis).The short-term response to selection was compared between enforced selfing and outcrossing, using lines set up from various natural populations and a pesticide as selective pressure vs benign conditions. In preferentially outcrossing species such as L. stagnalis, selfing is expected to lower the response to selection, due to high inbreeding depression. However, this species exhibits moderate inbreeding depression, which suggests a possible purge of part of the genetic load. Therefore, selfing may actually facilitate the response to selection. Nevertheless, after two generations, selfing lines are clearly more sensitive than outcrossing ones to the pesticide (weaker response to selection). Third-generation performances and subsequent inbreeding depression will be compared between selection regimes to get a more comprehensive picture (ongoing experiment). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Cooperative blood-feeding explains feeding aggregations in Phlebotomine Sandflies (51797) Frederic Tripet, Simon Clegg, Dia-Eldin Elnaiem, Richard Ward. School of Life Sciences, Keele University, United Kingdom; LMVR/NIAID/NIH, Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD, USA.

Given the importance that the evolution of cooperation bears in evolutionary biology and social sciences, extensive theoretical work has focused on identifying conditions that promote cooperation among unrelated individuals despite potential cheating individuals. In insects, cooperative interactions typically occur amongst related individuals and are explained by kin selection. Here we provide evidence that in Lutzomia longipalpis, a small biting fly vector of leishmaniasis in the New world, cooperative bloodfeeding in groups of unrelated individuals results in a strong decrease in saliva expenditure. Feeding in groups significantly affected the timing and duration of the flies’ bloodmeal and resulted in greatly enhanced egg production. The benefits of feeding aggregations were particularly strong when flies fed on older hosts suggesting that flies were able to overcome the stronger immune response of pre-sensitized hosts. Our results demonstrate that, in Lutzomyia longipalpis, feeding cooperatively maximizes the effects of salivary components injected into hosts to facilitate blood intake and to counteract the host immune response. As a result, cooperating sandflies enjoy enormous fitness gains. This constitutes the first functional explanation for feeding aggregations in hematophagous insects and a rare example of cooperation in a non-social insects species. The evolution of cooperative group feeding in sandflies may have important implications for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Transitioning from pathogen to mutualist: the evolution of vertical transmission (51855) Devin Drown, Michael Wade. University of Alaska Fairbanks; Indiana University. We investigate the coevolution of transmission mode and virulence in host-symbiont interactions using population genetic models. Vertical transmission enhances the genetic fidelity of the host-symbiont interaction and directly affects the efficiency of selection on host-symbiont gene combinations (inter-genomic epistasis). We find that the interaction between virulence and population genetic structure determines the evolutionary balance between a host-symbiont arms race and host-mutualist coevolution. It is well known from models of the evolution of sex that, with horizontal transmission, evolution drives an arms race, wherein hosts adapt to escape virulent pathogens and pathogens adapt toward discovering susceptible hosts. Conversely, with vertical transmission, the more likely hostsymbiont mutualistic coevolution becomes with an attendant reduction in symbiont virulence. We find that, when mutation generates inter-genomic epistasis, modifiers increasing the degree of vertical transmission can hitchhike to fixation. Once an intermediate level of vertical transmission is established, mutualistic coevolution or ‘symbiont capture’ predominates. That is, the evolutionary stable state is mutualistic symbiosis rather than an escalating host-pathogen arms race. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Tripartite network of an ant host, transposable elements and intracellular bacteria. (51987) Antonia Klein, Lukas Schrader, Jan Oettler. University Regensburg, Germany. The evolution of eukaryotic organisms is often influenced by transposable elements (TEs) and microbial symbionts that confer novel traits to their hosts. Here I will describe the tripartite system of a Cardiocondyla obscurior ant host, associated (TEs) and intracellular endosymbionts which likely play a significant role in the invasive success of the host. One the one hand TEs contribute to high rates of genomic novelty as precursor for adaptive variation (Schrader et al 2014). On the other hand the newly described gut-associated endosymbiont ‘Candidatus Westeberhardia cardiocondylae’ might facilitate development under poor nutritional regimes. I will discuss these findings from a holistic perspective of an extended genotype of egalitarian cooperation partners in changing environments. Contrary to common belief, environmentally initiated novelties by “selfish” intragenomic or intracellular interaction partners may have great evolutionary potential, strongly advising against a simplified view of organismal evolution. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Co-evolution with natural enemies promotes probiotic activity in a plantassociated bacterium (52075) Erqin Li, Peter Bakker, Alexandre Jousset. Utrecht University; Utrecht University; Utrecht University. Plants roots are colonized by mutualistic, free living microbes that provide essential functions such as antibiosis that inhibits pathogens. However, this system cannot be evolutionarily stable if the host plant only feeds the microbes, but does not dispose of mechanisms for specifically rewarding cooperators or punishing defectors. As a result, mutualistic bacteria rapidly lose their ability to produce antibiotics and turn into free-riders consuming host resources without providing services in return. However, thanks to a functional overlap between disease suppression and antipredator defense, presence of predators (protozoa) may prevent the decay of plant-microbe mutualism by counter-selecting defectors. Here we coevolve Pseudomonas protegens CHA0, a model mutualistic bacterium inhibiting several plant diseases, in presence of ciliated protozoa. We show that co-evolution with protozoa not only prevents the apparition of defectors but also results in an enhanced expression of the traits linked to pathogen suppression. Our results reveal that natural enemies may be essential to maintain host-microbe mutualism and that a multitrophic evolutionary framework should be used to assess the costs and benefits of interkingdom cooperation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Can Altruism Evolve Between Species? (52138) Christopher Quickfall. University of Sheffield. Multi-species associations, involving co-adapted species, are widespread in nature; examples include multi-species biofilms, plant-pollinator associations, and associations between algae and fungi to form lichens. Hamilton showed how altruism can evolve between members of the same species, due to genetic relatedness. However, the literature is much less clear on whether altruistic acts can evolve between species, whereby a member of one species reduces their reproductive success to benefit other species, without a direct or indirect fitness return. One potential problem is that genetic relatedness between species appears to be ill-defined and thus might normally be assumed to be zero. These arguments bear on the fundamentals of social evolution theory. We clarify these issues, using simple models to define the evolutionary conditions favouring costly donation between species without immediate return benefits. In particular, we examine inter-species models that are intended to represent, as much as possible, Hamilton’s scenario for altruism within species. Results are found both analytically, and through deterministic and stochastic simulation. We find that costly donation between species can evolve with a specific type of whole-genome assortment between species, but argue that it is explained by indirect fitness benefits within the donating species, using partner species as vectors for altruism. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Diversity of moral strategies in human reputation-based cooperation (52206) Martijn Egas, Violet Swakman, Lucas Molleman, Aljaz Ule. Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (UvA); The Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics (CeDEx), University of Nottingham; Center for Research on Experimental Economics and political Decision-making (CREED), UvA. The question why humans often help others without selfish material interest intrigues many scientists. In theory such human reciprocal cooperation can be explained when helping is directed to individuals with a good reputation of helping others. Evolutionary models predict stable cooperation when reputations are based on moral assessment rules incorporating whether helping someone is justified, which requires information on the behavior of the person to be judged but also of the persons (s)he interacted with. Here, we provide first empirical evidence that such information indeed affects cooperative decision making: more help is provided to people who helped cooperative players and refused to help uncooperative players. A detailed analysis of individual strategies reveals that many subjects base their decisions solely on their recipients’ past behavior. Some classify as unconditional cooperators or defectors, and a few as maintaining a fixed level of helpfulness. Importantly, however, a substantial proportion of individuals consistently consider the motivations behind behaviors. Our results provide strong empirical support for the use of moral strategies that theoretically

underpin reputation-based cooperation, but also challenges theory by highlighting the existence of pronounced individual variation in human cooperative strategies. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Pattern and process in the evolutionary history of the mycorrhizal symbiosis (52299) Hafiz Maherali. University of Guelph. The vast majority of plants form symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi, which provide them with soil nutrients in return for sugars from photosynthesis. The high frequency of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in plants could be explained by two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. First, the symbiosis may be adaptive in many different plant lineages, leading to convergent evolution. Second, possessing the symbiosis may cause higher speciation and lower extinction rates, leading to higher net diversification in mycorrhizal relative to non-mycorrizal lineages over evolutionary time. To test these hypotheses, we reconstructed the evolution of the symbiosis using maximum likelihood based multiple state speciation and extinction models (MuSSE) applied to a ~3000 taxon mycorrhizal state database matched with a fossil calibrated molecular phylogeny. Results supported the first hypothesis but not the second hypothesis. Transition rates to the mycorrhizal symbiosis from the non-mycorrizal state were an order of magnitude more frequent than losses, and the mycorrhizal state was much more stable over time than the non-mycorrizal state. By contrast, net diversification rates were lower in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrizal plant lineages. The high frequency with which the mycorrhizal symbiosis evolves from non-mycorrizal ancestors suggests that there is strong selection to form the symbiosis in one or both partners. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Birds of almost the same feather flock together: phenotypic clumping characterises the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, worldwide (52410) Hari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert Askins, Julio Cesar Canales-Delgadillo, ChaoChieh Chen , David Ewert, George Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy Gram. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India; National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, India; Department of Biology, Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut, USA; Department of Behavioral Biology, University of Osnabru¨ck, Osnabru¨ck, Germany; Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung ; The Nature Conservancy, Lansing, Michigan, USA; School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand; Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California, USA; National Ecological Observatory Network, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Our current understanding of animal sociality comes, mainly, from an intraspecific context. Heterospecific sociality, although widely prevalent, finds little mention in theories and discussion on group-living. This could be because heterospecific sociality is thought to be qualitatively different, i.e., while single-species groups are based on cooperation among ecologically-similar individuals, heterospecific association is believed to be for obtaining benefits from ecologically-dissimilar individuals. While this is certainly true for some of the most striking heterospecific associations known (e.g., grouper-moray eel; babbler-drongo), whether it is also true for larger multi-species groups is unclear. Using a multi-continent dataset on mixed-species bird flock composition (55 presenceabsence matrices, 2421 flocks), we find that flocks are, largely, groupings of ecologicallysimilar species. Null model-randomization approach, followed by meta-analysis, revealed that body-size similarity, foraging behaviour similarity and taxonomic relatedness in flocks is higher than expected at random, in most locations. These results suggest that benefits in multi-species groups might, in fact, be qualitatively similar to single-species groups, and highlight the need to think of sociality along a continuum from conspecifics to heterospecifics. We discuss conditions that might promote grouping with heterospecifics over conspecifics, especially in relation to competition and conspecific availability. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

The implications of Termitomyces domestication for gut microbiome function in fungus-growing termites (52663) Michael Poulsen, Haofu Hu, Cai Li, Duur K. Aanen, Jacobus J. Boomsma, Guojie Zhang. University of Copenhagen; BGI Shenzen; University of Copenhagen, BGI Shenzen; Wageningen University; University of Copenhagen; University of Copenhagen, BGI Shenzen. Thirty MYA, the ancestors of the higher termite sub-family Macrotermitinae and the basidiomycete fungus Termitomyces joined forces in what was to become one of the most sophisticated plant biomass decomposition symbioses on Earth. The degree to which the innovation of fungiculture induced a functional shift in the gut microbiota has remained unclear. We used 16S rRNA 454 pyro-sequencing to portray the community composition of the core gut microbiota associated with the Macrotermitinae and Illumina sequencing to obtain metagenome insight into the functional gut community roles. Focusing on carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by Termitomyces and gut microbes from the termite Macrotermes natalensis, we found that gut bacteria primarily contribute enzymes for final digestion after Termitomyces has degraded the most complex carbohydrates. We also pursued comparative analyses of fungal-cell-wall-degrading enzymes in gut bacteria associated with M. natalensis and Odontotermes yunnanensis. These gut communities share remarkably similar enzyme profiles and the bacteria producing these enzymes are generally overrepresented in fungus-growing termites relative to termites that rely on cellulolytic gut microbes. The shift in gut metagenome function after Termitomyces domestication thus appears to have involved both complementary division of labour and targeted digestion of the novel food offered by Termitomyces. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - GEN 2000

The bacterial network: Cooperative nutrient exchange via nanotubes (52763) Samay Pande, Shraddha sh*tut, Lisa Freund, Martin Westermann, Felix Bertels, Claudia Colesie, Ilka Bischofs, Christian Kost. Experimental Ecology and Evolution group, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Jena; The Evolutionary biology group, ETH Zurich; Centre for Electron Microscopy, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena; Department of Plant Ecology and Systematics, University of Kaiserslautern; Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg (ZMBH); Center for Quantitative Analysis of Molecular and Cellular Biosystems (BioQuant), Heidelberg. Bacterial interactions frequently involve an exchange of essential metabolites. However, it remains unclear whether such cross-feeding relies exclusively on diffusion of metabolites through the cell-external environment, or if bacteria also utilize contact-dependent mechanisms to directly transfer metabolites between cells. To test this, we have synthetically generated interactions within and between Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baylyi, in which both species reciprocally exchanged essential amino acids. Our results show that the two distantly related bacterial species can exchange cytoplasmic amino acids and protein by connecting to each other through membrane-derived nanotubes. The inter-cellular connections seem to be induced by the amino acid auxotrophy mutations introduced into the organism. The nutrient exchange was dependent on the nutritional status of the cell, thus indicating that the exchange may primarily serve to satisfy the metabolic requirements of nanotube-forming cells. Altogether, our findings show for the first time that bacteria can use direct cell-to-cell connections to exchange essential metabolites. The possibility that by connecting via nanotubes two or more bacterial cells can extend their biochemical repertoire without the need for genetic change, suggests that bacteria may function as multicellular, interconnected entities rather than as individual, physiologically autonomous units -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Negotiation and appeasem*nt are more effective drivers of sociality than kin selection (52769) Andres Quiñones, Ido Pen, Sander van Doorn, Franjo Weissing, Michael Taborsky. University of Groningen; University of Bern. Conflicts of interest are common in group-living organisms, since behaviour that maximizes an individual’s reproductive success often compromises that of other group members. One way to prevent such conflicts from undermining sociality is to restrict group membership to genetically related individuals. Alternatively, unrelated individuals can prevent being exploited by utilizing a conditional strategy, enabling two pro-social partners to negotiate a mutually beneficial outcome by responding to each other’s previous actions. How these two processes – kin selection and negotiation – interact in the evolution of sociality remains an open question. Here we show, using a mathematical model inspired by cooperatively breeding

fish with dominant breeders and subordinate helpers, that negotiation can be more effective than kin selection at resolving social conflict and promoting high levels of help. When the two processes act in concert, evolving populations can reach two alternative equilibria. In the first, negotiation drives subordinates to appease dominants, resulting in high levels of help and low levels of aggression. In the alternative equilibrium, which evolves by kin selection, subordinates help their kin unconditionally. Our model demonstrates that negotiation and kin selection do not necessarily interact synergistically and that kin structure can hamper rather than facilitate the evolution of efficient cooperation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - GEN 2000

Insights into the asymmetrical nature of nursery pollination mutualisms: the Trollius-Chiastocheta interaction as a case study (52962) Tomasz Suchan, Nadir Alvarez. University of Lausanne, Dept. of Ecology and Evolution; University of Lausanne, Dept. of Ecology and Evolution. The nursery pollination interaction between the European globeflower Trollius europaeus and Chiastocheta flies is often cited as an example of a specific and obligate mutualism — the flies pollinate the plant and their larvae eat a fraction of developing seeds. We tested this hypothesis by examining seed set and traits related to offspring fitness in isolated Trollius populations, some in which Chiastocheta communities went extinct. We found that despite a significant drop in the seed set, the seeds produced in the absence of flies were larger and showed higher germination rate, a result compatible with the resource allocation hypothesis. Therefore, relative fitness in the populations without flies was similar to those with flies, a result of the tradeoff between the number of seeds produced and their germination rate. This outcome highlights the role of Chiastocheta flies as seed parasites, and the asymmetry of their interaction with Trollius — while the flies need the plant to reproduce, the opposite is not true. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Genital form and the evolution of reinforcement in Littorininae (51576) Johan Hollander. Lund University. Speciation requires reproductive isolation and biologists have examined multiple different processes of lineage splitting by which it could evolve. Within this range, reinforcement is recognised as having a special position as the only process in which natural selection directly favours an increase in reproductive isolation. Similarly, a role for genital form influencing copulatory and post-copulatory components of reproductive isolation has long been suspected because, among animals with internal fertilization, male genitalia demonstrate rapid divergent

evolution and species-specific forms. However, reinforcement and genital form have virtually always been studied separately. In order to increase our understanding of how genital form may influence the evolution of reinforcement, I will present a comparative analysis (on an unusually large and complete phylogeny of the marine gastropod subfamily Littorininae 147 species, 97% complete) which show a strong signal of greater genital divergence in sisterspecies pairs with overlapping ranges than in those with allopatric ranges, providing a prima facie case for widespread reinforcement, suggesting that diversification and genital evolution are intimately linked. These results are combined with a detailed experiment, between a specific Littorininae sister-species pair from Australia, confirming reinforcement in mating behaviour. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Edaphic adaptation in Arabidopsis: a genomic perspective on the calcicolecalcifuge problem (51582) Alessia Guggisberg, Xuanyu Liu, Léonie Suter, Alex Widmer. Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich. It remains unclear what type of factors drives edaphic adaptation in plant communities occupying either calcareous or siliceous bedrocks, advocating for comparative genomic studies on calcicole-calcifuge vicariants, i.e. sister taxa that grow on either calcareous or siliceous substrates. We study the genetic basis of edaphic adaptation in two diploid species of Arabidopsis (A. lyrata and A. arenosa, Brassicaceae) that grow on both soil types, using whole-genome re-sequencing data obtained from both individual and pooled DNA libraries. We have identified hundreds of loci that carry a clear signature of divergent selection. These loci are enriched for genes involved in ion transport, and do sometimes overlap with soilspecific tandem duplications. Yet, balancing selection may also contribute to the maintenance of adaptive genetic variation in mixed habitats. Overall, our results suggest that chemical soil composition constitutes the main cause of ecological differentiation in these species, and that A. lyrata and A. arenosa underwent parallel edaphic evolution at the biochemical, genic and sometimes even SNP level. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Genetics of Jaw Divergence in a Trophically Polymorphic Cichlid Fish (51587) C. Darrin Hulsey, Francisco J. García De León, Kate Bell, Chris NIce. University of Konstanz ; Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR); Texas State; Texas State. Trophically polymorphic species could represent lineages that are rapidly diverging along an ecological axis or could phenotypically mark the collapse of species through introgressive hybridization. We investigated patterns of introgression between the trophically polymorphic

cichlid fish Herichthys minckleyi and its relative H. cyanoguttatus using a combination of population genomics and species tree analyses. Using rad-tag sequencing, we also investigated whether hybridization could explain the variation in the jaws of this phenotypically variable cichlid. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Meiotic drive and inter-population incompatibilites (51680) Rudi Verspoor, Tom Price, Gregory Hurst. University of Liverpool. Intragenomic conflict is a major contender for driving speciation. X chromosomes that enhance their transmission by killing Y-bearing sperm are particularly likely to drive differentiation. As males carrying X chromosome drive produce few or no sons, the costs are very high for the rest of the genome, potentially causing the evolution of genes that suppress the sperm killing mechanism. This counter-adaptation could create cycles of rapid coevolution between the driving X and the suppressors. This population specific evolution could create interpopulation differences in reproduction genes, and generate hybrid incompatibilities. However, meiotic drivers themselves could also reduce differences between populations, because a driver that enters a naive population might spread rapidly through it (if the naive population carries no suppressors), potentially hom*ogenising the two populations, at least for the driving chromosome. So does meiotic drive hom*ogenise populations, or create barriers to hybridisation? We investigate this using an X-chromosome meiotic driver in Drosophila subobscura. We show that suppression has evolved in the native population, but not in a nearby naive population. However, meiotic drive carrying males suffer severe fertility costs in crosses with the naive population, suggesting that in this system meiotic drive is causing hybrid incompatibilities and population differentiation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Adaptation and selection processes at the invasion front of a globally expanding vertebrate (51682) Irene Kalchhauser, Jost Borcherding, Patricia Holm. University of Basel; University of Cologne. Ponto-Caspian gobies are invasive fish that have spread through much of Europe and North America during the last decades. Translocation over large distances is attributed to ship traffic. Ponto-Caspian gobies present a wonderful case of an evolutionary field experiment. These fish are continually exposed to novel environments at the invasion front. Populations in

harbors, which are invasion hotspots, continually receive genetic input from various source populations. Importantly, Ponto-Caspian gobies perform remarkably well in diverse environments and display plasticity in morphology and life history traits. As a starting point towards using Ponto-Caspian gobies as a model of evolution and adaptation, we analyzed the connectivity of the invasion edge of bighead goby populations in the Rhine. We genotyped over 500 bighead goby from North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and two populations in Basel, Switzerland for 16 microsatellite loci. We find that the Basel harbor populations is genetically closer to the NRW population than to the Basel river population. Mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, in contrast, reflect the geographic distribution. Ship movement patterns may explain the highly differentiated genetic structure of the Basel population. Tank ships from the Northern Rhine anchor close to the river population, while cargo ships from the Rhine-Main-Danube channel anchor close to the harbor population. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Variability in the incidence of hybrid seed failure within and among wild tomato species (52074) Morgane Roth, Thomas Städler. Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. The tomato clade (Solanum section Lycopersicon) is emerging as a model system in evolutionary biology and speciation research. Wild tomato species diverged recently and are notable for their dissimilar levels of postzygotic isolation. After performing reciprocal crosspollinations, we characterized postzygotic barriers within and between three self-incompatible taxa, namely S. peruvianum, S. chilense and S. arcanum var. marañón. Based on the proportions of viable and inviable (aborted) seeds and subsequent germination tests, we explored the overall strength and variability of postzygotic isolation. Reciprocal interspecific crosses involving S. peruvianum yielded almost no viable seeds whereas crosses between S. chilense and S. arcanum var. marañón produced an intermediate proportion of viable seeds. Moreover, and unlike the “strong” postzygotic barrier between S. peruvianum and the two other taxa, the proportion of viable seeds was frequently asymmetric in reciprocal hybrid crosses involving S. chilense and S. arcanum var. marañón. Intraspecific crossings have revealed a considerable proportion of inviable seeds in S. chilense, highlighting the possibility of rapid build-up of postzygotic isolation in this group. Our phenotypic data will be augmented by surveys of endosperm transcriptomes from developing seeds, as endosperm is the seed component that is most likely causally involved in hybrid seed failure. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Genomics of speciation and species cohesion in the adaptive radiation of tillandsioids in Neotropical mountains (51754)

de La Harpe Marylaure, Paris Margot, Loiseau Oriane, Olivares Ingrid, Weigand Anna, Till Walter, Kessler Michael, Salamin Nicolas, Lexer Christian. University of Fribourg; University of Lausanne; University of Zurich; University of Vienna. The adaptive radiation of bromeliads is one of the most diverse and enigmatic of the Neotropics. The Tillandsioideae subfamily represents a pertinent system for studying the genomic and molecular footprints of divergent ecological selection during adaptive radiation. Our main research aim is to unravel drivers and limits of diversification at different time scales. Tillandsioid taxa were sampled along elevation gradients of various Central and South American mountain regions. Common species (geographic replicates) and local endemics were defined based on their natural distribution ranges and ecological preferences. Geographic replicates were chosen preferentially to disentangle evolutionary mechanisms responsible for speciation and species cohesion. A genomic approach, including RNAsequencing and restriction site Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), will generate data for both neutral and non-neutral genomic regions. It will be employed to characterize gene flow and allelic diversity within and among populations and species occurring along elevation gradients and across a range of geographic scales. Great emphasis will be given on analyses of population divergence to circ*mscribe genetic mechanisms responsible for species cohesion and persistence, including genomic scans for allelic diversity, differentiation, gene flow within and between species. Current results and key points from this research will be presented, including proof-of-concept data from RAD-seq, and available sampling designs. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Identifying the genetic basis of ecologically important traits in Nicotiana attenuata using advanced-inter crossing recombinant inbred lines (AI-RIL) (51775) Xu Shuqing, Wenwu Zhou, Pia Backmann, Anke Kügler, Celia Diezel, Ian Baldwin. Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology. Identifying the genetic basis of ecologically important traits and estimating their fitness effects are essential for understanding how adaptation proceeds. We established the first advanced intercross-recombinant inbred lines (AI-RIL) in Nicotiana attenuata, a diploid annual tobacco plant, to investigate the genetic basis of leave and floral traits that are relevant to plant fitness. The two parental lines used to establish the AI-RILs varied in many different traits, such as concentration of phenolics, green leaf volatiles, floral display and volatiles, which are important for plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions, thus allowing us to investigate how insect herbivore and pollinator-imposed selections drive phenotypic divergence in plants. The high density genetic markers for the established AI-RIL population were obtained using genotyping by sequencing. With the combined approaches of genetic mapping and reverse genetics, such as virus induced gene silencing, we aim to identify the causal genetic variations that are involved in plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions. Furthermore, the quantitative fitness effects contributed by each trait and its underlying genetic architecture will be measured in the native environment of N. attenuata in the spring

of 2015. Our results will shed light on how plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions drive the evolution of phenotypic traits in plants. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

From whole-genome scans for divergence to the discovery of speciation genes in oaks (51801) Thibault Leroy, Jean-Marc Aury, Catherine Bodénès, Laure Villate, Grégoire Le Provost, Jérôme Salse, Joëlle Amselem, Antoine Kremer, Christophe Plomion. BioGeCo, INRA/Université de Bordeaux, FR; CEA, Genoscope, FR; GDEC, INRA ClermontFerrand, FR; URGI, INRA Versailles, FR. Understanding the nature, the number and the strength of barriers to gene flow is a major goal in speciation genomics. Yet, few speciation genes have been reported to date in plants. Considering the costs of NGS are still coming down, it becomes possible to identify such speciation genes at the pan-genomic level even for non-model species. This presentation will review our latest advances regarding this research topic within the European white oak complex. We first established a reference genome for oak (1.5Gb/2C) organized into pseudochromosomes and used a deep pool sequencing approach to characterize 4 sympatric and interfertile species (Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Q. pyrenaica, Q. pubescens). Even if these species exhibit different ecological requirements (e.g. soil pH or moisture), they are still connected by substantial levels of 'interspecific' gene flow (FST < 0.2). As a consequence, loci related to intrinsic selection against hybrids are expected to be revealed together with the gene driving ecological divergence. A whole-genome scan for divergence was performed using up to 250x genome coverage per species. Here, we report evidences for genomic islands of differentiation and identified some candidate speciation genes for both endogenous and exogenous barriers including some genes involved in flowering or drought tolerance. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Coupling genomics with experiments to study divergence-with-gene-flow in trees (51820) Luisa Bresadola, Kai N. Stoelting, Céline Caseys, Dorothea Lindtke, Christian Lexer. University of Fribourg; University of British Columbia; University of Sheffield. Rapid recent progress in ecological and evolutionary genomics is imparting fresh perspectives to the study of speciation. A particularly active field of research at the current time is the study of “divergence-with-gene-flow”, that is, divergence that involves episodes of sym- or parapatry and thus genetic contact during some stage of the process, before reproductive isolation is complete. In this project, we address key questions regarding the ecological and evolutionary genomics of “divergence-with-gene-flow” in Populus alba and P. tremula, two

widespread Eurasian tree species related to Populus trichocarpa, the first completely sequenced forest tree. In particular, defined key questions and hypotheses concerning the following topics are addressed: (1) roles of early vs. late-acting reproductive barriers in the maintenance of species boundaries, (2) genomic architecture and selective value of species differences maintained in the face of gene flow, (3) role of genetic incompatibilities as early postmating barriers in species isolation. We address these topics with the help of highthroughput "genotyping-by-sequencing" approaches in natural and experimental populations, and by coupling genomics with evolutionary ecology experiments. The results are expected to advance our understanding of the origin and maintenance of reproductive barriers in hybridizing tree species representing keystone or foundation species in terrestrial habitats. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Differential gene expression according to race and host plant in the pea aphid (51835) Isobel Eyres, Julie Jaquiery, Akiko Sugio, Ludovic Duvaux, Karim Gharbi, JeanChristophe Simon, Carole Smadja, Roger Butlin, Julia Ferrari. University of Sheffield; INRA Rennes; University of Edinburgh; University of Montpellier; University of York. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, provides a powerful system for examining the genetics of host-plant adaptation and speciation, as it comprises multiple host-associated races which form a continuum of genetic divergence. Because pea aphids live and reproduce year-round on their chosen host plant, host acceptance differences between races are responsible for multiple components of reproductive isolation, and understanding the genetics of the aphidhost interaction is likely to go a long way towards understanding speciation in this system. By conducting comparative gene expression studies, it is possible to identify biological functions involved in the adaptation of organisms to their surrounding environments. An ecological understanding of the plant-aphid interaction gives us hypotheses to test by molecular genetic methods. Using aphid clones collected from six host races in England, we examine gene expression both on their collection host and on a ‘universal’ host using an RNA-seq approach. This enables the identification of genes involved in direct host-plant response as well as genes that differ between aphid races. Recent studies have indicated a role for chemosensory genes in the process of host-race formation, so in addition to analysing overall patterns of expression, we specifically examine the involvement of salivary protein and chemosensory genes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Comparative and evolutionary studies of lysosomal glycosidases in the liver/hepatopancreas of different aquatic organisms. (51916) Elizaveta Vdovichenko, Rimma Vysotskaya.

Laboratory for Ecological Biochemistry,Institute of Biology, KarRC of RAS. Lysosomal glycosidases are enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates performing a variety of functions in organisms: energy, structural, biological recognition et al. Their role in adaptive responses of aquatic organisms are still under study. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the activity of 3 lysosomal glycosidases in the liver/hepatopancreas of blue mussels and fish species - pike, white-fish, roach, perch. The activity of β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase was several times higher in the hepatopancreas of mussels in comparison with fish liver. The activity of β-glucuronidase was significantly lower. The main strategy of adaptation for bivalves to get isolated from the environment is to close shell valves and minimize the metabolism. The transition to anaerobic energy supply and regulation of metabolic reconstructions require a high glucosidase and galactosidase activity. Fishes use other mechanisms of biochemical adaptation and βglucuronidase plays a more important role in their metabolism. The research was carried out using the facilities of the Equipment Sharing Centre of the Institute of Biology, KarRC of RAS and supported by Grant of the Russian Federation President “Leading scientific school of Russia” 1410.2014.4;COOPENOR: “Combined effects of Petroleum and the Environment in bivalves from the Norwegian-Russian Arctic”. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

The Effects of Pollination and Range Shifts on the Diversification of the Tribe Antirrhineae (51933) Ezgi Ogutcen, Jolan Theriault, Daniel B. King, Jana C. Vamosi. University of Calgary. Range shifts are considered an important precursor to evolutionary divergence because they place populations in different environments that favour different characters. Long-distance dispersal promotes an expansion in niche breadth in terms of pollination syndromes in angiosperms, potentially explaining a wide variety of pollination syndromes. Antirrhineae, a tribe under Plantaginaceae, is a useful group for studying the interplay between dispersal and pollination in macroevolution because it has members in the Old World and the New World, and exhibits numerous transitions in major pollinating groups. By integrating predictive modeling and range reconstructions with phylogenetic analysis, We aim to: i) reconstruct where major range shifts have occurred within Antirrhineae; ii) determine whether range overlap increases or decreases with time since divergence within the tribe; and iii) examine whether shifts in geographic distribution and pollination syndromes are associated with differences in speciation rates in Antirrhineae. We find that distribution or pollination alone does not affect speciation rates, but the interaction of these two characters have a significant effect on speciation rates in Antirrhineae. Our age-range correlation analysis also suggest that sympatric speciation is predominant in the tribe, with a trend towards young nodes having more range overlap than older nodes in the phylogeny. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Poster session A - MAX 412

A colourful genomic landscape: patterns of gene flow in an Australian colour polymorphic finch (51935) Peri Bolton, Adam Cadelini, Lee Rollins, James Brazill-Boast, Sarah Pryke, Sarah Legge, Kimberley Maute, Simon Griffith. Macquarie University; Deakin University; Deakin University; Macquarie University; Australian National University; Australian Wildlife Conservancy; University of Wollongong. Colour polymorphic species are good models for investigating genetic mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Colour can facilitate pre-zygotic isolation through habitat specialisation and sexual signalling, and colour is often correlated with behavioural and physiological traits. The Australian endemic Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) has a simple sex-linked headcolour polymorphism. Previous work has identified the region responsible for head-colour on the avian Z-chromosome. Head-colour is associated with different strategies, and captive birds have been demonstrated to exhibit strong pre- and post-zygotic isolation between morphs. However, microsatellite markers indicate that there is extensive gene-flow between head-colour morphs in the wild, so how are these different morph strategies maintained? Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing, we use a genome-wide approach to clarify population structure across the range and between morphs. We discuss our results in the context of the biogeographic origin of the head-colour polymorphism, and models of speciation with gene flow. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Selection on floral volatiles in sister species of Alpine orchids (Gymnadenia) (52009) Kelsey JRP Byers, Roman T Kellenberger, Philipp M Schlüter. Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zürich. Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied in detail only recently. The genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating reproductive isolation remains largely unknown, particularly in systems with more generalist pollinators. The sister species Gymnadenia densiflora and G. rhellicani (Orchidaceae) demonstrate minimal post-zygotic reproductive isolation, and their stable coexistence in sympatry appears to be largely due to floral isolation. Multiple floral traits are divergent in this system, including color, inflorescence size and shape, nectar spur length, and floral scent. Both species emit a complex blend of volatiles, with limited overlap. Previous work has shown multiple floral volatiles found in these species to be important in pollinator neural response and behavior. Genes responsible for three of these volatiles are known, but their evolutionary history remains unclear. I will discuss these volatiles, covering three main areas: species differences in coding and expression in their biosynthetic genes, molecular

signatures of selection on volatiles, and the interplay between selection on these volatiles and population structure. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Evolutionary consequences of the hybridization on the genetic architecture in two close species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) (52093) Fernanda Baena-Diaz, Niklaus Zemp, Alex Widmer. ETH Zürich; ETH Zürich; ETH Zürich. Understanding the consequences of hybridization and introgression in plants is very important because these processes can alter the evolutionary trajectories of the involved species, by increasing extinction rates, but also by promoting the origin of new linages and adaptive evolution through introgression. When two species hybridize, new combinations of traits from the parental species are formed, however, this new combination of traits will depend on the genetic architecture of the parental species, thus affecting the evolutionary outcome of the hybrids. The goal of this project is to determine the genetic architecture of the species differences between Silene latifolia and S. dioica by mapping morphological traits on F2 hybrids between these species, with special interest in the role of sex chromosomes. We build a male and female genetic linkage map on F2 hybrids between these two species based on SNP’s obtained by rad sequencing and measure 13 traits to obtain QTL’s. The markers mapped to 12 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of these species. The QTL analysis reveals that traits related to reproductive isolation are clustered in sex chromosomes, thus reducing recombination of these traits and probably maintaining species differences even when introgression occur in natural populations. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Metabolic adaptations to decomposition of plant biomass in fungus-growing termite symbionts (52129) Rafael da Costa, Michael Poulsen . University of Copenhagen. Fungus-growing termites along with Termitomyces fungi and gut bacteria play significant roles in the turnover of organic matter through plant biomass decomposition in the OldWorld. The termites predigest plant material before inoculation into the fungus comb, where Termitomyces decomposes the main plant components. After the fungus comb has passed a second gut passage, the plant substrate is almost perfectly degraded, supporting that Termitomyces and gut microbes play complementary roles in plant decomposition. However, because different fungus-growing termites species collect different plant substrates, it is conceivable that co-evolutionary adaptations have occurred over the course of the 30 MYA tripartite association. To investigate this, we are undertaking comparison of the metabolic

capacities of fungal and bacterial symbionts using growth assays, enzyme assays, polysaccharide content analysis of fungus combs, and fungal and bacterial transcriptomics. The use of combinatorial approaches will allow identification of whether different Termitomyces lineages and associated gut bacteria are adapted to decompose specific plant substrates. This will allow for a more thorough understanding of evolutionary adaptations and specificity of symbionts associated with fungus-growing termite species, and more broadly shed light on the understanding of complementary roles played by diverse symbionts in complex mutualisms. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Alternative splicing in candidate genes involved in diapause and cold acclimation in northern Drosophila montana (53718) Maaria Kankare, Ville Hoikkala, Kalevi Trontti. University of Jyvaskyla. Alternative splicing (AS) structural variation in the messenger RNA and is known to entail adaptive potential of the organisms. However, splice variation is widely unexplored in many important phenomenon connected to adaptation. Several insect species inhabiting high latitudes have evolved different ways to survive the harsh winter conditions with long lasting subzero temperatures. Here we investigate AS under diapause and cold acclimation in a northern malt fly species, Drosophila montana. This species is adapted to seasonally varying environments at high latitudes, is relatively cold tolerant and shows robust photoperiodic reproductive diapause. First, we compiled RNA-sequence data to a denovo assembly using Trinity and analyzed differential expression of the contigs from diapausing and cold acclimated females. The 29 M reads used in the assembly were curated for high quality and confirmed to be species specific in order to avoid producing false variation and any nonspecies contigs. Finally, to identify candidate genes the list of differentially expressed (DE) genes was parsed for contigs having AS variation. Our current results indicate several genes with AS isoforms that are DE under investigated processes. The genes were annotated e.g. to metabolic and structural genes as well as to genes with a putative immune function. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

The evolution and development of petal spots in the Angiosperms (52211) Gregory Mellers, Allan Ellis, Beverley Glover. University of Cambridge; University of Stellenbosch. Angiosperms are the most diverse division of extant land plants, occurring in almost every environment on Earth. A key element in the formation of such a speciose group is their intimate co-evolution with pollinator species. Typically such pollination syndromes are gross features such as corolla colouration or floral scent. However, it is becoming increasingly

apparent that finer scale features may also attract pollinator species. One such characteristic is the appearance of petal spots on the corolla which have previously been shown to increase reproductive success. Our work investigates how petal spots develop in the species Gorteria diffusa. Previous work has found there to be multiple “morphotypes” of the species which represent natural mutations fixed within discrete populations. These allow for comparative analyses to be undertaken with the intention of elucidating the molecular regulation of spot generation. Some evidence suggests a role for MYB genes in the formation process hence comparative expression analyses and heterologous expression studies are being undertaken. Furthermore, restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is being used to acquire high SNP coverage in an attempt to understand the relationship between these morphotypes. It is hoped that through these techniques a hypothetical model for spot formation may be found and subsequently perturbed for validation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Genetics of Cold Aclimation in Drosophila montana (52250) Felipe Vigoder, Darren Parker, Nicola Cook, Maaria Kankare, Michael Ritchie. UFRJ; University of St-Andrews; University of Jyväskylä. The ability to cold acclimate has important implication to organisms fitness because it allow individuals to remain active for longer when the temperature starts to drop over winter and also allows them recover faster from a cold shock. In insect, despite many physiological studies on the subject little is known about the genetic basis of this phenotype. Recently, transcriptome analyses in Drosophila virilis and Drosophila montana suggested the involvement of 3 candidate genes involved in cold acclimation; santa-maria (stm), period (per) and Inos. We aim to test the actual role of these 3 genes candidates genes on cold acclimation in D. montana using a RNAi approach. D. montana has a circumpolar distribution being adapted to live within a large seasonal temperature variation. Our preliminary results confirm the involvement of both stm and Inos but not per on cold acclimation in D. montana. To our knowledge this is the first time any candidate gene from a transcriptome analysis is confirmed as being involved in a phenotype. Further details will be discussed at the presentation. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Whole transcriptome analysis on three Cuban Anolis lizard species adapting to different thermal microhabitats (52254) Hiroshi D Akashi, Antonio Cádiz Díaz, Shuji Shigenobu, Takashi Makino, Masakado Kawata. Tohoku University; Havana University; National Institute for Basic Biology.

Environmental temperature is a primary factor limiting performance and survival of ectotherms. The physiological mechanisms and its underlying molecular basis with which ectotherms respond to environmental temperature have received considerable recent interest in light of man made climate warming. In Cuba, three Anolis lizards, A. sagrei, A. hom*olechis and A. allogus, coexist in the same forest but occupy different thermal niches. Here, we performed RNA-seq to examine the transcriptional responses among these three species to different thermal environments. We exposed the animals for 5 days to 26 ˚C and 33 ˚C prior to transcriptional analysis. The experimental temperatures were chosen as they reflect the selected body temperatures of A. allogus and A. sagrei in the field, respectively. We found that out of approximately 15,000 transcripts obtained for each species, 75 % were expressed under both temperatures in all species. Most interestingly, transcripts with temperaturedependent differential expressions within species were not shared across species, except for a single gene (CYP2J2). Our study indicates that the molecular basis underlying thermal physiology may be strikingly diverse among closely related species with different thermal preferences. We discuss more about other differentially expressed genes detected to show the evolution of thermal physiology. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Specialization to the host plant in Lepidoptera pests: pattern and process (52259) Marion Orsucci, Réjane Streiff, Emmanuelle d'Alençon, Philippe Audiot, Syvie Gimenez, Nicolas Nègre. UM2,INRA-DGIMI,INRA-CBGP; INRA-CBGP; UM2,INRA-DGIMI; INRA-CBGP; UM2,INRA-DGIMI; UM2. Specialization to host plant can be a driver of the high diversification of phytophagous insects. Indeed, in this process, host shifts can lead to the evolution of new specialist races or species. In this context, we study variants of moth species that are genetically differentiated and specialized to different hosts, as shown by their larval performances and preference for oviposition sites. These differently specialized moth variants live in sympatry, which makes them pertinent candidates to study ecological speciation by host plant specialization. We first determined the pattern of specialization of the different variants with a reciprocal transplant experiment on larvae. In this experiment, we measured various life history traits (survival, weight, developmental time) in response to native and alternative host plants. Then, we conducted an RNA-seq analysis to study the molecular processes involved in the larval performance. We collected RNA pools of larval tissues sampled from different experimental modalities (moth strains/host plants). Differential gene expression between modalities is then interpreted in light of the phenotypic variations we measured. This combined approach aims to identify the gene families and biological functions putatively involved in host specialization of moth larvae. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Post-mating pre-zygotic barriers and Haldane's rule (52298) Joanna Bundus, Asher Cutter. University of Toronto. Haldane’s rule is one of the most general observations in speciation research, but the influence of post-mating pre-zygotic barriers on Haldane’s rule has been relatively underappreciated. For gametic barriers to affect Haldane’s rule, gametes bearing different sex chromosomes must differ in fertilization success in interspecific crosses. Outbreeding Caenorhabditis briggsae initially produce hermaphrodite offspring (XX), with more male offspring (X0) produced later, due to a competitive advantage of X-bearing sperm over nulloX sperm. Crosses between C. briggsae and it’s sister species C. nigoni exhibit Haldane’s rule, producing more females than males. These crosses also stop producing offspring soon after mating, because sperm are rapidly lost from the reproductive tract. We hypothesized that the combination of an X-bearing sperm competitive advantage and rapid sperm loss contributes to Haldane’s rule, because many nullo-X sperm are lost before fertilizing any eggs. We compared the sex ratio of hybrids laid on the first day after mating to those laid on the second day after mating. Consistent with our hypothesis, the proportion of hybrid males was lower among early progeny than late progeny, indicating that X-bearing sperm have a fertilization advantage in the interspecific cross, contributing to Haldane’s rule. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Feeling the pressure: extremophilic adaptation of hsp90 and hsp70 heat-shock proteins in deep-sea amphipod species (52300) Heather Ritchie, Alan Jamieson, Stuart Piertney. Zoology, University of Aberdeen; Oceanlab, University of Aberdeen. The enormous hydrostatic pressure ranges (60-110 MPa) of the oceanic hadal zone (>6000 m depth) pose great challenges to hadal organisms, affecting growth, viability and distribution. Nevertheless, the hadal zone hosts extremely taxonomically diverse floral and faunal communities, highlighting a capacity for local evolutionary adaptation. One key mechanism facilitating extremophilic adaptation may be the evolution of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). These are molecular chaperones that assist protein folding, regulation and degradation in response to various environmental stressors such as fluctuations in hydrostatic pressure. Examining the patterns of inter- and intra-specific variation of HSPs can elucidate a species’ ability to inhabit extreme environments, such as the hadal zone. Here we examine the role of HSP evolution in ubiquitous Lysianassoidea amphipod species, whose distributions exceed a kilometre in depth equating to pressure changes exceeding 10 MPa. A total of 28 species across seven Pacific trenches and four Atlantic sites, representing pelagic, abyssal and hadal depths, were characterised at hsp70 and hsp90 genes. Genetic patterns among and within species are combined with environmental data (i.e. hydrostatic

pressure, temperature etc) using phylogenetic and seascape genomics approaches to infer the extent to which HSP evolution is driven by adaptation to the extreme deep sea environment. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Bacterial microbiota associated with Cottus (Pisces) across a secondary contact zone (52363) Sunna Ellendt, Arne W. Nolte. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology. Natural hybrid zones often emerge at habitat clines where distinct populations meet, mate and hybridize. The possible factors that govern the dynamics of a hybrid zone are insufficiently explored. For example symbiotic bacteria can induce selection pressure by influencing the host’s immune system, nutrition, development and behavior. These interactions are in turn influenced by environmental factors. We use a contact zone where Cottus rhenanus and invasive Cottus hybridize at a habitat ecotone to study the association of symbiotic microbiota, habitat and host genotype to infer whether host-bacterial interaction may act as evolutionary force. We extracted genomic DNA from fin samples of wild caught fish and assessed bacteria through pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA markers. The host genetic makeup was inferred based on 80 nuclear SNP markers that permit to classify all fish into parental forms and recent hybrids. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses revealed significant differences in bacterial diversity and abundance in the distinct habitats whereas we did not detect any differences between distinct host genotypes. However, the analysis of hybrids suggests, that the microbial community is altered from both parents which possibly decreases the fitness of hybrids. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Developmental plasticity of a key evolutionary trait in East African cichlids – insights in evolutionary mechanisms that shaped these cichlids’ adaptive radiations (52480) Ralf F. Schneider, Helen M. Gunter, Immanuel Karner, Christian Sturmbauer, Axel Meyer. University of Konstanz; University of Edinburgh; University of Graz. The ‘modern haplochromine’ cichlid fishes are a famous example of repeated rapid adaptive radiations - one in each of the three East African Great Lakes. Astatoreochromis alluaudi is a riverine species that is basal to these adaptive radiations, putatively resembling the common ancestor of this group. A mechanically-stimulating diet induces pronounced plasticity in A. alluaudi’s pharyngeal jaw apparatus, a structure considered to be a key evolutionary trait in cichlids. We compared the morphological and transcriptional effects of experimentally induced plasticity in this trait in A. alluaudi, to three representatives of the adaptive radiations and one out-group. Our results indicate that the adaptive plasticity is most pronounced in non-

radiating species, followed by the recently radiating species and is lowest in the oldest adaptive radiation. Next, we investigated the expression of plasticity-related genes for species that showed a plastic response. Through comparing co-expression between species, we observed that similar sets of functionally related genes were co-expressed in both basal and more derived species, suggesting conserved transcriptional ‘modules’. We conclude that the ancestral cichlid lineage was probably phenotypically plastic and that module-like transcriptional alterations in developmental trajectories putatively shaped the parallel evolution of highly diverse trophic phenotypes among these adaptively radiating cichlid lineages. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Genomic analyses of two differentially migrating bird subspecies (52553) Max Lundberg, Susanne Åkesson, Staffan Bensch. Department of Biology, Lund University. Migration requires adaptations in behavioural, morphological and physiological traits. These traits have been shown to have a strong genetic basis, but very little is known about the underlying genes. Here we use whole-genome resequencing and a customized snp array to detect genetic differences between two differentially migrating subspecies of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus. We find that the genomes are extremely similar, with differences clustered in three divergent chromosome regions that potentially represent inversion polymorphisms. One of the regions does not contain alleles that are strictly associated with each of the subspecies, but instead appears to be associated with adaptation to high altitude and latitude. The other two chromosome regions contain alleles specific to either subspecies and may contain differences related to the different migratory phenotypes of the subspecies. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

Comparative population genomics in three species of Chorthippus grasshoppers (52560) Emma Berdan, Camila Mazzoni, Frieder Mayer. Museum für Naturkunde Berlin; Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research. Emerging genomic tools can reveal the genetics of speciation in non-model groups with no previous genetic resources. Grasshoppers of the Chorthippus biguttulus species group differ strongly in calling song (and corresponding female preferences) but are almost identical morphologically, suggesting that sexual selection has been the main force driving premating hybridization barriers in this group. Here we performed a population genomic scan by sequencing individuals’ transcriptomes to search for outlier loci. We sequenced 20 individuals of each of the three Chorthippus biguttulus, C. mollis, and C. brunneus. We called SNPs for

all three possible species pairings and used FST based approaches to identify outliers. We found approximately 1% of SNPs in each comparison to be outliers. Between 37 and 40 percent of these outliers were non-synonymous SNPs (as opposed to a global level of 17%) indicating that we recovered loci under selection. Among the outliers were several genes involved in song production and hearing as well as a plethora of genes involved in other traits such as metabolism. This indicates that ecological processes besides sexual selection on acoustic signals contributed to the divergence of these three species. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poster session A - MAX 412

The role of visual adaptation in cichlid fish speciation (52571) D. Shane Wright, Ole Seehausen, Ton G.G. Groothuis, Martine E. Maan. University of Groningen; University of Bern, EAWAG. In less than 15,000 years, Lake Victoria cichlid fishes have radiated into as many as 500 different species. Ecological and sexual selection are thought to contribute to this ongoing speciation process, but genetic differentiation remains low. However, recent work in visual pigment genes, opsins, has shown more diversity. Unlike neighboring Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika, Lake Victoria is highly turbid, resulting in a long wavelength shift in the light spectrum with increasing depth, providing an environmental gradient for exploring divergent coevolution in sensory systems and colour signals via sensory drive. Pundamilia pundamila and Pundamilia nyererei are two sympatric species found at rocky islands across southern portions of Lake Victoria, differing in male colouration and the depth they reside. Previous work has shown species differentiation in colour discrimination, corresponding to divergent female preferences for conspecific male colouration. A mechanistic link between colour vision and preference would provide a rapid route to reproductive isolation between divergently adapting populations. This link is tested by experimental manipulation of colour vision - raising both species and their hybrids under light conditions mimicking shallow and deep habitats. We quantify the expression of retinal opsins and test behaviours important for speciation: mate choice, habitat preference, and foraging performance. -------------------------